• La possibilité d’une #île… pour migrants

    Partout dans le monde, les demandeurs d’asile sont de plus en plus souvent relégués sur des îles comme on le faisait autrefois des bagnards et des lépreux. Qu’est-ce que ces prisons à ciel ouvert disent de notre regard sur les migrants ?

    Un lieu le plus loin possible des regards et d’où il serait impossible de s’échapper. C’était déjà ce que les Anglais cherchaient pour se débarrasser de l’encombrant Napoléon. Ils l’avaient trouvé à #Sainte-Hélène, îlot volcanique paumé au milieu de l’Atlantique sud à près de 2 000 km des côtes de la Namibie et plus de 3 000 km du Brésil.

    Deux cents ans plus tard, les voilà qui envisagent de nouveau d’avoir recours à cette improbable petite île devenue célèbre malgré elle. Cette fois, ce ne serait pas un empereur qu’on enverrait croupir sur ce bout de terre, mais des réfugiés. Oui, des réfugiés. Le ministère de l’Intérieur britannique étudie la possibilité d’installer un centre de rétention pour demandeurs d’asile sur l’un de ses territoires d’outre-mer, à Sainte-Hélène ou sur l’île de l’Ascension. Insensé ?

    Ce ne seraient pourtant pas les premiers à se laisser séduire par la possibilité d’une île. Les Australiens ont déjà une longue expérience en la matière. Ne voulant pas de demandeurs d’asile chez eux, ils ont ouvert, dès 2001, un centre de rétention sur l’île Christmas, un territoire extérieur australien au large de l’Indonésie. Et depuis 2012, ils expédient tout migrant débarquant clandestinement sur leurs côtes dans des camps offshore situés sur Manus, une île de #Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, et Nauru, une république insulaire d’#Océanie.

    https://www.nouvelobs.com/art/fdff98b8-7bb0-4806-a83f-799cec7d59e2
    #îles #réfugiés #asile #migrations #Australie #Manus_Island #Nauru #UK #Angleterre

  • Libérez l’« Ocean Viking » et les autres navires humanitaires

    Les maires de #Montpellier et de #Palerme lancent un #appel pour que le navire de #SOS_Méditerranée détenu en Sicile soit libéré, et que les opérations en Méditerranée centrale puissent reprendre.

    Nous, maires des #villes_méditerranéennes jumelées de Montpellier et Palerme, confrontés à la #crise_humanitaire majeure qui a transformé la #mer_Méditerranée en cimetière ces dernières années, sommes indignés par la #détention_administrative du navire humanitaire #Ocean Viking de SOS Méditerranée depuis le 22 juillet en Sicile.

    Cette détention vient s’ajouter à celle de trois autres #navires_humanitaires depuis le mois d’avril. A chaque fois les autorités maritimes italiennes invoquent des « #irrégularités_techniques_et_opérationnelles » et de prétendus motifs de #sécurité à bord des navires. Pourtant, malgré le harcèlement exercé à l’encontre de leurs navires, ces #ONG de sauvetage en mer opèrent depuis plusieurs années en toute transparence et en coordination avec les autorités maritimes compétentes qui les soumettent très régulièrement au contrôle des autorités portuaires.

    Ces dernières années, les ONG civiles de sauvetage en mer ont secouru des dizaines de milliers d’hommes, de femmes et d’enfants en danger de mort imminente, comblant un #vide mortel laissé par les Etats européens en Méditerranée.

    Alors que les sauveteurs sont empêchés de mener leur mission vitale de sauvetage, de nouveaux naufrages, de nouveaux morts sont à prévoir aux portes de l’Europe.

    Est-ce là le prix à payer pour l’#irresponsabilité et la #défaillance des Etats européens ? En tant que #maires, #citoyens méditerranéens et européens, nous le refusons et dénonçons ces politiques délétères !

    Nous demandons la levée immédiate des mesures de détention qui touchent l’Ocean Viking et tous les navires de sauvetage, pour une reprise immédiate des opérations en Méditerranée centrale !

    Nous appelons tous les citoyens à signer la pétition demandant aux autorités maritimes italiennes la libération du navire.

    https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2020/08/28/liberez-l-ocean-viking-et-les-autres-navires-humanitaires_1797888

    #asile #migrations #réfugiés #villes-refuge #Méditerranée #sauvetage #indignation #Michael_Delafosse #Leoluca_Orlando #géographie_du_vide #géographie_du_plein

    –—

    Ajouté à la métaliste sur les villes-refuge :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/759145

  • Plastic for recycling from Europe ends up in Asia’s waters
    https://www.europeanscientist.com/en/environment/plastic-for-recycling-from-europe-ends-up-in-asian-waters

    The researchers from the National University of Ireland Galway and the University of Limerick in Ireland used trade data and waste management data from destination countries to determine the various fates – from successful conversion into recycled resins or ending up as landfill, incineration, or ocean debris – of all plastic recycling exported from Europe.

    They discovered that a massive 46 per cent of European separated plastic waste is exported outside the country of origin. While China was previously the single biggest importer of plastics for recycling, the country closed its doors in 2017. Since then, Southeast Asian nations with poor waste management practices have shouldered the burden.

    According to the authors, a large share of this waste is rejected from recycling streams and significantly contributes to ocean littering. For 2017, they estimated that up to 180,000 tonnes – that is, around 7 per cent, of all exported European polyethene – may have ended up in the oceans.

    #déchets_plastiques #pollution #Asie_du_Sud-Est

    • Recycling of European plastic is a pathway for plastic debris in the ocean

      Polyethylene (#PE) is one of the most common types of plastic. Whilst an increasing share of post-consumer plastic waste from Europe is collected for recycling, 46% of separated PE waste is exported outside of the source country (including intra-EU trade). The fate of this exported European plastic is not well known. This study integrated data on PE waste flows in 2017 from UN Comtrade, an open repository providing detailed international trade data, with best available information on waste management in destination countries, to model the fate of PE exported for recycling from Europe (EU-28, Norway and Switzerland) into: recycled high-density PE (#HDPE) and low-density PE (#LDPE) resins, “landfill”, incineration and ocean debris. Data uncertainty was reflected in three scenarios representing high, low and average recovery efficiency factors in material recovery facilities and reprocessing facilities, and different ocean debris fate factors. The fates of exported PE were then linked back to the individual European countries of export. Our study estimated that 83,187 Mg (tonnes) (range: 32,115–180,558 Mg), or 3% (1–7%) of exported European PE in 2017 ended up in the ocean, indicating an important and hitherto undocumented pathway of plastic debris entering the oceans. The countries with the greatest percentage of exported PE ending up as recycled HDPE or LDPE were Luxembourg and Switzerland (90% recycled for all scenarios), whilst the country with the lowest share of exported PE being recycled was the United Kingdom (59–80%, average 69% recycled). The results showed strong, significant positive relationships between the percentage of PE exported out of Europe and the percentage of exports which potentially end up as ocean debris. Export countries may not be the ultimate countries of origin owing to complex intra-EU trade in PE waste. Although somewhat uncertain, these mass flows provide pertinent new evidence on the efficacy and risks of current plastic waste management practices pertinent to emerging regulations around trade in plastic waste, and to the development of a more circular economy.

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412020318481?via%3Dihub

      #eau #plastique #ocean_littering #statistiques #chiffres #polyéthylène #recyclage #Luxembourg #Suisse #UK #Angleterre #économie_circulaire

      ping @albertocampiphoto @marty @daphne

  • La drammatica foto dell’uomo sulla nave Talia simbolo della tragedia dei migranti

    Il mercantile ancora al largo di Malta dopo aver soccorso, tre giorni fa, 52 persone alla deriva senza cibo né acqua. La Valletta per farli sbarcare vuole garanzie dalla Ue sulla ricollocazione. Sulla Ocean Viking si stanno eseguendo i tamponi.

    La Pietà dei mari si trova sul mercantile Talia. Ha il volto scheletrico e terrorizzato di un migrante subshariano, privato ormai anche della forza per scendere le scalette di un ponte. E ha le braccia forti e compassionevoli di un marinaio in tuta blu e mascherina che lo sorregge. Questa foto è stata scattata poche ore fa sulla Talia, e da sola racconta quello che il governo di Malta si rifiuta di vedere: i 52 migranti recuperati in mare, e che le autorità della Valletta da tre giorni non vogliono far sbarcare, sono allo stremo.

    Il marinaio della foto dovrebbe essere un motorista. Il mercantile, dopo aver ricevuto la segnalazione di un gommone in avaria, ha deviato la propria rotta per recuperare gli uomini e le donne che vi viaggiavano. Come impongono le convenzioni marittime internazionali. Ora li stanno accudendo e nutrendo, pur con tutte le preoccupazioni del rischio Covid, ma non possono resistere ancora per molto.

    #Nave_Talia, i migranti ammassati a bordo vengono accuditi dai marinai del mercantile

    Malta continua a non assegnare loro un porto di sbarco. Solo due migranti sono stati autorizzati a scendere perché ritenuti in concreto pericolo di vita. L’armatore è in difficoltà, perché il Talia era atteso in Libia per consegnare un carico. Il governo di Malta dice che non consentirà l’attracco ai naufraghi fino a quando non avrà garanzie da altri Stati membri dell’Unione sulla loro immediata ricollocazione, come scrive il Times of Malta. Il 3 luglio Alarm Phone, l’ong che segnala i gommoni, aveva diramato il primo allarme. Rilanciato poi dall’italiana Mediterranea Saving Humans e dall’ong tedesca Sea Watch.

    Intanto a bordo della #Ocean_Viking, nave della ong Mediterraneé che si trova al largo di Pozzallo con 180 migranti salvati in diverse operazioni, le autorità italiane stanno effettuando i tamponi per il Covid. La ong Mediterraneé, in merito al trasbordo dei migranti sulla #nave-quarantena #Moby_Zazà previsto domani, sottolinea: «Non abbiamo ricevuto alcuna istruzione. Senza conferme, non possiamo dare soluzioni ai sopravvissuti. L’incertezza prosegue e questo significa che le tensioni permangono».

    https://www.repubblica.it/cronaca/2020/07/05/news/la_foto_shock_dell_uomo_sulla_nave_talia_simbolo_della_tragedia_dei_migra
    #image #photo #asile #migrations #réfugiés #Méditerranée #sauvetage #Libye #faim

    A mettre en lien avec ces autres images, mises sur seenthis en 2018:

    https://seenthis.net/messages/678573

    ping @isskein

  • Impacts of mining deep sea polymetallic nodules in the Pacific Ocean | Deep Sea Mining: Out Of Our Depth
    http://www.deepseaminingoutofourdepth.org/impacts-of-mining-deep-sea-polymetallic-nodules-in-the-p

    Deep sea mining (DSM) in the Pacific is of growing interest to frontier investors, mining companies and some island economies. To date, no commercial operations have been established, but much seabed mineral exploration is occurring. The focus is on polymetallic nodules in the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the north-eastern equatorial Pacific, and in the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of several nations.

    Some stakeholders promote DSM as essential to supply the metals required for a global transition to renewable energy. However, existing terrestrial mineral stocks, progress towards mining of electronic waste, advances towards the development of circular economies, and alternative sources of metals, challenge assertions that the seabed must be mined.

    Deep sea habitats are rich in biodiversity of which only a fraction is known to science. In the Pacific, the little information available on deep seabed habitats relates to the CCZ. Almost nothing is known about the species and diversity of deep sea environments across the rest of the region.

    This review represents an analysis of literature addressing the predicted and potential impacts of mining deep sea nodules in the Southwest, Central, and Northeast Pacific. More than 250 scientific and other articles were examined to explore what is known — and what remains unknown — about the risks of nodule mining to Pacific Ocean habitats, species, ecosystems and the people who rely on them. The report details scientifically established risks, including those related to the lack of knowledge surrounding this emerging industry.

    The accumulated scientific evidence indicates that the impacts of nodule mining in the Pacific Ocean would be extensive, severe and last for generations, causing essentially irreversible damage. Expectations that nodule mining would generate social and economic gains for Pacific island economies are based on conjecture. The impacts of mining on communities and people’s health are uncertain and require rigorous independent studies.

    #extractivisme

  • L’érosion du littoral a des causes humaines et non humaines. Mais comment sensibiliser les citoyens et les politiques à ce phénomène ? Diffusé avec CNRS Images #environnement #écologie #océans #littoral #citoyens

    https://sms.hypotheses.org/20242

    Les chercheurs le répètent depuis longtemps : le littoral s’érode inexorablement sous l’effet conjugué de causes diverses, « humaines » et « non-humaines ». Avec ses 5850 km de côtes, la France métropolitaine est malheureusement « très » concernée, puisque 27% de ses côtes sont en érosion. En outre, la vulnérabilité de ces zones, qui s’accroît au fil du temps, est devenue particulièrement inquiétante ces dernières années.

    Avec une partie croissante de la population française – mais aussi mondiale – qui vit sur le littoral ou à moins de 25 km, les interrogations se multiplient, bien au-delà des seuls problèmes – au demeurant bien réels – d’érosion et de recul des côtes. En fait, ce sont des questions sociétales majeures qui sont désormais posées.

    Le film Entre mer et terre se propose de sensibiliser des publics larges à ces interrogations complexes, notamment à travers les paroles de chercheurs relevant de plusieurs disciplines, mais aussi d’experts, d’élus, de citoyens (...)

  • Sauvetage de migrants en Méditerranée : #MSF met un terme à son partenariat avec #SOS_Méditerranée

    Médecins sans frontières a annoncé vendredi la fin de sa collaboration avec SOS Méditerranée à bord du navire Ocean Viking. Les deux ONG sont en désaccord sur la possibilité d’effectuer des sauvetages malgré la #crise_sanitaire liée au coronavirus.

    Après quatre ans de collaboration, l’organisation #Médecins_sans_frontières (MSF) a annoncé, vendredi 17 avril, qu’elle cessait ses missions de #sauvetage_en_mer aux côtés de SOS Méditerranée, qui affrète le bateau #Ocean_Viking, contraint de rester jusqu’à nouvel ordre à Marseille, son port d’attache.

    https://twitter.com/MSF_Sea/status/1251093648529334273?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E12

    Les deux ONG, dont le partenariat a permis de sauver au cours des quatre dernières années environ 30 000 personnes en Méditerranée, ne sont pas parvenues à s’entendre sur la possibilité d’opérer malgré la crise sanitaire du coronavirus qui a notamment vu les ports italiens et maltais se fermer.

    MSF aurait souhaité poursuivre les sauvetages, même sans garantie des États européens de pouvoir débarquer les personnes secourues, au nom de « l’#impératif_humanitaire », a expliqué Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, chargée des questions humanitaires. Mais l’ONG pouvait difficilement continuer de mobiliser une équipe médicale si le bateau de sauvetage restait à quai en France, a-t-elle ajouté.

    SOS Méditerranée a considéré, de son côté, que « les conditions de sécurité n’étaient malheureusement plus réunies pour les équipages et les personnes secourues », a expliqué à l’AFP Sophie Beau, sa directrice générale. Reprendre la mer, c’était prendre le risque de se retrouver « face à des situations de #blocage qui s’éternisent en mer », « sans aucune garantie de #débarquement », et « des #évacuations_médicales rendues très hasardeuses du fait des conditions de crise sanitaire », a-t-elle ajouté.

    De nombreuses embarcations quittent la Libye

    MSF a par ailleurs rappelé la gravité de la situation de ceux qui continuent de fuir la #Libye. Alors que #Malte et l’#Italie ont fermé leurs #ports et que plus aucun navire humanitaire ne se trouvait dans la zone de recherche et sauvetage libyenne vendredi, les tentatives de traversées de la Méditerranée sont encore plus dangereuses qu’avant.

    Pour MSF, les États européens « continuent de se dérober devant leur #responsabilité, contrecarrant sans relâche les efforts des ONG ». Elle accuse Malte et l’Italie de ne pas avoir répondu à plusieurs appels de détresse et d’avoir refusé « le débarquement à près de 200 personnes » par d’autres ONG pendant le week-end de Pâques.

    Prenant acte du #retrait de son « #partenaire_médical », SOS Méditerranée espère pouvoir reprendre les opérations de sauvetage au plus vite pour éviter « que la crise sanitaire n’en cache une autre », humanitaire, en Méditerranée. Et elle rappelle dans un communiqué que plus de 1 000 personnes ont fui la Libye « à bord de bateaux impropres à la navigation » au cours des dix derniers jours.

    https://twitter.com/SOSMedFrance/status/1251088701217746951?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E12

    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/24182/sauvetage-de-migrants-en-mediterranee-msf-met-un-terme-a-son-partenari
    #sauvetage #ONG #asile #migrations #Méditerranée #coronavirus #covid-19 #Mer_Méditerranée #rupture #ports_fermés #fermeture_des_ports

  • Struggles of women on the move*

    –------

    Introduction

    When the crowd gathered for the Women’s Day demonstration on March 8, 2020 at 10am in front of Cinema Riff at Grand Socco in Tangier, Moroccan feminists, Sub-Saharan women for freedom of movement, single mothers, and a few Europeans came together. The women of our local Alarm Phone team, all from Sub-Saharan Africa, would sit together afterwards with some of their friends from Europe and start to write down their experiences for this report.


    At the same time, on the Greek island of Lesvos women from Alarm Phone teams interviewed women in and around the hot-spot of Moria, who spoke out about the suffering they had gone through on the most Eastern flight route towards Europe. They reported how on 30 January a crowd started moving from the overcrowded hot-spot Moria towards the city of Mytilene, which is still on Lesvos. „All women against Moria“, „Women in solidarity“, „Moria is a women’s hell“ and „Stop all violence against women“ was written on some of the many signs while the crowd chanted „Azadi“ (farsi: freedom) with raised fists.

    Shortly afterwards an Alarm Phone activist met with a young woman from Somalia, who had made the crossing from Libya to Italy last September and who wants to encourage the rescue groups to continue their amazing work.

    Another woman sat down and wrote a beautiful solidarity letter to one of the women active in Search and Rescue: “When I hear her voice on the phone, saying ‘my boat will head to the target with full speed,’ I picture her behind the wheel of this massive boat carrying 400 people, flying above the sea as if it was weightless.”

    There are some who write in a brave way about the suffering women had to go through: The pain they feel and the suffering that the simple fact of having to pee means for women in Moria. Or the struggles with the Boumla (Wolof for police) deporting them within Morocco towards the deserts, exposing them to greater dangers. Or the death of a young Moroccon student.

    There are others who decided not to remember the suffering in detail, but to point out their strategies, their struggles and the thankfulness about the solidarity created among us.

    In this report we tried to write about the manifold experiences of women and LGBTQII+, who cross the sea to reach a place of safety or who are stuck in transit, and about the experiences of women active in Search and Rescue who are trying to support these struggles. Women are on the move for their own freedom of movement in all three regions of the sea: in the East between Turkey and Greece in the Aegean, in the Central Mediterranean from Libya and Tunisia towards Italy and Malta, and in the West from Morocco towards Spain. Everywhere we meet more women in the frontlines of these struggles than we used to in the past. In the East, the percentage of adult men among those arriving even fell below 50 percent after 2015, which creates a completely different situation. While all of them face intersecting forms of visible and invisible violence making border crossing even more dangerous and lethal for women, we know that women on the move are more than what they are reduced to, and that they bear a power and a strength that no border is able to defeat.

    Also, more and more women are active in the Search and Rescue initiatives as well as in our Alarm Phone team. In the Alarm Phone we are even a majority. We decided to write in a very subjective way and what we ended up with is a patch-work of different stories in various styles and tones. We hope that this report empowers others to raise their voices as well and to become more visible with all their great expertise.

    We dedicate this report to all women and LGBTQI+ who are struggling for their survival in the refugee camps all around the world in times of the Coronavirus under life-threatening conditions. The only option to end this suffering is freedom of movement as a basic global right for all. We will continue this struggle.

    In March 2018, the Alarm Phone published the last report that was dedicated to the specific situation of women at sea.

    From now on, we will try to publish a report every year about the special situation of women and LGBTQI+ on the move.
    Daily struggles of women on the move in the Western Mediterranean. Alarm Phone activists report
    March 8, 2020 in Tangier

    The Women’s Day demonstration gather on March 8, 2020 at 10am in front of Cinema Riff at Grand Socco in Tangier. Moroccan feminists, Sub-Saharan women for freedom of movement, single mothers, and a few Europeans come together. A Samba group is drumming, there is a lively exchange between the different groups, purple-coloured cloths – the symbolic colour of March 8 – are handed out, banners are rolled out, contacts are exchanged – the atmosphere is great. About 800 women come together. This makes an impression in the northern Moroccan metropolis, because the voices are loud and determined with slogans like ‘Solidarité avec les femmes du monde entier!’ ‘Raise your voice, seize your rights’ in Arabic and French starts the demonstration and runs along the big boulevard to the Place de Nación. Passers-by and journalists follow with interest. One thing is already clear at this early hour: the march is empowering, and this in a place that has been marked by the worst police repression for several months.

    Julia and Pauline* participated during this march with the women’s group of Alarm Phone.

    Julia: “Sub-Saharan women are too tired, we suffer all kinds of violence, violence through the Moroccan security, through the Moroccan compatriot. Even Moroccan women have their difficulties. In their households, in their homes, in their surroundings. There are too many cases and there is evidence too. Women do not have a loud voice towards the men in uniform. They don’t open the doors and they don’t listen to us, we’re always there in moments of distress. That’s why we raised our angry shouts. I hope that our message is sent to the Moroccan authorities. We want peace and we have the right to live.”

    Pauline: “We women are brutalised in the house and we have no right to express ourselves. But we as women have to express ourselves, also in the media, so that the people through us understand what is really going on in the field. This is violence in everyday life. But we women want equality.
    March 8 was an opportunity to express ourselves. Because as we walked, there were many people who followed us. We fought, we sent messages. We gave ourselves the right to speak out and we said no to violence against women. We demanded our right to free expression and free movement!”

    Here Pauline’s speech, which unfortunately could not be presented on Women’s Day:

    Me, I am Pauline.

    I am an activist who is concerned about the rights of migrants in Morocco, especially in Tangier, but this struggle is not easy with the new policy of the Moroccan authorities, because we suffer repression by the police and deportation to southern cities and sometimes to the Algerian border. So, we as activists, we are calling for our rights and the rights of migrants.

    As Morocco has signed international conventions on the right of asylum and freedom of movement, the Moroccan authorities are asked to respect international law and not to be the gendarmes of the European Union. It is a bad policy to block migrants in Morocco, neither work nor residence permit, and to prevent migrants from their liberty in order to avoid illegal immigration. But Morocco must try to review its state policies and open the borders so that people can move freely. So that Sub-Saharan migrants can also go to earn a living in Europe as the Europeans can come here and earn their living in Africa. So we simply ask for freedom of movement for everyone and their well-being.

    Thank you very much.

    Stories of Struggles with the Boumla

    After the demonstration, we are together, the friends of the Alarm Phone: Pauline, Carla, Fatou, Co and Julia in Tangier. We tell and listen to each other’s stories about the Boumla (Wolof: police). As Alarm Phone has often reported, persecution, racism, violence and deportations are part of the daily life of black communities in Morocco, especially in the Tangier region. The women describe how they face discrimination on a daily basis and what strategies they have developed against repression.

    Fatou: We stopped the deportation in Rabat

    “Me and Pauline were with friends. We saw the police and we knew they’d take us even though we had papers.

    I said: ‘No, I’m not leaving, I have my passport and I have my residence permit.’ They slapped me and took me to the police station. They told us they’d take us to Tiznit. When we got to Rabat, we told ourselves we had to do something. If not, we’ll end up in Tiznit and it’s far from Tangier. So we revolted together to annoy them. We started to shout, shout with force. The Moroccans, they started to get irritated. And we shouted shouted shouted shouted… and they said “safi, safi safi safi safi” (Arabic: enough). We stopped and we got out in Rabat.”

    Pauline: I didn’t accept it

    “I wanted to talk about the violence I suffered as a woman in Morocco. The police came many times to catch me and take me south. I didn’t accept it, because I don’t know anyone there. At that time, I had my own restaurant in the Medina (Arabic: city). The police sent me to the police station. When I left there, I saw a lot of people and I told myself that if I didn’t do something, they would send me south, to Tiznit. I told the officer that I was sick. He said, ‘No, you’re not sick, you’re going to go out to the bus with the others.’ The bus was already there in front of the door. I was afraid of being deported to Tiznit, because I couldn’t afford to go back to Tangier.

    So, I went to the toilet. I had the second day of my period, so I took off the cotton. I threw it away and went out. There was a lot of blood coming out, it got on my pants, everything was spoiled. I said to the Chief of Police, ‘Look, I’m sick.’ But he said, ‘No, you’re not, get in line…’ That was when I opened my legs. He was surprised and said: ‘Okay, okay, okay.’ He gave me a ride home. So, I went back to work.”

    Julia: The hospital instead of the deportation to Tiznit

    “The last attempt to deport me was in 2019. The Moroccan police came to our house very early in the morning. They wore Kagouls outfits as if we were criminals in our own house. I had lost my residence permit, because I couldn’t renew it. They took us to Tiznit. We couldn’t resist. We were on the road from 8 in the morning until 11 in the evening, without food, water or anything. 2km before reaching to Marrakech I told myself that I had to find a possibility to go down there, because at least it was a city I knew. Just before I got there, I made a lot of noises and had a crisis, they got scared and called an ambulance to pick me up. I really wasn’t sick, I had nothing, it was just a trick so they could release me. So I made gestures, I stopped breathing. In the ambulance they gave me an oxygen mask. When I got to the hospital, they put me on a bench with a mask, by the time they went to find a doctor I took off everything and I ran away…”
    Aurore Boréale, based in Rabat: Only by fighting together can we can have real progress

    Since the dawn of time, human beings have been on the move, looking for green pastures, a milder sky, a better elsewhere or simply out of curiosity. That leads us to the conclusion, that the desire to see what’s on the other side has always been there, and, which leads us to conclude that migration is a phenomenon inherent to living beings. I would even say vital.

    The most shocking thing today is to see how migration has become demonised and criminalised everywhere. Leaving has become anathema, to the point where barriers are being erected everywhere. Means that are being used to hinder freedom of movement, are becoming more and more dramatic every day are being used to hinder freedom of movement, to sort out who is eligible or not. Let us take the case of Morocco: on the one hand, due to its geographical location it is considered the gateway to the Eldorado by many Africans, and also Syrians, Bangladeshis and Filipinos rush to Morocco hoping to live a better life on the other side of the Mediterranean, or perhaps simply to settle there.

    On the other hand, however, while non-dark-skinned migrant communities may enjoy more tranquillity and are not often subject to the most blatant forms of discrimination, the same does not hold true for the black African migrant community in Morocco. The case that interests our report is that of women.

    If yesterday it was rare to see women taking to the migration routes, today that is no longer the case and women migrate as much as men. Today, more women take the routes, swallowing the fear that arises, facing cold, hunger, danger, and closing their ears to not hear about all kinds of violence.

    Today the women are leaving too. But what about the daily life of these women once they have settled in Morocco? A country which, despite progress and openness in terms of women’s rights, remains a country where women do not enjoy practically any of the rights granted to them by law or the constitution. A country where women still remain the inferiors, the subordinates, or simply things belonging to men, to satisfy their impulses or their egos. Basically, I would say, a country where women are not truly free to be who they want to be.

    Migrant women in Morocco have to deal with all this, and additionally with the fact that they are black women. Thus, they are perceived in the collective consciousness of Moroccans as women of little value, of light morals, prostitutes, or beggars: The black woman at the bottom of the ladder that people with an atrophied mentality have decided to create. For some of the migrant brothers or for some chairman’s prey single migrant women’s bodies are there to be exploited when promising them the journey to the Eldorado.

    And they are left to their fate as soon as these men have found more attractive prey. Thus, many women find themselves single mothers, with children whose fathers don’t give a damn, or don’t even want to know. Because of the hard reality, some women find themselves in a relationship and move in with the first one who could offer her a roof over her head, food on her plate, in order to reach the basic comforts. Sometimes it turns out well, sometimes it turns out very problematic. Migrant women who work in private homes are also subject to exploitation, even physical abuse, non-payment of wages that are insignificant compared to the work they do. We can also talk about the difficulty to be respected in public health centres, complications, late care or lack of care on discriminatory and racist grounds. They remain on the margins.

    What I find most appalling is that even in some militant associations, where women are under-represented, they are given less responsibility and no real decision-making power. They are infantilised, or just given a place to serve as a showcase to obtain grants from organisations that take the status of women seriously. Once the grant is awarded, these women are side-lined, without any decision-making power, bullied and subjected to everything that men have decided without them having a say.

    There are organisations, such as UNHCR., Caritas, and CEI (Comité d’Entraide Internationale), which provide assistance to migrant women. But here again, there is the eternal question of eligibility, the unhealthy hierarchy of suffering, the categorisation of migrants. They are classified according to their suffering, according to how they arrived in Morocco, and the migrant who arrives by plane is often not entitled to this little help: “You can’t help everyone”, unless you have a story that holds up, a lie that is worth telling, or if you pretend to be someone you are not.

    I have seen people who really needed help but were not given it, because they did not meet the criteria for it. I know people who died as a result. And even when help is given to these women, it is not free. In one way or another, they remain like prisoners of the organisations, spied upon even on their most intimate affairs. That is the price that has to be paid.

    There are a few women’s associations such as La voix des femmes de Hélène Yalta, the Collective of Migrant Women in Morocco (COFMIMA) and ARCOM, which try as best they can to fight for the status of migrant women in Morocco. But a real struggle for the rights of migrant women, for women’s empowerment, is almost non-existent. The urgency, the need, the survival cries out too loud… It is in dispersed groups, individually that the great majority of women fight. Can we hope for real progress or evolution by fighting in dispersed groups? No, not at all.

    With your courage you can do this work
    Interview with Leonie

    Although the situation in Tangier is becoming more and more difficult for Sub-Saharan travellers, a group of women has been formed, who are active with the Alarm Phone there. We spoke with Leonie, who is new to the group. She has been living in Morocco for 5 years.

    Leonie, why do you take part in the Alarm Phone?

    L: It was a good brother who introduced me to the group. He told me that there is a network of activists, and he said: “I see that you with your courage, you can do this work.”

    Have you already worked here in Morocco in solidarity activities?

    L: I am in almost all the associations in Tangier that bring together migrants. When there is a meeting or a small activity, they invite me. I am almost always present.

    Alarm Phone is a network of activists who help migrants who are already on the water, so that they don’t lose their lives in the water. In case of distress we guide them.

    Can you explain the situation of migrants here in Morocco?

    L: In Morocco it is not easy for migrants. Whether you are regularised or not. It’s very tense. Life is no sugar for us. I myself have suffered the consequences. They’ re breaking your door down. At two o’clock in the morning the soldiers are here, they don’t warn you, they don’t ask if you have papers or not. To your surprise you jump out of your sleep and they break your door down.

    They come home like thieves. They don’t even try to find out if you have papers. You are supposed to say, ‘But sir, I have papers’.

    Once they arrived at my house, I was washing myself around 3am, last summer, so in 2019. The man opened the bathroom and I said, ‘But sir, I’m showering.’ He said: ‘That’s not my problem.’ I said: ‘When you came in, did you ask me if I’m legal or not? You come in my house, but I have my house contract, I have my papers. You want to come in the shower? If you put your head in the bathroom again, I’ll throw the water on you!’ And that’s how he left the toilet.

    It hurts, it’s frustrating. Every year like this, they treat us like animals as if we’re not human. Really, it’s disgusting.

    And as women you don’t have the right to speak up, especially in front of the authorities, they don’t consider you. It hurts you, it stays in your heart. And morally, you don’t have the right to express yourself! That’s the suffering of women here. We’re trying to talk to human rights and women’s rights associations.

    In the work of Alarm Phone – What are the demands?

    L: Alarm Phone demands that borders are open. If someone wants to go out of a country that the person passes freely without being caught and without being violated. This is the demand of Alarm Phone: Freedom of movement!
    Hayat, killed at the border by the Moroccan Navy in September 2017

    In order to prevent the young people from setting out at all, armed force is used in Morocco: On September 25th 2017, the Navy shot and

    killed 19-year-old student Hayat Belkacem from Tétouan. Three men were injured, some of them seriously.

    The four of them, along with 21 other young Moroccans*, had set off from Martil Beach in a “Go-Fast” (speedboat) in the direction of Spain. The Navy wanted to stop the travellers; when the boat started, they opened fire. The hashtag 126102877 #Quiadonnélordre: Who gave the order? went viral afterwards and contradicted the version of the Navy, which allegedly only fired warning shots.

    For days, before Hayat’s death, hundreds of young people had been flocking to the beaches in the north after Spanish videos of successful arrivals in Spain were posted on the Internet. Moroccan security forces had blocked the young Moroccans* from accessing the beaches of northern Morocco. In response, hundreds of young Moroccans* demonstrated in Martil and demanded ‘l’harga fabor’ – their right to free passage: https://youtu.be/ICahwzMzbdM

    After the death of Hayat, people in many cities, including many Ultras, took their anger to the streets. In Tétouan, the people chanted ‘We will avenge you, Hayat!’ as well as ‘We will renounce the Moroccan passport!’ and ‘Viva España’: https://youtu.be/EyXfV-fMoBg

    A student was subsequently sentenced to two years in prison, claiming that his call for protest via Facebook had allegedly insulted the nation of Morocco and called for an uprising. Other young people have also been accused, many of whom are still minors.
    Central Mediterranean: Women on the move
    The invisible struggles

    It is difficult to write about women who cross the Central Mediterranean. It is difficult because, in first place, we don’t want to write ‘about’ women on the move. We would love to write ‘with’ them about their experiences, to use this platform to make their voices heard. However, their stories are often kept invisible, as is the violence they experience on a daily basis. Too often, women crossing the Central Mediterranean route just appear to us as a number communicated by the person who speaks on the phone. A number that we try to clarify several times, to then quickly report it into an email to the authorities or into a tweet: “We were called by a boat in distress, on board there are 60 people fleeing from Libya including 3 children and 8 women, two of them are pregnant”. We rarely hear their voices. Communication with people in distress in the Central Mediterranean is brief and fragmented: it starts with a distress call through a satellite phone, it ends with a satellite phone being thrown into the water. And then silence. A silence that can mean many things, but that too often does not carry good news. This communication through an unstable connection does not allow us to get in touch again, to ask for details, to ask for their names and testimonies once they make it to Europe or when they are returned to violence and war in Libya. And this is how, painfully, the powerful voices of women on the move get lost, and their presence remains fixed in a dry and uncertain number.

    Of course, we often know what is beneath those numbers, and here we could write stories of violence, slavery and torture in Libya. We also know that many women are fleeing not only war or poverty, but also gendered-based violence, forced marriages, harassment due to their sexuality. We could write about their pregnancies, and about the rapes behind them. We could write about what it means to be a mother and to embark on a precarious rubber dinghy holding your child’s hand in the hope that the sea will be less violent than the Libyan camp or the homes they left behind.

    The borders of Europe amplify the violence women flee from, but security measures, surveillance and criminalisation of people’s movement are often legitimised under the flag of combatting human trafficking. With one hand Europe pretends to give protection: it portrays border controls as humanitarian acts to protect ‘vulnerable women’ from ‘bloodthirsty’ traffickers. With the other hand Europe pours money and resources into creating stronger borders, organises trainings and signs deals and agreements to limit freedom of movement, thus fuelling border violence.

    Depicted as vulnerable victims in need of protection, discourses of women’s protection and vulnerability are often used by European member states to put a humanitarian face to the violence they inflict through their border policies.

    While all these intersecting forms of visible and invisible violence make border crossing even more dangerous and lethal for women, we know that women on the move are more than what they are reduced to, and that they bear a power and a strength that no border is able to defeat. This is what we would love to write about, and this is what we learn from the testimonies and experiences collected here.
    Women on the phone

    In a few situations, we talked to women in distress who called the Alarm Phone, and since then, when the communication is difficult, we ask the people on the phone to let us talk to a woman on board.

    As Alarm Phone, we talk to people during their journey. For us they are voices in distress that we try to comfort, with difficulty. We ask for their GPS coordinates and they try to read us numbers. It’s hard to be on the phone with people who could drown any moment and to ask them to read numbers. They just want to tell you that the sea is too big and the boat is too small. They want to tell you that they don’t want to go back to Libya, that they’d rather die at sea. They ask us to help. They tell us that they’re sick, that they won’t make it, that there’s water in the boat, lots of water, too much water. They ask why we haven’t arrived yet, and why we keep asking for numbers. And how do you explain that you’re not at sea, but in England, or France, or Germany? How to explain that you called for help but that European authorities aren’t answering your requests, and are letting them die at sea? How do you explain that the only thing we can do is to write down these numbers, and that because of these numbers their lives might be rescued?

    More than once, a chaotic situation where communication seemed impossible and where we feel that we will never be able to clarify the GPS coordinates of the boat, was solved by simply talking to a woman, as it was reported by a shift team: “they passed the phone to a woman, she speaks clearly, she is calm. She listens carefully and she understands how to find the GPS coordinates on the phone. She spells out the numbers: ‘North, 34 degrees, 22 minutes…’ She is confident and she explains the situation. She said that there are sick people on the boat and that there is little fuel left. We keep regular contact, she knows what she has to do and how to continue.”

    It is in these volatile moments, in these few exchanges and in the courage that we hear in their voices, that the invisible struggles of women on the move in the Central Mediterranean become visible. Their voices become weapons against the brutal border regimes, a weapon, on which the lives of 100 fellow travellers depend. We wish we could hear more of these voices, and that we could talk to them and hear their voices beyond distress situations, as we did with Daniella and Abeni, who are still in Tunisia, or as we did with Kobra, who managed to reach Germany.

    Trapped by the UNHCR
    Speaking to Daniella, Tunisia

    Daniella comes from the English-speaking part of Cameroon. The war has been escalating since 2016. Her husband has been murdered and she also lost her mother in that war. She belongs to a politically marked family as part of the opposition. She left the country in October 2017. Since she left, she didn’t hear from the rest of her family.

    She crossed Nigeria, Niger, Algeria and Libya before crossing the border to Tunisia. She was arrested at Ben Guerdane, where her fingerprints were collected. She was in facilities of the Red Crescent and the UNHCR in Medenine, and then taken to the Ibn Khaldun centre in August 2018. She was registered with UNHCR and underwent 4 interviews, in which she was asked the same questions, trying to ‘trap her’ on dates. Her request was denied. She was told she could very well go back to the English-speaking part of Cameroon: “But if you go to this area as a francophone, you are in danger because people will think you’re a spy.”

    During her stay at the centre, Daniella often organised sports activities such as football games, which did not please the UNHCR. She was also very active, taking part in the various demonstrations organised by the refugees and asylum seekers of the centre to protest against their living conditions and to denounce the practices of the UNHCR.

    Since UNHCR rejected her asylum application, she no longer receives food coupons. She decided to leave the centre after being pressured by UNHCR to make room for others. “It’s their strategy, they embarrass you to make you go away”. Today she lives in a small apartment with two other people. She says she doesn’t have the courage to appeal UNHCR’s decision. It has been 11 months since she left the centre.

    The crossing from Tunisia costs about 1000 Euros. She intends to attempt the crossing. Their group of 14 people is ready. The smuggler asked them to wait until the weather improves, saying it’s only a matter of a couple of days. It’s already been two weeks that they’re waiting for the weather to get better to cross the border. A month ago, migrants have been intercepted. They are not imprisoned unless they are found to be smugglers.

    She also crossed the ditch; it is about three metres deep. There was no water at the bottom, but there was mud. To climb, some men helped her, braiding clothes to hoist her up. The desert is full of aggressive dogs. She had to walk for a long time with her baby and a friend from the Ivory Coast before she came across the military. The military knew their number, they had to identify their group well in advance (they asked where the men were, looking for a group of 18 people). The soldiers were equipped with huge searchlights sweeping across the desert. After you cross the ditch, there’s a barbed-wire fence three meters high. Crossing this border costs about 300 Euros.
    Intercepted to Tunisia
    Interview with Abeni, Tunsia

    Abeni left Nigeria in 2017. She lived in a southern province. Her husband’s father was killed and her husband was threatened, so the family had to flee the country.

    She arrived in Tunisia in May 2017 while she was 6 months pregnant with her first child. Her boat ran out of petrol and was rescued by the Tunisian authorities and handed over to IOM. They were taken to Medenine by bus to an IOM shelter that shut down in March 2019. She remained in this centre for one year and asked to see UNHCR, but for one year she was only offered the voluntary return. It wasn’t until a year later that she was able to go to a UNHCR centre.

    She went to Zarzis with her husband for the UNHCR interview. Her husband, who only speaks Ikâ, was given a translation by phone. A few months later they received a negative response from UNHCR, telling them that the events that they had raised could not be verified on the net, and that it was a family problem.

    She says that few Nigeriens are accepted, with the exception of single women with children (one of whom has been relocated). They appealed against this decision by filling out a form, without an interview, but were again given a rejection. The UNHCR gave them three days to leave the centre, along with her two daughters, aged two years and six months. This happened one year ago. They refused, were able to stay but they no longer have food coupons and no more help from the UNHCR.

    When she talks to the staff, they pretend to ignore her. UNHCR has not renewed their cards. They have stopped paying for medical expenses, while the baby has to go to hospital regularly. The Doctor said it was because he was suffering from the cold. Her husband tries to work but there are no opportunities in Medenine. He went to Sfax but he got himself arrested and imprisoned for two days for not having papers. Without documents, they have no freedom of movement. The second baby wasn’t registered in Tunisia. UNHCR refused to accompany them.

    Her husband wants to go back to Libya to attempt the crossing, but she doesn’t want to and stayed in Tunisia. The UNHCR still wants to kick the family out of the shelter but can’t do it due to the current coronavirus pandemic.
    We felt welcome
    Kobra’s testimony, rescued by the Ocean Viking in September 2019

    My name is Kobra. I am 18 years old and I come from Somalia. I want to tell you the story of my rescue in the Mediterranean Sea on September 2019. I don’t know how to find the words to describe the suffering I went through, and I don’t want to remember what happened before I left Libya. I also never want to forget the moment, after nearly two days at sea, when we finally saw a small sailing-boat on the horizon that ended our suffering.

    We were full of fear, because finally our phone, our only connection to the world, had stopped functioning and water was rapidly entering the boat. It was a miracle when we finally found this sail-boat. We were about 45-50 people in a blue rubber boat, and seven of us onboard were coming from Somalia. One pregnant woman was traveling with her 1-year-old child and her husband. She is now doing well because she was transferred to Germany after the rescue.

    I never learned how to swim, so the idea of the boat flooding was a possible death sentence to me.

    I have a video a friend took on the boat and you can see the expressions of relief and happiness in everyone’s faces when we spotted the sailboat. There are no words to describe how you feel when you realize that your journey across the sea is over. It was a German sailboat, which was too small to take us on board. They came to us and asked us, if we could speak English. They then told us that they would call for the OCEAN VIKING a big rescue ship to come and take us on board. They gave us jackets and life-vests, because the weather was getting rougher and colder.

    Later, when it was dark, it started raining and the waves got bigger. The small German boat took us to OCEAN VIKING which took us aboard. There were already other people with them who had been rescued earlier that day. Even the rescuers seemed so happy that we were all safe. They had doctors on board and they gave us medical treatment, since my pregnant friend and I had had vomited a lot. I had a heavy allergic reaction on my skin as well because the sea irritated my skin condition after being exposed to the salt for so long.

    On the OCEAN VIKING we found another pregnant woman, whom I think was from Nigeria. She was brought by a helicopter to Malta because she was very close to delivering her baby. The crew later made an announcement to tell us when the baby was born in Malta.

    We were on the OCEAN VIKING for one week because no country wanted to take us in. This time was difficult, but it was much better than what we experienced before. The crew was always with us and they tried to support us however they could. We had enough food. We had a doctor whenever we felt sick. They even gave us clothing. We felt welcome.

    Finally, Lampedusa decided to take us in. When we finally left the boat after such a long time at sea it was not as warm of a welcome. We received food only after being forced to give our fingerprints and we were brought to a dirty place with barbed wire. I could not stay in Italy; the conditions were so poor. Today I struggle to live in Germany with the fear of my fingerprints on record and that I will be deported back to Italy.

    I will never forget the good people on these ships, who welcomed me before I arrived in Europe. They will stay in my memory. Maybe, one day I will meet them again. Until then I want to encourage them to continue what they are doing and I send them all my greetings.

    SAR Solidarity
    Letter from an Alarm Phone activist to an amazing woman of the SAR world in January 2020

    The past 5 days were crazy, my dear friend. We never met, but I have read the stories that you wrote on board of the rescue ship. Nine boats in distress fleeing from Libya called the Alarm Phone, and for the first time in a long time, all the boats that called Alarm Phone from the Central Mediterranean where rescued to Europe, more than 650 people in 5 days. This was not just about luck. It was about the incredible efforts of the people out there doing everything they could to rescue these boats, despite European authorities’ efforts to let them sink without trace. These were efforts mostly by women. Wonderful, fierce, kind, fearless women like you. In the past, I have mostly have dealt with men at sea and it was difficult. These 5 days were joyful instead.

    L., she crossed the Mediterranean up and down 3 times in 72 hours without ever sleeping, just following the GPS coordinates that we had received from the people in distress, which we also forwarded to the authorities and to the rescue ships. After sending an email, I would call the bridge. Again and again, for 72 hours. I would call the bridge telling her, “L.! There is a boat in distress again you need to be quick”. I never heard moment of discomfort in her voice. Even under that pressure, she was trying to create little cracks of softness, of love, of solidarity, of laughter. When I hear her voice on the phone, saying “my boat will head to the target with full speed”, I picture her behind the wheel of this massive boat carrying 400 people, flying above the sea as if it was weightless. I cannot find the words to describe the love and respect I feel towards her when I read her emails to the authorities, defying their orders, placing herself and ‘her boat’ against the orders given by some Colonel of the Armed Forced of Malta, or of some Commander of the Libyan Navy. I think there are no words in this world to express the magnitude of certain actions.

    On the phone, we tell the people in distress that they have to stay strong and keep calm, that they have to trust us, that they cannot give up. We tell them “rescue is coming for you my friend, don’t worry”. When you’re out at sea, lost in the darkness.

    Then Luisa and ‘her boat’ arrive, to the rescue, after hours of darkness and uncertainty. After hours when they thought they had been abandoned by everyone, and that they had been forgotten in a sea that is too big, on a boat that is too small. After so many hours of exhaustion, there is certain magic in the moment when we can tell them “make light, with a telephone, don’t use flames – make yourself visible.” There is magic in the few words spoken by voices broken by panic and excitement “we see a boat, it’s red”, and in an email of few words from the rescue ship we read “we see an intermittent light coming from the sea, we believe it is the rubber boat”. I imagine this little light shining above a sea that is a cold, dark, liquid cemetery. A sign of life, of resistance, of struggle. Not just of despair.

    Then silence. One second you are head and body in the Mediterranean, the next you are in silence and you realise that hours have passed. From this side of the phone we do not know what happens in this silence. It’s a feeling that makes you feel completely detached from reality.

    Waking up reading the stories you write about these rescues, my dear friend, I always cry. Reading your descriptions of the rescue, reading the stories of the people who were on board, it makes it all real, it fills the void of these silences.

    Reading your stories makes me think of all the witches of the sea like you, like L., like the women of Alarm Phone and the women crossing the Mediterranean, who relentlessly struggle together in this hostile sea. The Morganas of the sea, the few little lights in this darkness, sparks that are reflected by the waves, as magic as fairies and as fierce as witches.

    I cannot stop being inspired by all these women, who cannot be stopped, contained, tamed. So yes, it is hard work also for all of us, and many people think we are crazy for doing this work, but we know that we are not the crazy ones, and that we are part of a brigade of amazing witches who believe that the real craziness is looking away. Thank you.
    From the crossing of the Aegean Sea to the struggle for women rights. Women on Lesvos
    All women against Moria

    Most women have already endured hardship even before they get into a boat to cross the Mediterranean Sea. But the journey is far from being over once they reach the shore. Many of them find themselves in overcrowded refugee camps, such as Moria on the Greek island of Lesvos, where the authorities are overwhelmed with numbers and unable or unwilling to provide the most basic needs such as clean water, electricity, shelter, medical care and security. It is a harsh environment where the strongest rules and violence is part of everyday life which leads to an existence dictated by constant fear. In this rough environment, solidarity is a vital tool for survival, especially among women.

    On January 30th 2020, approximately 450 women and children gathered in Mytilene, the capital of Lesvos, to protest the horrific living conditions in the camp and the dramatic increase of violence– including several fatal stabbings that had taken place within the previous weeks. The protest was organized by a group of about 15 Afghan women, and their goal was to draw attention to the dire situation. It was both a cry of despair as well as a powerful and loud manifestation of female solidarity when women of all ages and different nationalities took to the streets and blocked the traffic for several hours.

    “All women against Moria“, “Women in solidarity“, “Moria is a women’s hell“ and “Stop all violence against women“ was written on some of the many signs. The crowd chanted “Assadi“ (farsi: freedom) with raised fists. Several women said that it was the first time they had participated in a demonstration, but they showed great confidence during negotiations with the police or when giving media interviews. An elderly Afghan woman explained that she had focussed on caring for her family all her life but the hellish situation in Moria had given her no choice but to join the demonstration.

    Many women kept their faces hidden behind hijabs, voluminous scarves, and surgical face masks to conceal their identity. In the past, well placed rumours had been circulating that political involvement and contact with the press would lead to immediate deportation and repression by the Greek authorities. Taking this into account, 450 protesters is an astonishing number. Even more so considering the difficulties a trip from Moria to the islands capital, Mytilene, includes. For example, people have to cue for several hours to be able to get into one of the few busses. It has been reported that bus drivers had to push people away with sticks to be able to close the door. If you did make it onto the bus, you would miss your meals for that day as you weren’t able to stand in the food line. We also heard reports that a larger number of women were prevented from leaving the camp to join the demonstration by the authorities and police forces.

    No flyers, no Facebook group, no official announcement. News of the women-only-protest was spread by word of mouth. The success of the demonstration was a surprise to many, especially the police, who initially showed up with only 10 riot-cops. After the protest, 9 female volunteers were taken to the police station, where their identity cards were checked. Their sneaking suspicion is that they were the ones organising the women’s protest. The officials seemed to be unable to grasp the idea that women from Moria could organise efficiently. The women’s role in the camps traditionally has been to calm the male-dominated unrests rather than taking part in them or even initiating them. But times are desperate and increasingly women are discovering their political voice. They are finding strength in female cooperation. There had been an all-women sit-in last October after the tragic death of a woman in a gas explosion in the camp. Assemblies, empowerment workshops, networking and practical support are less visible and yet essential aspects of the politicisation of women.

    Experiences of crossings and life in Moria

    Again this year, with the increase in the number of people arriving on the island and the non-reaction of the Greek and European authorities, the conditions in Moria have only gotten worse and worse. When you talk with the women living there, their daily life comprises of fear, no rest, long lines, attacks, power cuts… but also solidarity amongst each other, survival strategies and the struggle to be able to decide about their own lives. There are the stories of three women, F, N, and J.

    F left Iran: “Unfortunately, in Iran members of my family did not have identity cards. We couldn’t go to school. We just had to work. My older sister and I worked as tailors in a basement. I started working when I was 12 years old. I have a passion for education. Finally, this year my sister and I decided on leaving in search of something better. Finally, my parents accepted. So, we started our travels. During our journey we tolerated several difficulties. Upon arrival to Lesvos, we slept two nights on the streets because we had to wait until Monday for when the offices of Moria opened. Finally, we could get a tent.”

    N and J arrived on the island of Lesvos by boat last December crossing over from Turkey. Both are living in Moria today. For J “each person has their own way to experience and to bear the crossing of the Mediterranean Sea”. She had to pay 450 USD to the person who organised the crossing and was told: ‘In 4 days we will come to pick you up at 23 o’clock at the hostel.’

    She tells us her story: “…they put us in a covered pick-up truck, we were a lot and really squeezed together. Four hours later we arrived in a very dark place. They put us in an abandoned house without any water or food all day long until 7 pm. Then we walked 5 hours up and down in the Turkish hills. Finally, we arrived on the shoreline. They inflated the dinghy in front of us. We left close to midnight. 1.5 hours later the Turkish coastguards stopped us on the sea and they brought us back to Turkey. We were 29 people on board. When they released us we went back to Izmir. I didn’t have any strength anymore. The smugglers told me ‘you have to leave.’ Two days later we tried again. Same group, same way. Five hours of walking again. And again, we couldn’t reach Greece. The big boats came close to our rubber boat to make big waves and they were yelling at us to leave and go back to Turkey. This time we spent one week in the police station. The third time, we arrived in Greek waters and called the Greek Coastguard, that came to pick us up. But we had to throw away our personal belongings because the boat was filling up with water. There was complete disorder on board, no organisation. After we had called them for the first time, we still waited three hours until they came to pick us up.”

    N spoke about how “the fear comes when you’re at sea. You didn’t know who your neighbour was, but you held their hand. We started to pray. On the open sea the water was coming inside the boat. Each one was calling for God in his own way. I didn’t want to go on the boat, but they pushed me. The kids were in the middle. Me as well. I closed my eyes. We landed without any police, only fishermen. It was raining. I was wet and we had to wait 15 minutes more for the bus. What gave us our hope back, was this woman, who gave us chips and sent her kids to say hello to us. They let us on the bus and we sat there until the morning without giving us anything”

    J described her situation after being registered in Moria: “I didn’t have any tent in which to sleep. I slept from tent to tent. They kick you out of the tent when you cough too much. The few that we had, they would steal it. I was scared to be stabbed, mainly during the night and someone would do it just to take your phone. The worst is that the authorities don’t let us leave the island.”

    https://alarmphone.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/25/2020/04/aegean2-1-768x1024.jpeg

    Your whole life is waiting in line

    For the refugees, lines are running a big part of their daily and social lives. As N and I were talking over some tea, N had to leave us to go stand in line for food. Very often they have to miss a workshop, a class, a commitment, or a friends-gathering to go stand in line for a basic necessity. Sometimes it gets so late that people have to return to their tents in Moria, even if they did not receive what they had been standing in line for all day. And the day is done. J told us that: “In the morning, when you wake up, the first thing that you have to do is line-up. We line-up for every basic need. We pee in buckets since the toilets are too far away and we have to wait in line to use them. It’s infernal to wait and the belly burns. During the night especially, the toilets are too far to reach. And the toilets are dirty, so you easily get itchy. The Moria medical tent usually gives paracetamol to calm the itchiness down… To take a shower is the same. You wait in the cold, and sometimes when you arrive the shower is clogged”. N added: “You have to stand in line, but you know that someone can come and stab you for your phone while you wait. It has happened a few times since I have been here, and people have died just waiting. I am scared when I have to go stand in line. One time, they didn’t clean the floor and we had to line up standing on the blood of a guy who was stabbed. I was so scared, it was horrible.”

    F also described the situation in a letter: “When you get up you must stand in a line for breakfast, lunch, diner, toilet, shower: for everything! You wait about 2.5 hours in each line. Your whole life is waiting in a line. We have only two places for doctor’s visits, which is not enough for thousands of people. Again, you have to wait in a line. Only the people that go at 4 o’clock in the morning have the opportunity to be checked. If you have a cold, standing in a line outside is bad for your health. You will get worse. If you have a headache, cold, flu or pain in your back or leg… it doesn’t matter. Doctors just give you painkillers and tell you to drink water.”

    Z, is an underaged Afghan girl, who lives in the jungle of Moria with her family. She wrote the following in a letter: “There is a toilet but at night it’s so hard to go to the toilet because we have to cross a small bridge and we can’t’ see anything because there is no light. I am under 18 and they don’t give me food because my mother is not here and when my father got sick, I was given the task to wait in line for food for the family but they didn’t give it to me because I am a minor. Life here is so hard: washing clothes, caring for my little sister, my brother and father. It’s so hard for me. I miss my mum.”

    Living in Moria is like living in jail. You are constantly living in fear. “Inactivity makes people go crazy. You will pass 6 months here without realising it”. You have nothing to do, nothing that you can do to be a part of civil society. The lines are dehumanising. People become a ticket, a plate, a bottle of milk, a croissant or a bag of clothes,” J explained.
    Self-organisation and a daily life strategy

    For N solidarity is important: “We also have to accept each other and the situation. I cannot eat too late, but when the electricity comes back at 2 am, I cannot prevent the others to talk, to eat and to cook. So, I put my earphones on and cover my eyes. In any case, I don’t sleep well. I refuse to take the medication that they give me to sleep, because we know that boys spend the nights in the alleys. With the canvas walls of the tents, you can feel the people passing by close to you and your head, and I want to be awake in case something happens. To eat warm and cooked food, we have to prepare the food before the electricity comes on. The last time, my tent’s mates put the potatoes in the pan and everything was ready, but they had only 10 minutes of electricity. So they had to wait, but when the power came back the food was not good anymore. As they were hungry, they added some milk. I don’t know how they ate it.”

    N continues: “In my tent we are 7 people plus a little girl. We sleep on the floor and each one puts their stuff around their sleeping place. We keep the middle of the tent open to cook and sit, and eat together. It is important to show solidarity, so I said to the women that we have to protect each other and when one of us has to go stand in line early in the morning, some of us go with her until daylight comes. Also, the women in my tent dance and sing, do braids, and find time to do what they want, and that’s strengthening for me.”

    J talked about solidarity concerning food: “The food in Moria is disgusting and gives you diarrhoea, meaning you then have to go stand in line for the toilets. Can you imagine! We collect money, around one euro per person, and we give it to the person, who cooks for the day. Every day it is a new person.”

    When women cross the sea, and even before then along the journey, they often have different experiences than men and are exposed to greater danger. Being on the move is a difficult situation, but being on the move and being a woman puts you in an even more vulnerable position. Specific issues related to gender discrimination and racism are being reported by the women on Lesbos that we were talking to:

    The women that we talked to speak about racism against black people within the hotspot, but also in the city. For example, a woman told us that in one supermarket, whenever a black person enters, a guard will follow that person around. She also told us that black women are often offered money in the street for sexual services. Prostitution is undoubtedly happening a lot, there lacks public information or data about this invisible side of this kind of unbearable situation on the island. It is clear, however, that human traffickers take advantage of the overcrowded and unsafe situation in Moria and that people are doing business with women and kids. And since the administration is overwhelmed, people can wait up to three months to be registered and to be able to benefit from the “cash programme for refugees”. Three months without any money.

    As we are writing this report, and just a few weeks before the international women’s day, there are five women locked-up in different police stations on Lesbos. They were arrested after trying to leave the island without proper papers. They have been arrested as part of a pilot project to see if this idea for a new law can be implemented: The new law indicates that a person who has been arrested must stay detained until the end of the asylum application. This would mean that all asylum seekers, who can be arrested for any illegitimate reason, would have to wait in detention.

    Having daily contact with women living in Moria, you can see how solidarity starts with their everyday basic needs and continues with the provision of psychosocial human support in an effort to protect each other’s security, rights, and sanity in the face of the dire situations they face every day.
    LGBTQI+ people on the move

    We don’t want to overlook women’s experiences of discrimination and the needs of different vulnerable groups, but considering this report is about gender-based discrimination and violence, the situation of LGBTQI+ people on the move has to also be mentioned.

    This report uses the acronym LGBTQI +: it is used to refer to people who identify as lesbian (L), gay (G), bisexual (B), trans (T), intersex (I), queer (Q) and + for all the different expressions and intimate relation with (no)gender identity and sexual definition: non-binary, asexual, aromantic, etc.

    Those who are LGBTQI+ face an even more difficult reality because they cannot always count on the national solidarity networks. And even when these resources are mobilized, it is often at the cost of important precautions so as not to be identified as LGBTQI+. Housing in camps and collectives of LGBTQI + people with other non-LGBTQI+ in asylum accommodations can cause anxieties regarding being mis-identified or ‘outed’ unwillingly (for their sexual orientation or gender identities). This is especially the case for trans people in accommodation facilities who find themselves living in single-sex housing that does not correspond to their gender identity. Because most of the time the authorities mis-gender trans persons, using the sex that is written on their official papers. Later on, when it comes to the asylum request, LGBTQI+ people fear that information about their sexual orientation or gender identity might start to circulate within the communities. This produces a lot of hesitations concerning what to say in front of the court, causing sorrow and fear because a large part of the LGBTQI+ people particularly pay attention not to reveal the reasons for their presence in Europe.

    From the perspective of Alarm Phone, writing about LGBTQI+ people on the move during the situations they encounter while the crossing on sea is difficult, because of course people also try and hide their identity in situations of close confinement, because it is a risk of discrimination and violence is very high. We can hardly provide a general analysis about people on the move because there is only partial knowledge available. Statistics are often binary and queer people are not mentioned.
    Lesvos LGBTQI+ refugee solidarity

    This is taken from a text that was published by members of the group in 2019

    As another deadly winter sets in, Moria prison camp on Lesvos is over its capacity by the thousands and growing fuller every day. In these conditions, LGBTQI+ refugees are particularly at risk of exposure, violence, and death.

    With homosexuality still illegal in 72 countries, it is obvious why many LGBTQI+ people became refugees. Many of us fled from home because we had to hide our gender identities. When we arrive on Lesvos, expecting safety, we are shocked to find the same issues continue for us here. Homophobic harassment and violent attacks are frequent and severe: by fellow residents as well as by the police and camp guards.

    We know some LGBTQI+ people that have been beaten and even hospitalised from homophobic and transphobic attacks. All have had to repress their identity, living cheek by jowl among communities which replicate the persecution they fled in the first place.

    “When I was in the boat, a beautiful cry came. We’re starting a new life. We were just throwing all our troubles into the sea. I wasn’t scared. I just read the Qur‘an and cried. I sat in the boat, my hand was in the sea along the way.”

    “I left Morocco because for 30 years I was insulted, persecuted and beaten by the community, the police and my family, but on Lesvos I found the same thing.”

    “In the early days in Moria, I was systematically raped. I‘ve seen the most difficult conditions, but I‘ve never seen such a horrible place.”

    “These people are looking at you like you’re rubbish. Like you smell. On the street, on the bus. I don’t know how to explain this. Even when you are on the street, you feel ashamed, like there is shit on you.”

    “If we can’t dress up the way we want, if we can’t do our make-up, why come to Europe?“

    “And together we will change the world, so that people will never have to come out again!”

    We did not flee our homes only to continue to hide and live in fear. We won’t be silenced. We won’t be ignored. We will shout it from the rooftops: we are gay, we are lesbian, we are women, we are men. We are here. We are all migrants. We want our freedom we won’t wait ‘till it‘s given to us. We ask those that hear us to fight alongside us, wherever you are.

    Queer solidarity smashes borders!

    https://alarmphone.org/en/2020/04/08/struggles-of-women-on-the-move
    #femmes #résistance #migrations #réfugiés #asile #lutte #luttes #femmes_migrantes #Tanger #Maroc #solidarité #Rabat #invisibilité #Tunisie #Méditerranée_centrale #Ocean_Viking #Mer_Egée #Moria #Lesbos #Grèce #attente #LGBT #genre

    ping @karine4 @isskein @_kg_

  • Coronavirus, le Ong fermano le missioni di salvataggio in mare. Migranti senza più soccorsi

    Mediterranea: «La pandemia ci impone di congelare l’attività operativa. Scelta obbligata anche se le partenze sono ricominciate». Bloccate in porto anche #Ocean_Viking, #Sea_watch e #Open_Arms

    Le partenze dei migranti dalle coste africane sono riprese ma il Mediterraneo è destinato a rimanere senza soccorsi per chissà quanto tempo. Il coronavirus ferma anche le navi umanitarie e, una dietro l’altra, le Ong comunicano a malincuore la sospensione delle missioni.

    «Una comunicazione inevitabile e difficile - dice Mediterranea, che pure nelle scorse settimane si era vista finalmente restituire le due navi, Mare Jonio e Alex, sequestrate per mesi dal decreto sicurezza - Eravamo pronti a ripartire con la tenacia e la determinazione di sempre: pronte le navi, pronti gli equipaggi. Ma lo svilupparsi della pandemia e le sacrosante misure adottate per tentare il contenimento del contagio e per tentare di salvare le persone più fragili ed esposte, ci impone oggi di congelare l’attività operativa in mare. Gli effetti di questa scelta obbligata ci fanno soffrire perchè in mare c’è chi rischia la morte ogni giorno». Mediterranea confida nella disponibilità, per i soccorsi in mare delle navi civili che continuano ad operare. «Daremo loro ogni supporto possibile».

    Restano al momento in porto anche le navi della Sea Watch e di Sos Mediterranée e Medici senza frontiere che hanno finito il periodo di quarantena dopo gli ultimi due sbarchi di migranti a Pozzallo e a Messina. E ferma è anche da una ventina di giorni per riparazione, la spagnola Open Arms. «Stiamo cercando di capire in che modo poter tornare in mare in sicurezza per tutti. Purtroppo in mare c’è bisogno di noi nonostante il coronavirus», dice la portavoce Veronica Alfonsi.

    Le partenze dall’Africa comunque non si fermano. Il centralino Alarm phone negli ultimi giorni ha segnalato diverse imbarcazioni in difficoltà in zona Sar libica e maltese. E preoccupano gli sbarchi autonomi sull’isola di Lampedusa dove nell’ultima settimana sono arrivate 150 persone. Il sindaco Salvatore Martello ne ha disposto subito la messa in quarantena nell’hot spot ma ha chiesto al ministro dell’Interno Lamorgese un protocollo per il loro immediato trasferimento sulla terraferma per la mancanza delle necessarie misure a salvaguardia della popolazione. Anche in Africa ormai sono centinaia i casi di coronavirus registrati nei Paesi di origine dei migranti e anche la Libia ha dichiarato lo stato di emergenza per l’epidemia.

    Al momento le Ong che hanno volontari impiegati nei servizi di assistenza medica e paramedica nelle aree più colpite dal territorio sono Medici senza frontiere, la cui presidente Claudia Lodesani da giorni sta lavorando a Codogno. Ma anche la piattaforma di terra di Mediterranea ha messo a disposizione le sue forze.

    https://www.repubblica.it/cronaca/2020/03/18/news/coronavirus_le_ong_fermano_le_missioni_di_salvataggio_in_mare_migranti_se
    #coronavirus #conavid-19 #ONG #Méditerranée #fin #arrêt #migrations #réfugiés #sauvetage

    via @isskein

  • Mirages de la carte

    Lorsque les troupes françaises débarquèrent à Alger en 1830, le territoire qui s’étendait devant eux leur était à peu près inconnu. Quelques récits de voyageurs, les traités des géographes antiques : le bagage était mince. La #conquête allait commencer, mais aucun Français ne savait ce qu’était l’Algérie. Quelles étaient ses limites, à l’est et à l’ouest, en direction de la Tunisie et du Maroc ? Fallait-il se contenter d’occuper une bande de terre côtière ou pénétrer en direction du mystérieux Sahara ? Comment établir des frontières, dans les confins traversés par des populations nomades ? Et, dans l’immédiat, sur quelles cartes s’appuyer pour assurer le contrôle du territoire, identifier les populations locales et nommer les régions occupées ?
    Mirages de la carte renouvelle en profondeur l’histoire de la conquête de l’Algérie, en suivant au plus près les travaux des géographes et des cartographes chargés d’arpenter ce territoire et d’en tracer les contours dans le sillage de l’#armée. Hélène Blais montre que la #géographie_coloniale sert à prendre #possession d’un territoire, aussi bien militairement que symboliquement, mais qu’elle ne se réduit pas à imposer une #domination. En nous conviant à l’#invention de l’#Algérie_coloniale, à la croisée des pratiques savantes et des ambitions impériales, ce livre original et novateur démontre brillamment comment l’#histoire_des_savoirs peut renouveler celle des #empires_coloniaux.


    https://www.fayard.fr/histoire/mirages-de-la-carte-9782213677620

    #livre #histoire #cartographie #France #Algérie #colonisation

    ping @reka @albertocampiphoto @karine4

    • Voyages au Grand Océan. Géographies du #Pacifique et colonisation, 1815-1845

      Pour avoir été dédiés à la #découverte et à la #science, les #grands_voyages de découverte autour du monde du XVIIIe siècle ont acquis un immense prestige. Au lendemain des guerres napoléoniennes, la #Marine_française tente de renouer avec cette tradition. De grands marins comme #Freycinet, #Dumont_d'Urville ou #Dupetit-Thouars partent alors sur les traces de Bougainville et de Lapérouse. Le monde a cependant changé. De 1815 à 1845, les ambitions coloniales renaissent. L’#océan_Pacifique, qui reste un réservoir de mythes et de rêves pour les Européens, devient simultanément un terrain de #convoitise. Il faut répondre à la fois aux normes modernes de précision et aux impératifs géostratégiques qui se modèlent dans cette partie du monde. En 1842, la mainmise française sur les archipels des #Marquises et de #Tahiti donne aux reconnaissances géographiques une orientation coloniale soudain explicite.
      C’est l’histoire encore méconnue de ces #voyages_océaniens, où les visées impérialistes se mêlent aux objectifs scientifiques, qui est ici racontée. Quels étaient les objectifs politiques et les visées scientifiques de ces #explorations ? Que faisaient au juste les voyageurs sur le terrain ? Quel nouveaux savoirs géographiques ont-ils élaboré ? Quel usage a-t-on fait des informations rapportées ?
      Hélène Blais montre comment la curiosité géographique et les ambitions coloniales s’articulent de façon inattendue et parfois ambiguë. Les marins comblent les blancs de la carte, donnant ainsi naissance à des géographies du Pacifique qui se distinguent pas leurs usages et leur réception. Mais au-delà, ces voyages au Grand Océan font apparaître, à travers le choix des échelles et les découpages internes, les différents facteurs qui président à l’invention d’un territoire dans un contexte d’#expansion_coloniale.


      http://cths.fr/ed/edition.php?id=601
      #océans #mers #mer #océan

  • #Frontex wants to disembark refugees in Senegal

    #Hera“ is the only Frontex maritime mission on the territory of a third country. A new agreement might extend this joint border #surveillance.

    The EU border agency Frontex wants to bring back refugees picked up in the Atlantic Ocean to Senegal. The EU Commission should therefore negotiate a so-called #Status_Agreement with the government in Dakar. The proposal can be found in the annual report (https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-6294-2020-INIT/en/pdf) on the implementation of the Regulation for the surveillance of external sea borders (https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32014R0656). It regulates the maritime „operational cooperation“ of Frontex with third countries.

    It would be the first agreement of this kind with an African government. So far, Frontex has only concluded Status Agreements with a number of Western Balkan countries for the joint surveillance of land borders. The only operation to date in a third country (https://digit.site36.net/2019/11/25/frontex-expands-operations-in-eu-neighbouring-countries) was launched by the Border Agency in Albania a year ago.

    Frontex has been coordinating the joint operation „Hera“ in the Atlantic since 2006 (https://frontex.europa.eu/media-centre/news-release/longest-frontex-coordinated-operation-hera-the-canary-islands-WpQlsc). The reason for the first and thus oldest EU border surveillance mission (http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/no-307-frontex-operation-hera.pdf) was the arrival of many thousands of refugees in boats on the Canary Islands via Morocco, Mauritania, Cape Verde and Senegal. For a short period of time, the German Federal Police had also participated in „Hera“ (http://dipbt.bundestag.de/doc/btd/16/098/1609888.pdf), in addition to Portugal, France, Italy, Finland and Luxembourg. Already in 2007 the arrivals decreased drastically. For the past year, Frontex’s „Migratory Map“ (https://frontex.europa.eu/along-eu-borders/migratory-map) records only 711 irregular arrivals (by December) on Gran Canaria, Tenerife and the other Spanish islands. According to media reports (https://www.laprovincia.es/canarias/2020/03/03/canarias-supera-1200-personas-llegadas/1260792.html), this number has been nearly doubled in the first two months of 2020 alone.

    „Hera“ is the only maritime mission in which Frontex coordinates an operation which, with Senegal, also takes place in the 12-mile zone, the exclusive economic zone and the airspace of a third country. In „Themis“, „Indalo“ and „Poseidon“, the operational plan only covers waters under the jurisdiction and monitoring of EU Member States.

    Currently, „Hera“ is operated by Spain as the „host state“ with support from Portugal. The two countries patrol with frigates and smaller ships and carry out aerial surveillance with a helicopter. They first transmit their information to a control centre in Las Palmas, to which Morocco, Mauritania and Senegal have sent liaison officers. Processed intelligence is then forwarded to the International Coordination Centre (ICC) in Madrid, which manages all operations of the Spanish border authorities and is also responsible for cooperation with Frontex.

    If suspicious boats are detected in the area of operations in „Hera“, a report is made to the competent Maritime Rescue Operations Centre (MRCC). All those picked up in the Spanish Search and Rescue zone have been able to disembark in the Canary Islands in recent years.

    If the refugees are still in the Senegalese #SAR zone, the national coast guard brings them back to the West African country. With a Status Agreement, Frontex assets could do the same. According to SAR Info, a Canadian information platform, the Senegalese national #MRCC (https://sarcontacts.info/countries/senegal) is also responsible for the rescue coordination off the coast of Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania.

    Before each operation, Frontex is required to assess the possible disembarkation of intercepted refugees in the third countries concerned. In the report for 2018, Leggeri writes that his agency, with the „host states“ of the missions „Themis“ (Italy) and „Indalo“ (Spain), considered such disembarkations to Libya and Tunisia as well as to Morocco to be incompatible with regulations to which Frontex is bound.

    From Frontex’s point of view, however, disembarkations would be possible for Turkey and Senegal, as the governments there do not violate basic fundamental and human rights and also adhere to the principle of non-refoulement, according to which refugees may not be returned to countries from which they have fled. So far, says Leggeri, Frontex and the EU Member States involved in „Poseidon“ and „Hera“ have not forced any persons to Turkey or Senegal.

    The report signed by Frontex director Fabrice Leggeri is as usual one year late, the paper published last week refers to 2018. That was the same year in which the European Union once again wanted to set up „regional disembarkation centres“ in North Africa (https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_18_4629). There, asylum applications of persons seeking protection would be examined even before they reach Europe. All the governments in question rejected the proposal, and the African Union also opposed it a year ago. Led by Egypt, the 55 member states criticise the planned EU facilities as „de facto detention centres“ (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/24/african-union-seeks-to-kill-eu-plan-to-process-migrants-in-africa).

    In the report, Leggeri complains that Frontex has too little competence in its four maritime missions. Bilateral agreements, such as those Italy has concluded with Libya (https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/02/12/italy-halt-abusive-migration-cooperation-libya) or Spain with Morocco (https://english.elpais.com/elpais/2019/02/21/inenglish/1550736538_089908.html), allow for much closer cooperation with North African coastguards.

    https://digit.site36.net/2020/03/01/frontex-wants-to-disembark-refugees-in-senegal
    #Sénégal #asile #migrations #réfugiés #externalisation #désembarquement #surveillance_frontalière #accord #accords #frontières

    Et pas mal de matériel sur seenthis autour de...
    #plateformes_de_désembarquement #disembarkation_paltforms #plateformes_de_débarquement #regional_disembarkation_platforms #Albanie #Océane_atlantique #Atlantique #Allemagne

    –-> voir notamment ici, dans la métaliste sur l’externalisation des contrôles frontaliers :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/731749#message765334

    ping @karine4 @isskein @_kg_

  • Savoirs des femmes. Médecine traditionnelle et nature (Maurice, Rodrigues, La Réunion) | Cairn.info
    https://www.cairn.info/revue-les-tribunes-de-la-sante1-2014-3-page-51.htm#

    Les accoucheuses traditionnelles semblent, pour la plupart d’entre elles, avoir possédé de réelles compétences obstétricales et les témoignages tendent à montrer que ces compétences étaient déterminantes pour la réputation d’une personne : une matrone que la rumeur publique désignait comme incapable n’exerçait que peu de temps par manque de sollicitations.

    27
    Les descriptions faites par les matrones réunionnaises et rodriguaises et par les dayi mauriciennes attestent d’un suivi tant prénatal (palpation, examen, toucher, administration de tisanes, conseils prophylactiques) que post-natal (suivi des suites de couches, bains cicatrisants, soins au nouveau-né), d’une grande disponibilité et d’une profonde conscience professionnelle. De plus, les différents récits d’accouchement mettent en évidence diverses techniques obstétricales particulièrement difficiles à mettre en œuvre, révélatrices d’un niveau de technicité élevé, telles que, par exemple, le fait de faire rentrer le bébé dans le corps de sa mère en cas de mauvaise présentation ou les techniques destinées à retourner l’enfant in utero et à le placer en bonne position dans le bassin de sa mère.

    Dès les débuts de l’expansion du pouvoir de la biomédecine, que l’on peut situer au début du XXe siècle pour La Réunion, aux alentours des années 1940 pour Maurice et de manière plus récente, dans les années 1970, pour Rodrigues, les savoirs féminins ont été critiqués, dévalorisés, taxés de croyances, de superstitions. De nombreux articles de presse du début du siècle, à La Réunion notamment, attribuent (à tort ou à raison) les morts en couches aux seules matrones, qui sont également accusées d’être sales, ignorantes, accusations qui furent aussi, jadis, en Europe, présentes lors de la prise de pouvoir des obstétriciens hommes sur les femmes et leurs savoirs .

    Comme en Europe, la terre des femmes, celle où l’on plantait un arbre à la naissance d’un enfant, celle dans laquelle étaient enterrés les placentas des nouveau-nés, devenait terre des hommes. Mais les femmes n’ont pas, pour autant, abandonné leurs traditions. Habituées, par l’histoire, à être minoritaires et à se battre pour garder leurs savoirs, elles ont appris à les cacher, à se faire discrètes, forme de résistance sans doute, significative d’un conflit interne.

    En effet, quelle que soit l’île concernée, une double attitude apparaît, associée à un double discours.

    #Mascareignes #sorcières #femmes #océan_indien #femmes_médecins #accouchement_à_domicile #care #massage_in_utero #colonialisme #écoféminisme
    #enfantement

    (pour l’avortement, les feuilles d’ananas étaient préconisées)

    • C’est le texte le plus dérangeant et puissant que j’aie lu de la semaine, notamment parce que ça nous dit où en est le capitalisme vis-à-vis de l’exploitation de la nature : c’est toujours open bar, la course à l’innovation technique mais en version pseudo-verte.

      Many people imagine the seabed to be a vast expanse of sand, but it’s a jagged and dynamic landscape with as much variation as any place onshore. Mountains surge from underwater plains, canyons slice miles deep, hot springs billow through fissures in rock, and streams of heavy brine ooze down hillsides, pooling into undersea lakes.

      At full capacity, these companies expect to dredge thousands of square miles a year. Their collection vehicles will creep across the bottom in systematic rows, scraping through the top five inches of the ocean floor. Ships above will draw thousands of pounds of sediment through a hose to the surface, remove the metallic objects, known as polymetallic nodules, and then flush the rest back into the water. Some of that slurry will contain toxins such as mercury and lead, which could poison the surrounding ocean for hundreds of miles. The rest will drift in the current until it settles in nearby ecosystems. An early study by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences predicted that each mining ship will release about 2 million cubic feet of discharge every day, enough to fill a freight train that is 16 miles long. The authors called this “a conservative estimate,” since other projections had been three times as high. By any measure, they concluded, “a very large area will be blanketed by sediment to such an extent that many animals will not be able to cope with the impact and whole communities will be severely affected by the loss of individuals and species.”

      Scientists divide the ocean into five layers of depth. Closest to the surface is the “sunlight zone,” where plants thrive; then comes the “twilight zone,” where darkness falls; next is the “midnight zone,” where some creatures generate their own light; and then there’s a frozen flatland known simply as “the abyss.” Oceanographers have visited these layers in submersible vehicles for half a century, but the final layer is difficult to reach. It is known as the “hadal zone,” in reference to Hades, the ancient Greek god of the underworld, and it includes any water that is at least 6,000 meters below the surface—or, in a more Vernian formulation, that is 20,000 feet under the sea. Because the hadal zone is so deep, it is usually associated with ocean trenches, but several deepwater plains have sections that cross into hadal depth.

      The ISA has issued more mining licenses for nodules than for any other seabed deposit. Most of these licenses authorize contractors to exploit a single deepwater plain. Known as the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, or CCZ, it extends across 1.7 million square miles between Hawaii and Mexico—wider than the continental United States. When the Mining Code is approved, more than a dozen companies will accelerate their explorations in the CCZ to industrial-scale extraction. Their ships and robots will use vacuum hoses to suck nodules and sediment from the seafloor, extracting the metal and dumping the rest into the water. How many ecosystems will be covered by that sediment is impossible to predict. Ocean currents fluctuate regularly in speed and direction, so identical plumes of slurry will travel different distances, in different directions, on different days. The impact of a sediment plume also depends on how it is released. Slurry that is dumped near the surface will drift farther than slurry pumped back to the bottom. The circulating draft of the Mining Code does not specify a depth of discharge. The ISA has adopted an estimate that sediment dumped near the surface will travel no more than 62 miles from the point of release, but many experts believe the slurry could travel farther. A recent survey of academic research compiled by Greenpeace concluded that mining waste “could travel hundreds or even thousands of kilometers.”

      https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-international-stateless/2019/06/f223a588-in-deep-water-greenpeace-deep-sea-mining-2019.pdf

      Building a vehicle to function at 36,000 feet, under 2 million pounds of pressure per square foot, is a task of interstellar-type engineering. It’s a good deal more rigorous than, say, bolting together a rover to skitter across Mars. Picture the schematic of an iPhone case that can be smashed with a sledgehammer more or less constantly, from every angle at once, without a trace of damage, and you’re in the ballpark—or just consider the fact that more people have walked on the moon than have reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest place on Earth.

      While scientists struggle to reach the deep ocean, human impact has already gotten there. Most of us are familiar with the menu of damages to coastal water: overfishing, oil spills, and pollution, to name a few. What can be lost in the discussion of these issues is how they reverberate far beneath.

      Maybe the greatest alarm in recent years has followed the discovery of plastic floating in the ocean. Scientists estimate that 17 billion pounds of polymer are flushed into the ocean each year, and substantially more of it collects on the bottom than on the surface. Just as a bottle that falls from a picnic table will roll downhill to a gulch, trash on the seafloor gradually makes its way toward deepwater plains and hadal trenches. After his expedition to the trenches, Victor Vescovo returned with the news that garbage had beaten him there. He found a plastic bag at the bottom of one trench, a beverage can in another, and when he reached the deepest point in the Mariana, he watched an object with a large S on the side float past his window. Trash of all sorts is collecting in the hadal—Spam tins, Budweiser cans, rubber gloves, even a mannequin head.

      Scientists are just beginning to understand the impact of trash on aquatic life.

      https://marinedebris.noaa.gov/info/patch.html

      Microbes that flourish on plastic have ballooned in number, replacing other species as their population explodes in a polymer ocean.

      If it seems trivial to worry about the population statistics of bacteria in the ocean, you may be interested to know that ocean microbes are essential to human and planetary health. About a third of the carbon dioxide generated on land is absorbed by underwater organisms, including one species that was just discovered in the CCZ in 2018. The researchers who found that bacterium have no idea how it removes carbon from the environment, but their findings show that it may account for up to 10 percent of the volume that is sequestered by oceans every year.

      “There are more than a million microbes per milliliter of seawater,” he said, “so the chance of finding new antibiotics in the marine environment is high.” McCarthy agreed. “The next great drug may be hidden somewhere deep in the water,” he said. “We need to get to the deep-sea organisms, because they’re making compounds that we’ve never seen before. We may find drugs that could be used to treat gout, or rheumatoid arthritis, or all kinds of other conditions.”

      Marine biologists have never conducted a comprehensive survey of microbes in the hadal trenches. The conventional tools of water sampling cannot function at extreme depth, and engineers are just beginning to develop tools that can. Microbial studies of the deepwater plains are slightly further along—and scientists have recently discovered that the CCZ is unusually flush with life.

      Venter has been accused of trying to privatize the human genome, and many of his critics believe his effort to create new organisms is akin to playing God. He clearly doesn’t have an aversion to profit-driven science, and he’s not afraid to mess with nature—yet when I asked him about the prospect of mining in deep water, he flared with alarm. “We should be very careful about mining in the ocean,” he said. “These companies should be doing rigorous microbial surveys before they do anything else. We only know a fraction of the microbes down there, and it’s a terrible idea to screw with them before we know what they are and what they do.”

      As a group, they have sought to position DeepGreen as a company whose primary interest in mining the ocean is saving the planet. They have produced a series of lavish brochures to explain the need for a new source of battery metals, and Gerard Barron, the CEO, speaks with animated fervor about the virtues of nodule extraction.

      His case for seabed mining is straightforward. Barron believes that the world will not survive if we continue burning fossil fuels, and the transition to other forms of power will require a massive increase in battery production. He points to electric cars: the batteries for a single vehicle require 187 pounds of copper, 123 pounds of nickel, and 15 pounds each of manganese and cobalt. On a planet with 1 billion cars, the conversion to electric vehicles would require several times more metal than all existing land-based supplies—and harvesting that metal from existing sources already takes a human toll.

      L’enfer sur Terre, que cette histoire de seabed mining puisse être considérée comme écolo, de même qu’un milliard de bagnoles « vertes » !

      Mining companies may promise to extract seabed metal with minimal damage to the surrounding environment, but to believe this requires faith. It collides with the force of human history, the law of unintended consequences, and the inevitability of mistakes. I wanted to understand from Michael Lodge how a UN agency had made the choice to accept that risk.

      “Why is it necessary to mine the ocean?” I asked him.

      He paused for a moment, furrowing his brow. “I don’t know why you use the word necessary,” he said. “Why is it ‘necessary’ to mine anywhere? You mine where you find metal.”

      #extractivisme #extractivisme_marin #mer #océan #eau #mine #capitalisme_vert #tourisme_de_l'extrême par nos amis les #milliardaires #biologie_de_synthèse aussi #microbes #antibiotiques et un gros #beurk

  • À cause de la fonte des glaces, le #méthane s’échappe du sol et fait « bouillir » la #mer en #Sibérie
    https://dailygeekshow.com/rechauffement-climatique-methane-fait-bouillir-la-mer-en-siberie

    Le #pergélisol est également présent sous l’#océan. En 2017, des scientifiques ont annoncé qu’ils avaient découvert des centaines de cratères au fond de la mer de Barents, s’étant formés à partir du méthane accumulé et ayant explosé soudainement lorsque la pression était devenue trop élevée. Lors d’une récente expédition visant à cartographier les zones où ce type de phénomène se produisait via des prélèvements d’eau de mer et de sédiments, les chercheurs ont découvert une région dans laquelle la concentration de méthane dans l’atmosphère était six à sept fois plus élevée que la moyenne.

    Les chercheurs russes ont ensuite identifié une zone d’eau d’environ cinq mètres carrés à l’intérieur de laquelle se produisait un véritable « bouillonnement de bulles de méthane ». L’équipe a ensuite réalisé des prélèvements directement sur-celle-ci, et observé des niveaux de méthane neuf fois plus élevés que les concentrations moyennes mondiales. Comme l’a expliqué Semiletov au Moscow Times : « Il s’agit de la fontaine de méthane la plus puissante que j’aie jamais eu l’occasion d’observer. Aucun scientifique n’avait jamais rien enregistré de tel auparavant. »

    #permafrost

  • Climate change: Oceans running out of oxygen as temperatures rise - BBC News
    https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-50690995

    Climate change and nutrient pollution are driving the oxygen from our oceans, and threatening many species of fish.

    That’s the conclusion of the biggest study of its kind, undertaken by conservation group IUCN.

    While nutrient run-off has been known for decades, researchers say that climate change is making the lack of oxygen worse.

    Around 700 ocean sites are now suffering from low oxygen, compared with 45 in the 1960s.

    Researchers say the depletion is threatening species including tuna, marlin and sharks.

    #environnement #eau #océans #biodiversité #eutrophisation

  • Oceans losing oxygen at unprecedented rate, experts warn | Environment | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/07/oceans-losing-oxygen-at-unprecedented-rate-experts-warn
    https://i.guim.co.uk/img/media/1979963d7d9123c120cef4332221bbd03a4abfa3/0_100_5400_3240/master/5400.jpg?width=1200&height=630&quality=85&auto=format&fit=crop&overlay-ali

    Oxygen in the oceans is being lost at an unprecedented rate, with “dead zones” proliferating and hundreds more areas showing oxygen dangerously depleted, as a result of the climate emergency and intensive farming, experts have warned.

    Sharks, tuna, marlin and other large fish species were at particular risk, scientists said, with many vital ecosystems in danger of collapse. Dead zones – where oxygen is effectively absent – have quadrupled in extent in the last half-century, and there are also at least 700 areas where oxygen is at dangerously low levels, up from 45 when research was undertaken in the 1960s.

    #surpeche #environnement #climat #effondrement #ocean

  • Bougainville, bientôt le plus jeune État du monde ?
    https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/independance-bougainville-bientot-le-plus-jeune-etat-du-monde

    L’#Océanie comptera-t-elle bientôt un nouvel État insulaire indépendant ? C’est ce que sont en train de décider les 200 000 électeurs de Bougainville via un référendum qui se tient jusqu’au 7 décembre. Cette île, qui porte le nom du navigateur français l’ayant explorée en 1768, a été colonisée par l’#Allemagne puis l’#Australie avant d’être intégrée en 1975 à la #Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée lorsque celle-ci est devenue indépendante.

    “Les habitants de #Bougainville se sont toujours sentis plus proches, culturellement et ethniquement, des îles Salomon, situées au sud, souligne le magazine indonésien Tempo. Pendant les années 1980, cette province était devenue la plus riche du pays grâce à ses mines d’or et de cuivre, dont les revenus représentaient 14 % du PIB. Seulement un quart des employés de ces mines étaient originaires de Bougainville, le reste étant des étrangers ou des Papous.”

    #référendum #indépendance

    • Injustices économiques et sentiment de spoliation donnent naissance en 1988 à l’Armée révolutionnaire de Bougainville, qui dynamite les exploitations minières et réclame la tenue d’un référendum. Une répression sanglante menée par les militaires de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée dure plus de dix ans et fait plus de 20 000 victimes.

      … sur une population de 175 000 habitants (en 2000)
      (source : WP)

    • Mais les résultats de ce scrutin ne sont pas contraignants et ne changeront pas nécessairement le statut de Bougainville. Ils devront être entérinés par le Parlement de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée via des négociations avec l’île. Un processus qui peut prendre des années.

      Un signe pour la Papouasie indonésienne ?
      En titrant “Bougainville, une nouvelle voisine”, le magazine Tempo semble aussi lancer un clin d’œil en direction des deux provinces indonésiennes de Papouasie. Elles pourraient bien, elles aussi, un jour, devenir de “nouvelles grandes voisines”.

      De nombreux parallèles peuvent être établis entre Bougainville et les deux provinces indonésiennes de l’île de Nouvelle-Guinée. Elles sont les plus riches d’Indonésie, et des revendications d’indépendance n’ont pas cessé depuis 1975.

      Ces derniers mois, un regain de tension contre le paternalisme de Jakarta vis-à-vis des Papous a entraîné des émeutes dans les deux provinces. De plus en plus de Papous réclament d’ailleurs un référendum. Affaire à suivre.

      #Papouasie-occidentale ex-#Irian-Jaya

    • Après le référendum, la longue route de l’île de Bougainville pour devenir un Etat
      https://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2019/12/12/apres-le-referendum-la-longue-route-de-l-ile-de-bougainville-pour-devenir-un


      Des électeurs brandissent le drapeau de Bougainville, le 26 novembre.
      STRINGER / REUTERS

      Ils se sont exprimés à plus de 98 % en faveur de l’indépendance. L’ex-premier ministre irlandais Bertie Ahern, président de la Commission référendaire de Bougainville, a annoncé, mercredi 11 décembre, que 176 928 électeurs de l’île, l’une des plus grandes des îles Salomon, avaient voté massivement pour quitter le giron de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, un pas majeur vers la création d’un nouvel Etat de 300 000 habitants.

      A New York, le secrétaire général de l’Organisation des Nations unies (ONU), Antonio Guterres, a salué « l’organisation réussie du référendum » et félicité les autorités et tous les électeurs « pour leur dévouement et la conduite pacifique du processus ». Il a appelé toutes les parties à s’assurer que la suite sera « inclusive et constructive », précise son communiqué.

      Ce vote historique, dont les résultats définitifs seront annoncés le 20 décembre, doit permettre de tourner définitivement la page d’une décennie de conflit armé qui a fait quelque 20 000 morts – soit 10 % de la population – avant le cessez-le-feu de 1998.

      Pourtant, c’est après le référendum que les choses vont se compliquer : le résultat du référendum étant non contraignant, le parlement de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée doit en ratifier le résultat. Puka Temu, le ministre papouasien chargé des affaires de Bougainville, a déclaré que le premier ministre de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, James Marape, ferait une déclaration dans les prochains jours sur la voie à suivre et a demandé que les électeurs de Bougainville « laissent suffisamment de temps au reste de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée pour absorber ce résultat ».

      Avant le référendum, James Marape s’est dit personnellement favorable à ce que Bougainville reste une province et certains élus de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée se sont vigoureusement opposés à l’indépendance, redoutant un effet de contagion dans un pays divisé entre plusieurs provinces (Papouasie, Hautes Terres, Momaes et Iles), avec plusieurs centaines de groupes ethniques et autant de langues.
      De son côté, le président du gouvernement autonome de Bougainville, John Momis, a déclaré qu’il pensait que James Marape était « intelligent (…) et prêt à écouter ».

  • Attributing long-term sea-level rise to Paris Agreement emission pledges
    Alexander Nauels, Johannes Gütschow, Matthias Mengel, Malte Meinshausen, Peter U. Clark, and Carl-Friedrich Schleussner
    PNAS, 2019
    https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/10/31/1907461116

    The 15 y from 2016 to 2030 commit about 8 cm of additional sea-level rise in 2100 or 20 cm of additional sea-level rise in 2300 (Table 1), with the latter estimate being roughly equivalent to what has occurred since the preindustrial period. Only stringent near-term emission reductions in line with achieving the 1.5 °C long-term temperature goal of the Paris Agreement would provide a chance of limiting long-term sea-level rise to below 1 m. Since the adoption of the Paris Agreement, however, global GHG emissions have not shown a sign of peaking, while the current NDCs are inadequate to put the global community on track to meet the Paris Agreement Long-term Temperature Goal by the end of the 21st century.

    Si j’ai bien compris : si on respecte les engagements pris à Paris, le niveau de la mer ne montera que de 8cm d’ici #2030. Mais pour ça il faudrait que la température ne monte pas de plus de 1.5°C, et il faudrait déjà voir une réduction de gaz à effets de serre, ce qui n’est pas le cas...

    #eau #océans #climat

    A mettre aussi en perspective avec :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/808835

    On l’ajoute à la troisième compilation :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/680147

    #effondrement #collapsologie #catastrophe #fin_du_monde #it_has_begun #Anthropocène #capitalocène

  • Réchauffement climatique : la montée des eaux sera bien plus élevée et rapide que prévu
    Futura, le 5 novembre 2019
    https://www.futura-sciences.com/alternative/amp/actualite/78203

    « plus élevée et rapide que prévu » : #marronnier

    Le dérèglement climatique pourrait faire monter le niveau des océans bien plus vite et plus haut qu’envisagé jusqu’ici, selon une étude sur la dernière période de réchauffement, il y a 125.000 ans. L’eau était alors montée jusqu’à 10 mètres au dessus du niveau actuel, au rythme de jusqu’à trois mètres par siècle, selon des chercheurs de l’Université nationale d’Australie, dessinant un scénario catastrophe pour des centaines de millions de personnes.

    Ce sujet a été traité ici en anglais :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/809957

    Article original :

    Asynchronous Antarctic and Greenland ice-volume contributions to the last interglacial sea-level highstand
    Eelco J. Rohling, Fiona D. Hibbert, Katharine M. Grant, Eirik V. Galaasen, Nil Irvalı, Helga F. Kleiven, Gianluca Marino, Ulysses Ninnemann, Andrew P. Roberts, Yair Rosenthal, Hartmut Schulz, Felicity H. Williams & Jimin Yu
    Nature Communications 10:5040 (2019)
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12874-3

    A mettre aussi en perspective avec :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/808835

    #eau #océans #climat

    A propos des marronniers #plus_tôt_que_prévu et #plus_important_que_prévu, voir :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/788373
    https://seenthis.net/messages/802211
    https://seenthis.net/messages/804201
    https://seenthis.net/messages/809702
    https://seenthis.net/messages/810242
    https://seenthis.net/messages/810306
    https://seenthis.net/messages/811174

    On l’ajoute à la troisième compilation :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/680147

    #effondrement #collapsologie #catastrophe #fin_du_monde #it_has_begun #Anthropocène #capitalocène

  • Le ruissellement des engrais crée la plus grande zone morte jamais observée aux États-Unis
    https://www.nationalgeographic.fr/sciences/2019/06/le-ruissellement-des-engrais-cree-la-plus-grande-zone-morte-jamai

    Au large des côtes de la #Louisiane et du #Texas, à l’endroit même où le #Mississippi finit sa course à travers les États-Unis, l’#océan meurt à petit feu. Ce phénomène cyclique est connu sous le nom de #zone_morte et il se produit tous les ans mais selon les scientifiques, la zone atteindra cette année sa superficie maximale depuis le début des relevés.

    #engrais #pollution #agro-industrie

  • Mort de neuf migrants après un #naufrage au large de l’île espagnole de #Lanzarote

    Neuf migrants ont été retrouvés morts au large de Lanzarote après le naufrage de leur embarcation prise dans une forte houle alors qu’ils tentaient de rejoindre cette île des Canaries. Deux autres personnes sont toujours portées disparues.

    Neuf migrants sont morts après le naufrage au large de l’île espagnole de Lanzarote, aux Canaries, de leur embarcation renversée par de fortes vagues, ont indiqué jeudi 7 novembre les autorités de l’archipel. Deux autres migrants sont toujours portés disparus.

    Ce bilan s’est alourdi jeudi après la découverte de quatre nouveaux corps, ont indiqué les autorités locales. Mercredi, cinq corps avaient été retrouvés « en dépit des difficultés dues à la forte houle, responsable du renversement de l’embarcation", avait expliqué l’administration locale de Lanzarote, dans un communiqué.

    "Il y a neuf personnes décédées, en plus des quatre secourues en vie", a indiqué à l’AFP un porte-parole du gouvernement local de Lanzarote, île située au large des côtes marocaines, dans l’océan Atlantique. "Selon certains survivants, quinze personnes étaient à bord de l’embarcation et les services d’urgence continuent de fouiller la zone", a ajouté le porte-parole.

    Les recherches se poursuivaient jeudi avec deux hélicoptères et plusieurs bateaux, en dépit des conditions météorologiques très difficiles "avec des vagues de quatre ou cinq mètres", avait plutôt affirmé Isidoro Blanco, porte-parole des services d’urgence de Lanzarote.

    Selon le récit des rescapés, la quinzaine de personnes aurait pris la mer vendredi. Aucune information n’a été donnée sur leur pays d’origine ni leur identité.

    Selon les chiffres publiés par l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) de l’ONU, au moins 80 personnes sont mortes ou portées disparues, après avoir tenté de parvenir aux Canaries depuis le nord-ouest de l’Afrique en 2019.

    https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/20690/mort-de-neuf-migrants-apres-un-naufrage-au-large-de-l-ile-espagnole-de
    #décès #migrations #réfugiés #Lanzarote #Atlantique #océan_atlantique #mourir_en_mer #Canaries #routes_migratoires #itinéraires_migratoires #route_atlantique

    • La côte atlantique, nouveau point de départ de jeunes marocains

      Ces dernières semaines, plusieurs embarcations transportant des jeunes marocains sont parties des villes de Salé, Casablanca, ou encore Safi, pour rejoindre le sud de l’Espagne ou les Canaries. Pour Ali Zoubeidi, docteur en droit public, spécialiste dans le trafic illicite de migrants au Maroc, les départs depuis ces villes situées sur la côte atlantique du pays sont nouveaux, et révèlent le désarroi d’une jeunesse qui, faute de perspectives, se tourne vers un « eldorado » européen.
      Entre fin septembre et début octobre, les corps de 16 personnes ont été repêchés au large de Casablanca, au nord-ouest du Maroc. Les victimes, tous de jeunes marocains, étaient montées à bord d’une embarcation pneumatique, espérant rejoindre le sud de l’Espagne par l’océan Atlantique. Sur la soixantaine de personnes qui se trouvaient à bord, seules trois ont survécu.

      Quelques semaines plus tard, une vidéo publiée sur les réseaux sociaux fait le tour de la presse marocaine. Elle montre Anouar Boukharsa, un sportif marocain détenteur de plusieurs prix de taekwondo régionaux et nationaux, lancer sa médaille à la mer depuis un bateau de fortune en direction des Canaries. Parti de la plage de Souira, au sud de la ville de Safi, avec une dizaine de jeunes marocains comme lui originaires de la région, il est arrivé le 23 octobre à Lanzarote, une île de l’archipel espagnol, après quatre jours de voyage.

      Si le Maroc est devenu ces dernières années une route migratoire majeure, avec des départs s’organisant le plus souvent depuis la côte méditerranéenne, ces deux événements illustrent la présence d’autres points de départ se situant du côté Atlantique. Ali Zoubeidi, docteur en droit public spécialiste dans le trafic illicite de migrants au Maroc, travaille sur l’émergence de ces nouvelles traversées. Il répond aux questions de la rédaction d’InfoMigrants.

      Les départs depuis la côte atlantique du Maroc sont-ils nouveaux ?

      La route atlantique depuis le sud du pays en direction des Canaries avait déjà été réactivée, avec des points de départ dans la région de Tiznit, ou près de Dakhla. On connaissait déjà aussi la route du nord, avec des embarcations qui partent des villes d’Asilah ou de Larache, sur la côte atlantique, pour rejoindre la mer Méditerranée puis le sud de l’Espagne.

      Mais ce que l’on voit émerger maintenant, et c’est très récent, ce sont des points de départ dans le centre, à partir de villes comme Safi - d’où est parti le champion de taekwondo - pour aller aux Canaries, ou de Salé et de Casablanca pour rejoindre la Méditerranée et ensuite le sud de l’Espagne. Ce sont des trajets de plusieurs jours, très dangereux, à bord d’embarcations de pêche traditionnelles ou de bateaux pneumatiques qui sont mis à l’eau sur des plages sauvages, par exemple à Souira, au sud de Safi.

      Les points de départ au sud concernent à la fois des Marocains et des migrants originaires d’Afrique subsaharienne. Ces derniers se retrouvent pour certains au sud du pays après avoir été refoulés du nord par les autorités. [Les autorités marocaines avaient commencé en août 2018 à refouler de force des migrants vers le sud du pays afin de les « soustraire aux réseaux mafieux » du nord, NDLR.]

      Au centre, depuis Safi, Salé, ce sont surtout de jeunes marocains qui partent vers l’Europe.

      Comment expliquer ces départs de jeunes marocains ?

      Même s’il n’y a pas encore de chiffres et données précises sur les départs depuis ces nouvelles zones, ce que l’on observe, c’est vraiment le désespoir de la jeunesse marocaine. Ce sont souvent des jeunes qui décident de quitter le pays en trouvant l’issue la plus proche pour atteindre l’Europe, « l’eldorado ». Dans les vidéos qui sont apparues ces dernières semaines, on a vu plusieurs personnes originaires de Safi partir du sud de leur ville, dont des sportifs. Certains jettent à l’eau leurs médailles, d’autres leurs diplômes. C’est révélateur d’une absence de perspectives pour la jeunesse marocaine, tant au niveau économique, de la santé, qu’au niveau sportif et culturel. Ils savent qu’ils peuvent mourir pendant le trajet, mais ils ne se posent pas la question de ce qu’il pourra ensuite se passer une fois en Espagne.

      C’est vraiment présenté comme une aventure, un challenge entre jeunes. Ce sont aussi des jeunes qui souffrent de l’absence de voie légale d’immigration. Ils se voient refuser des visas pour des raisons économiques, même quand il s’agit pour eux simplement de faire du tourisme ou d’effectuer un déplacement temporaire. Et puis, il y a la mise en scène. On fait des vidéos pendant le passage irrégulier, on se vante pour montrer qu’on y arrive, on fait des dédicaces à sa famille, ses amis : c’est le moment où l’on peut dire « j’ai réussi quelque chose ». Et cela devient un facteur d’attraction pour d’autres. C’est aussi de la publicité dont se servent ensuite les réseaux mafieux.

      Comment s’organisent ces départs ? Quels sont les dangers ?

      Je dirais qu’il y a vraiment des réseaux criminels impliqués dans environ 85% des cas. Le reste étant des amateurs qui s’auto-organisent. Je soulignerais aussi l’importance de la communauté locale, des gens qui habitent sur la côte : dans les quartiers populaires, des pêcheurs sont impliqués. Il y a également des opportunistes, qui n’y connaissent rien, qui prennent contact avec des jeunes via les réseaux sociaux et les arnaquent. Début septembre, pour le cas du naufrage au large de Casablanca d’une embarcation qui se dirigeait vers le sud de l’Espagne, il s’agissait clairement d’une arnaque. Il est extrêmement compliqué de rejoindre les côtes espagnoles depuis Casablanca.

      Il y a également eu le cas de migrants qui avaient été mis dans une embarcation et emmenés d’une côte marocaine à une autre. On leur avait dit de rester cachés pour ne pas être repérés. Au-delà des arnaques, ce sont des routes très dangereuses, autant lorsqu’on part du centre vers les Canaries que du centre vers le sud de l’Espagne. Et, souvent, les jeunes qui partent n’ont pas le réflexe de penser à des numéros de secours qu’ils pourraient appeler en cas de détresse.

      La vidéo du champion de taekwondo, et deux jours avant la photo d’un ancien footballeur lors de sa traversée, sont des signaux d’alarme pour le pays. Le Maroc renforce ses capacités et forme des acteurs à lutter contre ces départs et ces réseaux. Mais il faudra aussi des programmes pour travailler sur les causes profondes qui poussent ces jeunes à partir.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/fr/post/20425/la-cote-atlantique-nouveau-point-de-depart-de-jeunes-marocains

      #migrants_marocains #jeunes #jeunesse #Asilah #Larache #Salé #Casablanca #Safi

    • Casi 60 muertos en el naufragio de una patera que venía a Canarias

      Al menos 57 inmigrantes de varias nacionalidades han muerto tras naufragar este miércoles su embarcación en aguas del Atlántico a la altura de #Nuadibú (470 kilómetros al norte de Nuakchot), en Mauritania.

      Al menos 57 inmigrantes de varias nacionalidades han muerto tras naufragar este miércoles su embarcación en aguas del Atlántico a la altura de Nuadibú (470 kilómetros al norte de Nuakchot), en Mauritania, según fuentes policiales en esta ciudad.

      Otros 74 ocupantes de esa misma patera lograron salir con vida tras nadar hasta llegar a la costa de Mauritania, y fueron ellos los que dieron detalles del naufragio.

      La embarcación había partido el pasado jueves desde las costas de Gambia con destino a las Islas Canarias, llevando a bordo un total de 150 ocupantes de distintas nacionalidades.

      La embarcación, que al parecer viajaba siempre cerca de las costas, golpeó un arrecife y volcó; una vez en el agua, solo los que sabían nadar pudieron llegar hasta la costa y salvar la vida.

      Tras encontrar a los supervivientes, las autoridades mauritanas les llevaron hasta un lugar seguro de Nuadibú, donde les proporcionaron cuidados, víveres, ropa y mantas.

      No hay esperanza de encontrar a nuevos supervivientes, según las fuentes, pero continúa el rastreo para tratar de encontrar los cadáveres, que en algunos casos han sido arrojados a tierra por el oleaje.

      Estos últimos serán enterrados esta misma noche en un lugar al exterior de la ciudad.

      https://www.laprovincia.es/sucesos/2019/12/04/60-muertos-naufragio-patera-iba/1233464.html
      #Mauritanie

    • Il naufragio di ieri al largo delle coste mauritane in cui 60 migranti hanno perso la vita mi ha riportato indietro al 2006, quando più di 50.000 migranti avevano intrapreso la rotta delle Canarie con un tragico bilancio di più di 5000 morti nell’Oceano Atlantico.
      In quegli anni andavo spesso alle Canarie per capire quello che succedeva. Su quelle isole e a Melilla, ho cominciato a lavorare sulle politiche di esternalizzazione.
      Che i migranti partano sempre più a sud, dal Gambia questa volta, sapendo che il viaggio é lunghissimo (più di 10 giorni di traversata) e pericolosissimo, si spiega anche con il tentativo di chiusura totale delle altre rotte, quella libica e marocchina, da parte della UE e per la presenza delle navi di Frontex al largo delle coste senegalesi e mauritane.

      https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10220667545986599&set=a.1478670974789&type=3&theater

      #Sara_Prestianni #Gambie

    • Mauritanian coast guard intercepts boat carrying around 190 migrants, IOM says

      A boat carrying around 190 migrants was intercepted by the Mauritanian coast guard on Friday, the UN migration agency said. This comes less than two days after 63 migrants drowned when their vessel sank in the same waters en route from The Gambia. The country’s president has vowed to crack down on people traffickers.

      After the recovery of five additional bodies, the death toll from last Wednesday’s sinking of a fishing boat rose to 63 over the weekend, according to news agencies AP and dpa. The boat was headed northward toward Spain’s Canary Islands from the small coastal town of Barra in the Gambia.

      The International Organization for Migration (IOM) said at least 150 people were traveling on the boat. According to one of the survivors, the boat may have been carrying up to 200 people, as rfi reported. Around 80 survived by swimming ashore.

      Separately, the Mauritanian coast guard on Friday intercepted a vessel carrying around 190 Gambian migrants headed for Spain’s Canary Islands, a Mauritanian security source told news agency AFP.

      Initial estimates said the boat was carrying between 150 and 180 migrants. They are in the process of being identified by the local authorities, said Laura Lungarotti, chief of the IOM in Mauritania.

      Uptick in attempted crossings

      The incidents are indicative of a resurgence in the number of people willing to risk the perilous and poorly monitored sea passage along West Africa’s coast to Spain’s Canary Islands, which was a major route for those seeking jobs and a better life in Europe until Spain stepped up patrols in the mid-2000s, Reuters writes.

      “It is part of this trend of an increasing number of people passing through this route because the central Mediterranean route has been stopped due to the Libya situation,” Lungarotti told Reuters.

      In Italy, the number of migrant arrivals dropped significantly after the Italian government focused its policies on stopping migration to its shores from Libya in 2016.

      From January to December this year, some 14,000 people arrived irregularly in Europe via the central Mediterranean route, down from nearly 25,000 in 2018.

      Recently, however, there has been a rise in migrant boats departing from Libya: In late November, at least 9 boats with more than 600 migrants on board were discovered on the central Mediterranean route in only 48 hours, according to IOM.

      The Canary Islands are located roughly 1,000 kilometers north of Mauritania’s capital on the Atlantic coast, Nouakchott, and some 1,600 kilometers north of the capital of The Gambia, Banjul.

      According to IOM, some 158 people are known to have died trying to reach the Canary Islands so far this year. That’s almost four times as many as last year, when 43 people died.

      ’National tragedy’

      “To lose 60 young lives at sea is a national tragedy and a matter of grave concern to my government,” Gambian President Adama Barrow said on national television. “A full police investigation has been launched to get to the bottom of this serious national disaster. The culprits will be prosecuted according to law,” AFP cited Barrow as saying.

      Last Wednesday’s sinking off Mauritania with at least 63 deaths was one of the deadliest incidents along this route in recent years. According to IOM, it is the largest known loss of life along the so-called western migration route this year, and this year’s sixth deadliest migrant capsizings globally.

      The boat was attempting to reach the Canary Islands when their boat hit a rock. 87 people survived the disaster by swimming ashore, IOM said.

      President Barrow further said funds had been sent to Mauritania to cater to the immediate needs of the survivors admitted to hospital and to finance their repatriation. According to IOM, more than 35,000 Gambian migrants left the small country of just over 2 million and arrived in Europe between 2014 and 2018.

      The Gambia to crack down on traffickers

      On Saturday, Barrow vowed to punish people traffickers as the country mourned the deaths of the Europe-bound migrants. Barrow pledged to “fast track prosecution of cases involving human trafficking.” Law enforcement officials were “instructed to increase surveillance and arrest... criminals involved in human trafficking,” he said.

      A 22-year oppressive rule of former President Yahya Jammeh, Barrow’s predecessor, adversely affected the country’s economy. This contributed to the high number of people trying to migrate to Europe, many of whom ended up stranded in Libya and Niger. Since Jammeh was forced to cede power in 2017, however, some Gambians have started to return.

      In regards to the boat intercepted by the Mauritanian coast guard on Friday, Barrow said “Arrangements have been made to transport them” back to Banjul.

      https://www.infomigrants.net/en/post/21407/mauritanian-coast-guard-intercepts-boat-carrying-around-190-migrants-i

    • Una patera con 26 personas llega a #Tenerife y otras 152 son rescatadas en Alborán y cerca de Gran Canaria

      Salvamento Marítimo traslada este sábado al puerto de Almería a 49 varones que habían quedado aislados dos días por el mal tiempo.

      Una embarcación de Salvamento Marítimo ha rescatado esta noche a una patera con al menos 26 inmigrantes a 50 millas (92 kilómetros) de la isla de Gran Canaria. El equipo de emergencias ha trasladado a los ocupantes de la embarcación precaria al puerto de Arguineguín, una localidad del municipio de Mogán (Gran Canaria) de unos 2.500 habitantes. En otra operación en el mar de Alborán han sido rescatadas 126 personas, de las que 49, todos varones, estaban aislados desde la tarde del pasado jueves en la isla de Alborán por el mal tiempo.

      Según la agencia Efe, que cita fuentes del servicio 112 de Canarias, los rescatados cerca de Gran Canaria son 22 hombres y cuatro mujeres. Según Europa Press, que atribuye la información a fuentes de Cruz Roja, son 24 varones, uno de ellos menor de edad, y cuatro mujeres, entre las que hay una embarazada. Además, otra patera con 26 migrantes de origen subsahariano ha llegado esta madrugada al muelle de Los Abrigos de Granadilla de Abona, un municipio de Tenerife de unos 48.400 habitantes. De estos, nueve son hombres —hay un menor de 16 años— y 17 mujeres, entre las que hay una embarazada y una niña de cinco años.

      Una vez en tierra, el Servicio de Urgencias Canario (SUC) y Cruz Roja asistieron a los ocupantes de las dos pateras, todos en aparente buen estado de salud. Sin embargo, al menos cuatro personas de la patera rescatada a 50 millas de Gran Canaria han tenido que ser derivados a centros sanitarios por patologías leves. De la otra infraembarcación, tres inmigrantes han sido trasladados a ambulatorios por el mismo motivo.

      La operación en aguas de Alborán comenzó en la mañana de este sábado cuando la embarcación Salvamar Spica ha emprendido rumbo a la isla de Alborán para recoger a 49 varones, según ha informado un portavoz de Salvamento Marítimo a Efe . Estos hombres llegaron a la isla de Alborán en patera el pasado jueves sobre las 18.30 horas pero su traslado había sido imposible por el mal tiempo.

      Cuando la Salvamar Spica se dirigía en su búsqueda, el destacamento naval de la Armada en Alborán ha alertado al centro coordinador de Salvamento Marítimo del avistamiento de otra patera a media milla náutica (unos 900 metros) de la isla de Alborán.

      La Salvamar Spica ha recogido a 77 personas, entre ellas 21 mujeres y cuatro menores, de esta patera y posteriormente ha transbordado a los 49 varones llegados a la isla de Alborán y que fueron atendidos desde el jueves por el destacamento naval de la Armada.

      La embarcación de rescate se dirige hacia el puerto de Almería, al que está prevista su llegada sobre las 19.10 horas.

      El aumento de las llegadas de inmigrantes a Canarias ha llevado al colapso a los centros de acogida en esta comunidad. La falta de plazas en los albergues, dependientes de la Secretaría de Estado de Migraciones, ha llegado a tal punto que se han tenido que habilitar habitaciones en un hotel en Las Palmas para mujeres embarazadas y con niños pequeños. Solo hay 200 plazas de acogida en albergues temporales de Tenerife y Gran Canaria, pero en 2019, 1.470 inmigrantes han llegado a las islas.

      La media en los últimas cuatro meses se sitúa en 400 llegadas cada mes, muchas de ellas en pateras en condiciones pésimas. La cifra está muy lejos de los casi 40.000 que arribaron en esta comunidad entre 2005 y 2006 en la llamada crisis de los cayucos, pero existe un aumento con respecto al año pasado —de un 12%— que se debe al reforzamiento de la seguridad en el norte de Marruecos. La dificultad de realizar esa ruta ha aumentado el número de embarcaciones precarias que se dirigen a Canarias para tratar de llegar a territorio español o europeo.

      Este pasado miércoles, al menos 63 inmigrantes de varias nacionalidades murieron tras naufragar su patera en aguas del Atlántico a la altura de Nuadibú (470 kilómetros al norte de Nuakchot), en Mauritania, según confirmó la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM) en un comunicado. Entre los fallecidos había un niño y siete mujeres. Otros 83 ocupantes de esa misma patera lograron salir con vida tras nadar hasta llegar a la costa de Mauritania, y fueron ellos los que dieron detalles del naufragio. La embarcación precaria había partido el pasado jueves desde las costas de Gambia con destino a las islas Canarias, llevando a bordo entre 150 y 180 ocupantes.

      https://elpais.com/politica/2019/12/07/actualidad/1575708520_470358.html

    • 43 muertos en la patera hundida que venía a Canarias

      La oenegé Caminando Fronteras informa de que hay 21 supervivientes, que fueron rescatados por la marina marroquí - La embarcación se hundió a 24 kilómetros de la costa de Tan-Tan.

      Un total de 43 personas han fallecido al naufragar una patera que se dirigía al Archipiélago, según ha informado la periodista e investigadora en Migraciones y Trata de Seres Humanos, Helena Maleno, en su cuenta de Twitter. La oenegé Caminando Fronteras ha apuntado que 21 personas han sido rescatadas con vida por los servicios de rescate marroquí.

      La agencia Efe informaba esta tarde de que dos personas habían muerto y al menos 19 habían desaparecido al hundirse a unos 24 kilómetros de la costa de Tan-Tan, en Marruecos, una patera que se dirigía hacia Canarias, según explicó Salvamento Marítimo, con la información que recibió de los servicios de rescate de Rabat.

      España envió de urgencia esta mañana hacia la zona a una embarcación de rescate desde Lanzarote, a unos 200 kilómetros de distancia, la Salvamar Al Nair, tras recibir a través de las ONG llamadas telefónicas de socorro de los propios inmigrantes, que pedían auxilio porque su neumática se estaba hundiendo.

      La periodista amplió esta información y asegura que el número de fallecidos asciende a 43 y que sólo dos cadáveres habían sido recuperados.

      https://www.laprovincia.es/sucesos/2020/04/03/43-muertos-patera-diria-canarias/1271515.html

  • Scientists Study Sea Levels 125,000 Years Ago And It’s a Terrifying Look at Our Future
    https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-looked-at-sea-levels-125-000-years-ago-and-it-s-a-terrifyin

    What is striking about the last interglacial record is how high and quickly sea level rose above present levels. Temperatures during the last interglacial were similar to those projected for the near future, which means melting polar ice sheets will likely affect future sea levels far more dramatically than anticipated to date.

    The last interglacial is not a perfect scenario for the future. Incoming solar radiation was higher than today because of differences in Earth’s position relative to the Sun.

    Carbon dioxide levels were only 280 parts per million, compared with more than 410 parts per million today.

    Crucially, warming between the two poles in the last interglacial did not happen simultaneously. But under today’s greenhouse-gas-driven climate change, warming and ice loss are happening in both regions at the same time.

    This means that if climate change continues unabated, Earth’s past dramatic sea level rise could be a small taste of what’s to come.

    #climat

  • 300 millions de personnes menacées par la montée des océans d’ici 2050
    Reporterre, le 30 octobre 2019
    https://reporterre.net/300-millions-de-personnes-menacees-par-la-montee-des-oceans-d-ici-2050

    Article faisant suite à la publication de cette étude de #Climate_Central :

    New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding
    Scott A. Kulp & Benjamin H. Strauss
    Nature Communications 10:4844 (2019)
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12808-z
    https://coastal.climatecentral.org

    Relaté aussi en anglais ici :

    Rising Seas Will Erase More Cities by 2050, New Research Shows
    Denise Lu and Christopher Flavelle, The New-York Times, le 29 octobre 2019
    https://seenthis.net/messages/808516

    Et encore cette étude me semble très prudente avec une montée des eaux de 30cm en 2050, alors que je crois me souvenir d’avoir vu ici des prévisions qui allaient de 2 à 9m de montée des eaux, avec une magnifique cartographie pour l’#Asie :

    Going Under : How sea level rise is threatening to sink major Asian cities
    Rayson Lau, Kontinentalist, le 29 juillet 2019
    https://seenthis.net/messages/794934

    #eau #océans #cartographie #climat

    On l’ajoute à la troisième compilation :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/680147

    #effondrement #collapsologie #catastrophe #fin_du_monde #it_has_begun #Anthropocène #capitalocène

    • Cette étude nous annonce quelques nouvelles destinations sympathiques pour les champions de natation :

      Calcutta, Dacca, Rangoun, et une bonne partie du Bangladesh et du nord de la Birmanie, Bombay, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh Ville, Hanoï, Jakarta, Singapour, Shanghai,

      Bassora, Nassiriya et tout le sud de l’Irak, Abu Dabi, Aden, Izmir, Port Saïd, Alexandrie, les iles de Kerkennah, Mohammedia, Casablanca, Essaouira, Nouakchott, la côte du Sénégal autour de Saint Louis, Kaolack, et Ziguinchor, Banjul, une grande partie de la côte de la Guinée Bissau et de la Guinée Conakry, dont Conakry, Lagos, une grosse partie de la côte du Mozambique, Port Soudan,

      New-York, Philadelphie, Atlantic City, Savannah, La Nouvelle Orléans, les Everglades et les Keys, Panama,

      Belfast, Dublin, Cardiff, Exeter, Southampton, Portsmouth, Norwich, Hull, toute l’embouchure de la Tamise, jusqu’à Londres, Gdansk, Hambourg, Brême, le nord de l’Allemagne, presque toute la Hollande (Amsterdam, La Haye, Rotterdam), Bruges et la côte belge, la côte nord française (Dunkerque, Calais, Berck...), Dieppe, Le Havre et le long de la Seine jusqu’à Rouen, Deauville, Cabourg, une partie du Cotentin (oui, les centrales nucléaires), le Mont Saint Michel et tout autour, Saint Malo, l’Ile de Bréhat, l’Ile de Batz, l’Ile Molène, L’Ile de Sein, Roscoff et toute la côte nord, Brest, Lorient, Guérande, toute l’embouchure de la Loire, de Saint Nazaire à Nantes et au delà, Noirmoutiers et toute la côte en face, une partie de l’Ile de Ré et de l’Ile d’Oléron, La Rochelle, toute la région autour de Rochefort, l’Embouchure de la Garonne avec pas mal de vignobles (Saint Estèphe, Pauillac, Margaux...), jusqu’à Bordeaux et autour, le bassin d’Arcachon, Bayonne, Faro, Huelva, toute l’embouchure du Guadalquivir, San Fernando, l’embouchure du Po, de Ravenne à Grado en passant par Venise, Rostov sur le Don...

    • On avait déjà eu un preview là pour une hausse de 3°C de la température du globe, mais je ne trouve pas la hausse du niveau de la mer en mètres. Dans l’article de National Geographic il est question de 216 feet, soit 66 mètres, mais je ne pense pas que ce soit correct. Peut-être 216 pouces, soit 5 mètres ? :

      What the World Would Look Like if All the Ice Melted
      National Geographic, September 2013
      https://seenthis.net/messages/642183

      A quoi ressemblerait la terre si toute la banquise fondait ?
      Ariane, HItek, le 20 janvier 2014
      https://seenthis.net/messages/642183

      The three-degree world : the cities that will be drowned by global warming
      Josh Holder, Niko Kommenda and Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, le 3 novembre 2017
      https://seenthis.net/messages/642183

      Dans tous les cas, les grandes villes qui passent sous l’eau sont : Montréal, New-York, Philadelphie, Washington, toute la Floride, la Nouvelle Orléans, Houston, une grande partie de Cuba et du Yucatan, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Alexandrie, Le Caire, Dakar, Bissau, Lagos, Baghdad, Doha, Karachi, Saint Petersbourg, Tallin, Riga, Stockholm, Helsinki, la Hollande et l’essentiel du Danemark et de la Belgique, Londres, une grande partie de la côte française, Venise, Rome, Lisbonne, Odessa, tout le Bangladesh, Tokyo, Pékin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Rangoon, Bangkok, Phnom Penh, Ho-Chi Minh Ville, Manille, Kuala Lumpur, Singapour, Jakarta...

    • Réchauffement climatique : la montée des eaux sera bien plus élevée et rapide que prévu
      Futura, le 5 novembre 2019
      https://seenthis.net/messages/813153

      Et, en anglais :
      https://seenthis.net/messages/809957

      Article original :

      Asynchronous Antarctic and Greenland ice-volume contributions to the last interglacial sea-level highstand
      Eelco J. Rohling, Fiona D. Hibbert, Katharine M. Grant, Eirik V. Galaasen, Nil Irvalı, Helga F. Kleiven, Gianluca Marino, Ulysses Ninnemann, Andrew P. Roberts, Yair Rosenthal, Hartmut Schulz, Felicity H. Williams & Jimin Yu
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      https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12874-3