• « Gilets_jaunes » : après les violences de samedi, la #stratégie_policière critiquée
    https://www.lemonde.fr/police-justice/article/2019/03/17/gilets-jaunes-apres-les-violences-de-samedi-la-strategie-policiere-en-questi

    Ce sont des rangs même de la police que les critiques les plus virulentes sont montées, au long du week-end. « L’#opérationnalisation du maintien de l’ordre a été un #échec hier », estime Yves Lefebvre, le patron du syndicat Unité SGP-Police-FO, première organisation au ministère de l’intérieur, qui pointe la responsabilité de la #Préfecture de police de Paris, responsable du dispositif. Dimanche soir, le gouvernement a admis des « dysfonctionnements » dans le dispositif de sécurité et annoncé un renforcement à venir de la doctrine.

    « Ils ont fait le choix de la résilience, pour éviter les blessés, au détriment de l’intervention : ça donne une situation catastrophique sur le plan matériel, abonde Philippe Capon, secrétaire général de l’Unsa Police, le troisième syndicat de #gardiens_de_la_paix. Est-ce qu’on a eu des blessés graves ? Non. Mais est ce pour autant un maintien de l’ordre réussi ? La réponse est non. » 42 personnes ont été blessées parmi les manifestants, 17 au sein des forces de l’ordre, ainsi qu’un sapeur-pompier.

    « Le jour où on lâche du lest là-dessus, ils s’engouffreront dans la brèche, leur objectif depuis le début c’est d’aller à l’Elysée », explique une source policière à la préfecture de police, pour justifier le maintien d’un fort contingent sur cette zone.

    Seuls les escadrons de gendarmes mobiles et les troupes de la préfecture étaient engagés directement face aux manifestants. « En mobilisant les CRS uniquement sur la partie statique, on s’est privé d’une force de frappe, estime Philippe Capon, lui-même ancien #CRS. La préfecture s’estime la seule sachante, mais hier sa stratégie a échoué. »

    Le choix de la répartition des unités fait débat. « On a eu affaire à des groupes hyper mobiles, on a été d’entrée de jeu dans une situation de guérilla, d’émeute urbaine, pas de maintien de l’ordre, assure Yves Lefebvre. On aurait été beaucoup plus opérationnel avec les CRS. Les #gendarmes_mobiles sont plus difficiles à manœuvrer. »


  • FindCollabs: Share Your Open Source Projects and Find Collaborators
    https://hackernoon.com/findcollabs-share-your-open-source-projects-and-find-collaborators-d0a2b

    FindCollabs: Share Your Projects and Find CollaboratorsEvery creative person has a project — or at least a project idea.FindCollabs is a place to share your projects, whether those projects are new or old. Your project doesn’t even have to have code associated with it yet — it can just be an idea, like a weather prediction system.Your project can be anything creative — a game, or an animation, or a song.One project I’m working on is a FindCollabs Theme Song. Two collaborators have worked on the project, Adam and AJ. I already gave Adam a review (he did a great job). AJ’s review is pending.The workflow for submitting a project is easy. As an example, I’ll go through a project that I want to share with the FindCollabs community.This is Escrow, a social betting game I invented. It’s not the prettiest (...)

    #open-source #javascript #creativity #art #game-development


  • #create2 : A Tale of Two Optcodes
    https://hackernoon.com/create2-a-tale-of-two-optcodes-1e9b813418f8?source=rss----3a8144eabfe3--

    What is Create2? A Tale of Two OptcodesBy: Jesse AbramowitzBlockchain DeveloperEthereum’s latest last fork Constantinople has successfully been integrated into #ethereum and with that comes extra features. This article will cover what the create2 #optcode is, why it was added, and what you can do with it. Lastly, I will go through an in-depth demonstration of how to execute it.Let’s get started!What is Create2?This EIP (Ethereum Improvement Proposal) was created by Vitalik on 2018–04–20 and can be found here. Currently there are two types of addresses in Ethereum: wallet addresses and contact addresses. All of these addresses already exist and can have funds sent to them already (there is no button or switch or message required to initiate these account). To create a wallet, a randomly (...)

    #blockchain #blockchain-technology


  • Assurance-chômage : la Cour des comptes s’attaque à certaines règles d’indemnisation, Manon Malhère
    http://www.lefigaro.fr/social/2019/03/13/20011-20190313ARTFIG00084-assurance-chomage-la-cour-des-comptes-s-attaque-a

    Voilà un document que l’exécutif ne manquera pas de brandir pour défendre sa réforme controversée de l’#assurance-chômage face aux plus sceptiques, à commencer par les syndicats. Dans un référé publié ce mercredi, la Cour des comptes a en effet fustigé certaines règles d’indemnisation qui « s’avèrent inefficientes, voire inéquitables, et complexes pour les #allocataires ». Et c’est rare lorsqu’elle donne du grain à moudre au gouvernement !

    Le sujet est sensible car ces règles s’appliquent bien souvent aux travailleurs précaires

    Les magistrats de la rue Cambon s’attaquent en particulier aux règles permettant de cumuler un #salaire et une allocation qui sont dans le collimateur de l’exécutif. Car si leur but est de favoriser la reprise d’emploi, le gouvernement estime qu’elles peuvent également enfermer les individus dans la précarité en alternant des contrats très courts et une indemnisation, voire ne pas les inciter à retrouver un #emploi durable.

    Dans son référé, la Cour estime que dans un certain nombre de cas limités, ces règles peuvent donner lieu à des « stratégies d’optimisation » et traitements inéquitables entre les individus. Les magistrats ciblent plus précisément « l’#activité_conservée » qui permet à un salarié exerçant plusieurs activités et qui en perd une, de percevoir une allocation en plus de ses revenus. Le sujet est sensible car ces règles s’appliquent bien souvent aux #travailleurs_précaires comme, par exemple, les #assistantes_maternelles. Le problème pointé du doigt ? Le salarié peut parfois cumuler l’intégralité de l’allocation à laquelle il a droit avec ses autres revenus d’activité. Le montant total des revenus d’activité n’est pas pris en compte et aucun plafond n’est prévu pour cette indemnisation. Résultat : cela peut conduire ces salariés « à bénéficier d’un #revenu global très proche d’une activité à temps plein en cumulant revenu d’activité et revenu du chômage », affirmait déjà le gouvernement en septembre dernier, dans sa lettre de cadrage adressée aux syndicats et au patronat pour mener leur négociation sur cette réforme et qui a échoué fin février.

    « Les règles d’indemnisation demeurent trop favorables aux contrats de moins d’un mois »

    Les magistrats examinent également l’impact des règles encadrant les « #droits_rechargeables », qui permettent d’allonger la période d’indemnisation des chômeurs qui multiplient les petits « jobs », ainsi que les modalités de calcul du montant de l’indemnisation. Et leur conclusion est très claire : « les règles d’indemnisation demeurent trop favorables aux contrats de moins d’un mois ».

    Pour rectifier le tir, la Cour recommande d’harmoniser les modalités d’indemnisation des #chômeurs_en_activité_réduite. Enfin, elle préconise de revoir les dispositions relatives à l’accompagnement des chômeurs par Pôle emploi pour éviter l’enfermement de bon nombre d’entre eux dans l’activité réduite.

    #chômeurs #droit au chômage et aussi #prime_d'activité #travail #femmes

    • [Remarques glanées de ci de là] Lorsqu’on doit occuper de tels emplois, il est effectivement plus avantageux, lorsqu’on travaille par exemple uniquement les week-end, de se déclarer sur un contrat de 2 jours chaque semaine et de ne pas ouvrir de droits au chômage tout en restant au RSA plutôt que signer un contrat de 4 mois et se retrouver avec une allocation à 5 euros / jour ! Encore faut-il le savoir. La Cour des comptes pointe l’#optimisation en disant par ailleurs que les règles sont trop complexes pour que les précaires en activité réduite les optimisent.
      Cf. La Cour des comptes s’invite dans le débat sur l’assurance-chômage
      https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2019/03/13/la-cour-des-comptes-s-invite-dans-le-debat-sur-l-assurance-chomage_5435629_8
      Qui optimise, alors ? Les employeurs ? Personne ?

      L’optimisation fiscale qui porte sur des milliards chaque année, on s’en fiche pas mal, mais « l’optimisation » des pauvres qui cherchent à survivre avec quelques centaines d’euros par mois, là, c’est grave, faut sévir ! Laisser entendre qu’il s’agirait d’une fraude, alors qu’il s’agit des règles officielles de cumul emploi (sous-payé) + indemnité (misérable) imposées par Pôle emploi rajoute de la dégueulasserie à la dégueulasserie et ne sert qu’à essayer de faire passer dans l’opinion l’imminente réforme gouvernementale. La manœuvre est grossière, ces gens infects - ne nous laissons pas faire !

    • Un chômeur sur cinq touche plus que son ex-salaire
      https://www.lepoint.fr/societe/un-chomeur-sur-cinq-touche-plus-que-son-ex-salaire-16-03-2019-2301650_23.php

      Cette affirmation contestée de Muriel Pénicaud est statistiquement fondée, mais concerne des chômeurs qui, à 90 %, touchent moins de 1 300 euros par mois.

      Seules les personnes qui ne travaillent pas tout le mois peuvent espérer gagner plus d’argent en étant au chômage.

      Selon la ministre du Travail, un chômeur sur cinq perçoit une allocation supérieure à son salaire moyen antérieur. C’est en tout cas ce qu’elle a déclaré le 26 février dernier lors d’une conférence de presse destinée à présenter les intentions du gouvernement sur la réforme de l’assurance chômage, après l’échec des négociations entre partenaires sociaux. Cette statistique, qui n’est mentionnée dans aucune étude de l’Unédic, a suscité de vives protestations. Ainsi, Laurent Berger, numéro un de la CFDT, a dénoncé un chiffre « caricatural » qui permet à l’exécutif de dire que « les chômeurs profitent du système alors que la plupart ne choisissent pas quand ils travaillent ».

      Mais le chiffre existe bien et vient de Pôle emploi. L’organisme a comparé, à partir des ouvertures de droit, le montant des salaires moyens nets perçus pendant la période de référence au cours de laquelle le demandeur travaillait et le montant de son allocation nette au chômage. Résultat : 600 000 personnes, soit 20 % des chômeurs, touchent une allocation supérieure à ce qu’elles gagnaient en moyenne quand elles travaillaient.

      Le mode de calcul mis en cause

      Un quart d’entre elles bénéficient d’un taux de remplacement (rapport entre le montant de l’allocation et l’ancien salaire) compris entre 100 et 109 %, un quart entre 109 % et 123 %, un autre entre 123 % et 147 % et enfin le dernier quart perçoit un taux supérieur à 147 %.

      Comment cela est-il possible  ? En cause, le mode complexe et spécifique à la France de calcul de l’allocation, basé sur « le nombre de jours travaillés ». C’est en divisant la somme des revenus perçus sur les 12 derniers mois par ce nombre de jours travaillés que l’on obtient « le salaire journalier de référence » qui sert de base pour le calcul de l’allocation mensuelle. Ce mode de calcul est plus favorable aux personnes qui ont des contrats fractionnés, et donc moins de jours travaillés, comme le montre la comparaison de deux personnes qui ont travaillé au smic pendant un an.

      Lire aussi Le chômage atteint son niveau le plus bas depuis 2009 [ce qui n’est p-ê pas sans rapport avec la relance de la chasse, ndc]

      L’une a eu un seul CDD à environ 1 200 euros net. Elle a le droit à un an de chômage, suivant le principe « un jour travaillé = un jour indemnisé », et touchera environ 900 euros par mois. L’autre a fait sur un an douze CDD, de quinze jours par mois, et gagnait donc environ un demi-smic mensuellement, soit 600 euros. N’ayant travaillé que 180 jours sur l’année, elle n’aura le droit qu’à six mois de chômage. Mais elle touchera aussi 900 euros (soit 150 % de son ex-salaire), car ses revenus n’ont été divisés que par 180 et non 365 jours.

      Seules des personnes qui ne travaillent pas des mois complets
      Certains demandeurs d’emploi peuvent donc effectivement gagner plus mensuellement que leur précédent salaire. Mais, mettent en garde les syndicats, cela ne concerne que des gens qui ne travaillent pas des mois complets et donc aux revenus très modestes. Confirmation par Pôle emploi : sur ces 600 000 chômeurs, 16 % touchent une allocation de moins de 750 euros, 33 % entre 750 et 1 000 euros, 41 % entre 1 000 et 1 300 euros.

      Et ils n’ont droit en moyenne à une durée d’indemnisation que de sept mois, deux fois plus courte que celle de l’ensemble des demandeurs. Néanmoins, pour le gouvernement, ce système favorise l’explosion des contrats courts et pose « un problème d’équité » entre demandeurs d’emploi au détriment par exemple de ceux qui travaillent en continu à temps partiel. Pour éviter ces situations, l’une des pistes mises sur la table par le patronat pendant la négociation, et dont pourrait s’inspirer le gouvernement, serait de lier le versement des indemnités au rythme d’acquisition des droits.

      Par exemple, la personne qui a cumulé six mois de travail sur douze mois pourrait voir le versement de ses six mois d’indemnisation étalé sur une période plus longue, avec donc un revenu mensuel plus faible. Les économies seraient potentiellement substantielles, car deux tiers des allocataires sortent de l’indemnisation avant la fin de leur droit.


  • Obama officials failed to focus as fentanyl burned its way across America - Washington Post
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/national/fentanyl-epidemic-obama-administration

    In the span of a few short years, fentanyl, a synthetic painkiller 50 times more powerful than heroin, became the drug scourge of our time. Fentanyl has played a key role in reducing the overall life expectancy for Americans.

    If current trends continue, the annual death toll from #fentanyl will soon approach those from guns or traffic accidents. Among the dead are the anonymous and the famous, including musicians Prince and Tom Petty . It is so powerful that just a few flecks the size of grains of salt can cause rapid death.


    #opioids


  • #Radio_Pogge
    http://www.radiopanik.org/emissions/radiografi/radio-pogge-26

    Se parler, se rencontrer, faire plus ample connaissance, en prenant le verre de l’amitié ou en partageant un repas avec ses voisins… MOMENTS VOISINS : Ambiance chaleureuse et conviviale !!! Une activité organisée par Radio POGGE (Studio1BIS), dans le cadre du volet « Vivre ensemble » du CQD POGGE.

    #Studio1BIS #Open_Mic #Scène_Ouverte #le_quartier_en_temps_réel #OPEN_MIC #Studio1BIS,Radio_Pogge,Open_Mic,Scène_Ouverte,le_quartier_en_temps_réel,OPEN_MIC
    http://www.radiopanik.org/media/sounds/radiografi/radio-pogge-26_06366__1.mp3


  • Recent database offerings by AWS -Good for users, Dangerous for open source business models
    https://hackernoon.com/recent-database-offerings-by-aws-good-for-users-dangerous-for-open-sourc

    Recent database offerings by AWS — Good for users, Dangerous for open source business modelsAmazon Web Services (AWS) is one of the leading cloud providers who offer a range of cloud services to their customers under their portfolio. Although many of the AWS cloud service offerings are built in-house, some of them are fully managed open source software solutions. In addition, few of there in-house service offerings are also compatible with well-known open source compatibility drivers, interfaces & etc.Open Source and Managed Services in CloudOver the past decade, leading cloud providers including AWS has moved their focus in providing higher-level services. These include not only cloud-specific services but also popular open source software offerings.You might be wondering whether this (...)

    #saas #competition #cloud-computing #business-models #open-source


  • Open Source Tension — Who Should Profit?
    https://hackernoon.com/open-source-tension-who-should-profit-55e529000b84?source=rss----3a8144e

    Open Source Tension — Who Should Profit?https://medium.com/media/8f00c1abfa89b45cc3ea6e5594ba6066/hrefTwitter has been all a flutter with tweets on open source, specifically about what you do when open source meets the Cloud. Jon Christensen and Chris Hickman of Kelsus and Rich Staats of Secret Stache discuss the tension between creators and commercial users of open source software and projects.Some of the highlights of the show include:Open source companies and sponsors being taken for granted and feeling pressured to find ways to make moneyTension stems from economic and open source business model changes over the last few years; open source projects need to figure out how to adapt to themRedislabs revised its open source license to be modified with the Commons Clause for protection from (...)

    #aws #open-source #open-source-profits #open-source-podcast #open-source-tension


  • Twenty minutes into the future with OpenAI’s Deep Fake Text AI
    https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2019/02/twenty-minutes-into-the-future-with-openais-deep-fake-text-ai

    In 1985, the TV film Max Headroom : 20 Minutes into the Future presented a science fictional cyberpunk world where an evil media company tried to create an artificial intelligence based on a reporter’s brain to generate content to fill airtime. There were somewhat unintended results. Replace ‘reporter’ with ‘redditors,’ “evil media company” with ‘well meaning artificial intelligence researchers,’ and ‘airtime’ with ‘a very concerned blog post,’ and you’ve got what Ars reported about last week (...)

    #OpenAI #algorithme #GPT2 #manipulation


  • #Montreuil (93) : soirée de solidarité face aux frontières et à la répression, à l’Écharde le samedi 23 mars
    https://fr.squat.net/2019/03/10/montreuil-93-soiree-de-solidarite-face-aux-frontieres-et-a-la-repression

    En solidarité avec les personnes arrêtés suite à l’opération Étincelle à Turin. Ce sont devenus des faits divers : les milliers de personnes qui meurent chaque année en essayant de traverser des frontières, les expulsions des camps de fortune de Paris à Calais ou les incendies mortels dans les bidonvilles de travailleurs agricoles au sud […]

    #Asilo_occupato #L'Écharde #Opération_Étincelle #prison #sans-papiers #Seine-Saint-Denis


  • 35 ophtalmologues de renom ont écrit à Macron pour réclamer un moratoire
    https://www.lejdd.fr/Societe/info-jdd-lbd-35-ophtalmologistes-de-renom-ont-ecrit-a-macron-pour-reclamer-un-

    Il y a un mois, au nom du principe de prévention, 35 ophtalmologues hospitaliers de renom, professeurs ou maîtres de conférence à l’université, ont écrit à Emmanuel Macron pour réclamer « un moratoire » dans l’utilisation des lanceurs de balles de défense (LBD) par les forces de l’ordre. Faute de réponse présidentielle, ils rendent aujourd’hui public ce courrier afin d’être certains que leur message d’alerte est parvenu à son destinataire. (...)

    En lien avec la Société française d’#ophtalmologie (SFO), les médecins signataires ont mis en place une cellule de veille, toujours active, afin de recenser précisément les blessures oculaires par #LBD. « On a demandé par mail à tous nos collègues hospitaliers de faire remonter, en prenant 2014 comme année de départ, les cas de lésion, avec le plus de détails possibles, explique Bahram Bodaghi, qui a analysé ces données statistiques. Sans surprise, l’essentiel des accidents concernent la période récente et, dans la majorité des cas, ce sont des lésions irréversibles. » Cette étude rétrospective, qui devrait donner lieu à la publication d’un article scientifique, a recensé une vingtaine de personnes éborgnées.

    La lettre des ophtalmologues
    Paris le 6 février 2019

    Monsieur le Président de la République,

    Le nombre inédit de contusions oculaires graves par lanceurs de balles de défense conduisant à la perte de la vision a légitimement ému un grand nombre de citoyens et d’Associations, et nous concerne particulièrement en tant qu’ophtalmologues. Ces contusions entrainent des lésions souvent au-dessus de toute ressource thérapeutique.

    Les blessures oculaires par balles de golf, une activité récréative bien différente des manifestations publiques, sont rares mais bien connues des ophtalmologues pour leur sévérité , conduisant dans la majorité des cas à la perte de la vision et dans un tiers des cas à l’#énucléation. La raison en est bien connue également : ces balles mesurent 40mm de diamètre et lorsqu’elles arrivent sur le visage avec une grande force de propulsion s’encastrent dans l’orbite, toute l’énergie cinétique étant transmise au globe oculaire. Les balles de LBD mesurent également 40 mm de diamètre, leur énergie cinétique est considérable puisqu’elle est encore de 220 joules à 40 m, bien supérieure à celle d’une balle de golf.

    Les blessures oculaires survenues ces dernières semaines ne sont pas dues au hasard ou à l’inexpérience. Le grand nombre de balles tirées avec une force cinétique conservée à longue distance et l’imprécision inhérente à cette arme devaient nécessairement entrainer un grand nombre de mutilations. Une telle « épidémie » de blessures oculaires gravissimes ne s’est jamais rencontrée. Nous, ophtalmologues dont la profession est de prévenir et guérir les pathologies oculaires demandons instamment un moratoire dans l’utilisation de ces armes invalidantes au cours des actions de #maintien_de_l'ordre.

    #violence_d'État #Violences_policières


  • Linear Programming in #python : A Straight Forward #tutorial
    https://hackernoon.com/linear-programming-in-python-a-straight-forward-tutorial-a0d152618121?so

    Linear programming is one of the most common #optimization techniques. It has a wide range of applications and is frequently used in operations research, industrial design, planning, and the list goes on. Alas, it is not as hyped as machine learning is (which is certainly a form of optimization itself), but is the go-to method for problems that can be formulated through decision variables that have linear relationships. This is a fast practical tutorial, I will perhaps cover the Simplex algorithm and the theory in a later post.Problem StatementJust to get an idea, we are going to solve a simple problem regarding production scheduling. Imagine that you work for a company that builds computers. A computer is a fairly complex product, and there are several factories that assemble them (...)

    #mathematics #machine-learning


  • How I Snuck Backstage to Meet President Barack #obama, Sir Richard Branson, #oprah and Ashton Kutcher
    https://hackernoon.com/how-my-life-changed-when-i-snuck-backstage-to-where-president-barack-oba

    How I Snuck Backstage to Meet President Barack Obama, Sir Richard Branson, Oprah and Ashton Kutcher — But Didn’t Get That SelfieWhat I Learned Sneaking Around the Qualtrics X4 ConferenceMy life changed when I snuck backstage to where my heroes: President Barack Obama, Richard Branson, and Ashton Kutcher, were all hanging out at Qualtrics X4.I didn’t think life would change again after my daughter was born in August of 2018. From being one of those entrepreneurs who hustled 12 hours a day, my priorities quickly shifted from business and my own goals to being there for my daughter and giving her love.Suddenly, paternity leave and skin-to-skin time was priceless, and becoming a hands-on dad — I believe — forever changed my neural makeup, that into one of more love for the world.When I went back to (...)

    #richard-branson #ashton-kutcher #hackernoon-top-story


  • #Turin (Italie) : lettre de prisonniers de l’opération Étincelle
    https://fr.squat.net/2019/03/06/turin-italie-lettre-de-prisonniers-de-loperation-etincelle

    Lettre collective de personnes arrêtées le 7 février dernier lors de l’expulsion de l’Asilo Occupato à Turin. Le plus beau des cadeaux C’est arrivé souvent au fil des années que nous nous soyons laissé aller à la fantaisie, en essayant d’imaginer comment et quand aurait lieu l’expulsion de l’Asilo. Combien de flics envahiraient le quartier, […]

    #Asilo_occupato #Italie #Opération_Étincelle #prison


  • A Brief History of Flink: Tracing the Big Data Engine’s #open-source Development
    https://hackernoon.com/a-brief-history-of-flink-tracing-the-big-data-engines-open-source-develo

    From version 1.1.0 to 1.6.0, Apache Flink’s relentless improvement exemplifies open-source development.Open-source big data computing engine Apache Flink, or Flink for short, has gained popularity in recent years as a powerful framework for both batch processing and stream processing that can be used to create a number of event-based applications.Flink is first of all a pure stream computing engine with a data stream basic data model. A stream can be infinite and borderless, which describes stream processing in the general sense, or can be a finite stream with boundaries, as in the case of batch processing. Flink thus uses a single architecture to support both stream and batch processing.As conveyed by its slogan “Stateful Computations Over Streams”, Flink has the additional strength of (...)

    #apache-flink #big-data-engine #alibaba-open-source #big-data


  • Exclusive: OxyContin Maker Purdue Pharma Exploring Bankruptcy - Sources | Investing News | US News
    https://money.usnews.com/investing/news/articles/2019-03-04/exclusive-oxycontin-maker-purdue-pharma-exploring-bankruptcy-sources

    By Mike Spector, Jessica DiNapoli and Nate Raymond

    (Reuters) - OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma LP is exploring filing for bankruptcy to address potentially significant liabilities from roughly 2,000 lawsuits alleging the drugmaker contributed to the deadly opioid crisis sweeping the United States, people familiar with the matter said on Monday.

    The potential move shows how Purdue and its wealthy owners, the Sackler family, are under pressure to respond to mounting litigation accusing the company of misleading doctors and patients about risks associated with prolonged use of its prescription opioids.

    Purdue denies the allegations, arguing that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved labels for its opioids carried warnings about the risk of abuse and misuse associated with the pain treatments.

    Filing for Chapter 11 protection would halt the lawsuits and allow Purdue to negotiate legal claims with plaintiffs under the supervision of a U.S. bankruptcy judge, the sources said.

    Shares of Endo International Plc and Insys Therapeutics Inc, two companies that like Purdue have been named in lawsuits related to the U.S. opioid epidemic, closed down 17 percent and more than 2 percent, respectively, on Monday.

    More than 1,600 lawsuits accusing Purdue and other opioid manufacturers of using deceptive practices to push addictive drugs that led to fatal overdoses are consolidated in an Ohio federal court. Purdue has held discussions to resolve the litigation with plaintiffs’ lawyers, who have often compared the cases to widespread lawsuits against the tobacco industry that resulted in a $246 billion settlement in 1998.

    “We will oppose any attempt to avoid our claims, and will continue to vigorously and aggressively pursue our claims against Purdue and the Sackler family,” Connecticut Attorney General William Tong said. Connecticut has a case against Purdue and the Sacklers.

    BANKRUPTCY FILING NOT CERTAIN

    A Purdue bankruptcy filing is not certain, the sources said. The Stamford, Connecticut-based company has not made any final decisions and could instead continue fighting the lawsuits, they said.

    “As a privately-held company, it has been Purdue Pharma’s longstanding policy not to comment on our financial or legal strategy,” Purdue said in a statement.

    “We are, however, committed to ensuring that our business remains strong and sustainable. We have ample liquidity and remain committed to meeting our obligations to the patients who benefit from our medicines, our suppliers and other business partners.”

    Purdue faces a May trial in a case brought by Oklahoma’s attorney general that, like others, accuses the company of contributing to a wave of fatal overdoses by flooding the market with highly addictive opioids while falsely claiming the drugs were safe.

    Last year, U.S. President Donald Trump also said he would like to sue drug companies over the nation’s opioid crisis.

    Opioids, including prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl, were involved in 47,600 overdose deaths in 2017, a sixfold increase from 1999, according to the latest data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Purdue hired law firm Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP for restructuring advice, Reuters reported in August, fueling concerns among litigants, including Oklahoma Attorney General Mike Hunter, that the company might seek bankruptcy protection before the trial.

    Companies facing widespread lawsuits sometimes seek bankruptcy protection to address liabilities in one court even when their financial condition is not dire. California utility PG&E Corp filed for bankruptcy earlier this year after deadly wildfires raised the prospect of large legal bills even though its stock remained worth billions of dollars.

    DECEPTIVE MARKETING

    Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey in June became the first attorney general to sue not just Purdue but Sackler family members. Records in her case, which Purdue has asked a judge to dismiss, accused Sackler family members of directing deceptive marketing of opioids for years while enriching themselves to the tune of $4.2 billion.

    Some other states have since also sued the Sacklers. The Sacklers are currently discussing creating a nonprofit backed by family financial contributions to combat addiction and drug abuse, a person familiar with their deliberations said.

    The drugmaker downplayed the possibility of a bankruptcy filing in a Feb. 22 court filing in the Oklahoma case. “Purdue is still here - ready, willing and eager to prove in this Court that the State’s claims are baseless,” the company said in court papers.

    Sales of OxyContin and other opioids have fallen amid public concern about their addictive nature, and as restrictions on opioid prescribing have been enacted. OxyContin generated $1.74 billion in sales in 2017, down from $2.6 billion five years earlier, according to the most recent data compiled by Symphony Health Solutions.

    Purdue Chief Executive Officer Craig Landau has cut hundreds of jobs, stopped marketing opioids to physicians and moved the company toward developing medications for sleep disorders and cancer since taking the helm in 2017.

    In July, Purdue appointed a new board chairman, Steve Miller, a restructuring veteran who previously held leadership positions at troubled companies including auto-parts giant Delphi and the once-teetering insurer American International Group Inc.

    Mortimer D.A. Sackler no longer sits on Purdue’s board, according to a filing the company made with the Connecticut secretary of state late Monday.

    The Oklahoma case and other lawsuits seek damages from Purdue and other pharmaceutical companies accused of fueling the opioid crisis. In addition to lawsuits consolidated in an Ohio federal court, more than 300 cases are pending in state courts, and dozens of state attorneys general have sued manufacturers, including Purdue.

    Settlement discussions have not yet resulted in a deal.

    Purdue and three executives in 2007 pleaded guilty to federal charges related to the misbranding of OxyContin and agreed to pay a total of $634.5 million in penalties, according to court records.

    (Reporting by Mike Spector and Jessica DiNapoli in New York and Nate Raymond in Boston; Editing by Bill Berkrot)

    Copyright 2019 Thomson Reuters.

    #Opioides #Sackler #Bankruptcy


  • Richard Stallman & Future of Software Innovation
    https://hackernoon.com/richard-stallman-future-of-software-innovation-4e591fa93d7f?source=rss--

    Richard StallmanThe trouble with Software Innovation: from past to presentOnce upon a time, a bottleneck on software development innovation was access to computers.Over time, as access to computing became prevalent and software industry became a big part of the economy, the bottleneck on software development innovation switched from access to compute (since computers became ubiquitous) to the new type of development: in pursuit of profits, corporations started to restrict open access to software.To counteract this new development, a very important movement was started, led by people like Richard Stallman.For those who need a refresher: Richard Stallman leads the Free Software Movement, which shows how the usual non-free software subjects users to the unjust power of its developers, (...)

    #open-source #blockchain #near-protocol #hackernoon-top-story #open-data


  • Le non-renouvellement des élites françaises contribue à leur détestation (Olivier Galland / Telos, Slate.fr, 17.02.2019)
    https://www.slate.fr/story/173334/elites-reproduction-mobilite-sociale-grandes-ecoles-assemblee-haute-fonction-p

    En fait, ce #processus_sélectif se construit tout au long de la #scolarité et souvent très tôt, par des #stratégies_familiales permettant de choisir les bons établissements, les lycées d’élite dont chaque grande capitale régionale est pourvue. Ces stratégies ne sont évidemment pas aléatoirement distribuées, et les familles qui ont une longue connaissance des arcanes du système scolaire peuvent les mettre en place bien plus efficacement que les autres. À résultats équivalents, les familles modestes ont par ailleurs, par un processus bien connu d’auto-sélection, des ambitions moins élevées et ne visent que rarement ces établissements d’élite.
    L’animosité si forte à l’égard des #élites tient sans doute pour une part à ce sentiment confus que le monde des élites économiques, politiques et administratives n’est en France que faiblement irrigué par des nouveaux membres issus de #classes_sociales qui n’y avaient jusque-là que faiblement accès. Ce sentiment peut alors en favoriser un autre : celui que ces élites forment une caste jalouse de ses #privilèges et décidée à les perpétuer.
    Combattre l’anti-élitisme qui s’exprime souvent de façon si virulente en France devrait conduire à réformer le processus de sélection des élites pour réduire son caractère #héréditaire. Mais la tâche n’est pas simple. D’une part, elle dépend des élites politiques, dont une bonne part bénéficie du système actuel. D’autre part, il faut bien reconnaître que ce système, pour être socialement injuste, n’en est pas moins performant : la France forme par ses grandes écoles d’excellents ingénieurs et hauts cadres administratifs.
    […]
    Mais il existe au moins deux autres problèmes importants qui entretiennent le #ressentiment : celui du manque de #renouvellement et de #diversité des élites politiques et celui de l’opacité qui entoure les carrières politiques ou administratives, supposée masquer des avantages indus.
    […]
    Un autre problème de taille concerne la #haute_fonction_publique, les 600 hauts fonctionnaires dont la nomination s’effectue en Conseil des ministres […]. Ces personnes bénéficient de #rémunérations élevées, souvent très supérieures à celle du président de la République, mais –aussi invraisemblable que cela puisse paraître– qui restent secrètes ! Cette #opacité est choquante, car il s’agit d’argent public dont les citoyennes et citoyens devraient pouvoir connaître à quoi il est employé et s’il l’est utilement.


  • DNTFrameworkCore as a Lightweight Infrastructure
    https://hackernoon.com/dntframeworkcore-as-a-lightweight-infrastructure-e14283cdb523?source=rss

    DNTFrameworkCore is a Lightweight and Extensible Infrastructure for Building High Quality Web Applications Based on ASP.NET Core and has the following goals:Common structures in various applications like Cross-Cutting Concerns and etcFollow DRY principle to focus on main business logicReduce the development timeLess bug and stop bug propagationReduce the training time of the new developer with low knowledge about OOP and OODBlog Entity CRUD APIBlog Entity CRUD ServiceFeaturesThis Framework has the various features that I list them in below:Automatic Input Validation and Business ValidationAutomatic Transaction ManagementEventingAggregate Update (Master-Detail) with TrackingState mechanismAutomatic NumberingFunctional Programming Error Handling instead of using exception for flow  (...)

    #design-patterns #aspnetcore #web-development #open-source #entity-framework-core


  • Osez_le_féminisme_38

    Osez le Féminisme ! 38 est l’antenne Isère de l’association #Osez_le_Féminisme !, créée à Paris en 2009. Nos militant-e-s se réunissent à Grenoble depuis 2011.

    Nous sommes des femmes et des hommes de tout âge et de tout milieu, ayant un même objectif : en finir avec le #sexisme et des millénaires d’#oppression_patriarcale.

    Comme toutes les autres antennes régionales d’Osez le Féminisme, OLF 38 défend un projet de société : faire en sorte que les femmes et les hommes jouissent des mêmes #droits, de la même #reconnaissance et des mêmes #libertés.

    Pour l’aider dans sa tâche, OLF 38 travaille en réseau avec de nombreux partenaires : la Plateforme de Droits de Femmes de l’Isère et le Centre LGBTI Cigale de Grenoble.

    Les militant-e-s d’OLF 38 se forment continuellement grâce à des weekends de #formation, et en prenant part à des #colloques et des #conférences.

    https://osezlefeminisme38.wordpress.com
    #association #féminisme #Grenoble #France #Isère #patriarcat #résistance


  • Europe’s deadly migration strategy. Officials knew EU military operation made Mediterranean crossing more dangerous.

    Since its creation in 2015, Europe’s military operation in the Mediterranean — named “#Operation_Sophia” — has saved some 49,000 people from the sea. But that was never really the main objective.

    The goal of the operation — which at its peak involved over a dozen sea and air assets from 27 EU countries, including ships, airplanes, drones and submarines — was to disrupt people-smuggling networks off the coast of Libya and, by extension, stem the tide of people crossing the sea to Europe.

    European leaders have hailed the operation as a successful joint effort to address the migration crisis that rocked the bloc starting in 2015, when a spike in arrivals overwhelmed border countries like Greece and Italy and sparked a political fight over who would be responsible for the new arrivals.

    But a collection of leaked documents from the European External Action Service, the bloc’s foreign policy arm, obtained by POLITICO (https://g8fip1kplyr33r3krz5b97d1-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/OperationSophia.pdf), paint a different picture.

    In internal memos, the operation’s leaders admit Sophia’s success has been limited by its own mandate — it can only operate in international waters, not in Libyan waters or on land, where smuggling networks operate — and it is underfunded, understaffed and underequipped.

    “Sophia is a military operation with a very political agenda" — Barbara Spinelli, Italian MEP

    The confidential reports also show the EU is aware that a number of its policies have made the sea crossing more dangerous for migrants, and that it nonetheless chose to continue to pursue those strategies. Officials acknowledge internally that some members of the Libyan coast guard that the EU funds, equips and trains are collaborating with smuggling networks.

    For the operation’s critics, the EU’s willingness to turn a blind eye to these shortcomings — as well as serious human rights abuses by the Libyan coast guard and in the country’s migrant detention centers — are symptomatic of what critics call the bloc’s incoherent approach to managing migration and its desire to outsource the problem to non-EU countries.

    “Sophia is a military operation with a very political agenda,” said Barbara Spinelli, an Italian MEP and member of the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs in the European Parliament. “It has become an instrument of refoulement, legitimizing militias with criminal records, dressed up as coast guards.”

    Now the operation, which is managed by Italy and has been dogged by political disagreements since it began, is coming under increasing pressure as the deadline for its renewal approaches in March.

    Italy’s deputy prime minister, far-right leader Matteo Salvini, has said the operation should only be extended if there are new provisions to resettle rescued people across the bloc. Last month, Germany announced it would be discontinuing its participation in the program, claiming that Italy’s refusal to allow rescued migrants to disembark is undermining the mission.

    Named after a baby girl born on an EU rescue ship, Sophia is the uneasy compromise to resolve a deep split across the bloc: between those who pushed for proactive search-and-rescue efforts to save more lives and those who favored pulling resources from the sea to make the crossing more dangerous.

    The naval operation sits uncomfortably between the two, rescuing migrants in distress at sea, but insisting its primary focus is to fight smugglers off the coast of Libya. The two activities are frequently in conflict.

    The operation has cycled through a number of strategies since its launch: a campaign to destroy boats used by smugglers; law-enforcement interviews with those rescued at sea; extensive aerial surveillance; and training and funding a newly consolidated Libyan coast guard.

    But the success of these approaches is highly disputed, and in some cases they have put migrants’ lives at greater risk.

    The EU’s policy of destroying the wooden boats used by smugglers to avoid them being reused, for example, has indeed disrupted the Libyan smuggling business, but at a substantial human cost.

    As Libyan smugglers lost their wooden boats, many started to rely more heavily on smaller, cheaper rubber boats. The boats, which smugglers often overfill to maximize profit, are not as safe as the wooden vessels and less likely to reach European shores. Instead, Libyan smugglers started to abandon migrants in international waters, leaving them to be pulled out of peril by European rescue ships.

    Sophia officials tracked the situation and were aware of the increased risk to migrants as a result of the policy. “Smugglers can no longer recover smuggling vessels on the high seas, effectively rendering them a less economic option for the smuggling business and thereby hampering it,” they wrote in a 2016 status report seen by POLITICO.

    The report acknowledged however that the policy has pushed migrants into using rubber boats, putting them in greater danger. “Effectively, with the limited supply and the degree of overloading, the migrant vessels are [distress] cases from the moment they launch,” it said.

    These overfilled rubber boats, which officials described as shipwrecks waiting to happen, also present a problem for the EU operation.

    International maritime law compels vessels to respond to people in distress at sea and bring the rescued to a nearby safe port. And because European courts have held that Libya has no safe port, that means bringing migrants found at sea to Europe — in most cases, Italy.

    This has exacerbated political tensions in the country, where far-right leader Salvini has responded to the influx of new arrivals by closing ports to NGO and humanitarian ships carrying migrants and threatening to bar Sophia vessels from docking.

    Meanwhile, Sophia officials have complained that rescuing people from leaking, unseaworthy boats detracted from the operation’s ability to pursue its primary target: Libyan smugglers.

    In a leaked status report from 2017, Sophia officials made a highly unusual suggestion: that the operation be granted permission to suspend its rescue responsibilities in order to focus on its anti-smuggling operations.

    “Consideration should be given to an option that would allow the operation to be authorized for being temporarily exempt from search and rescue when actively conducting anti-smuggling operations against jackals in international waters,” the report read.

    The EU has also wilfully ignored inconvenient aspects of its policies when it comes to its collaboration with Libya’s municipal coast guard.

    The intention of the strategy — launched one year into the Sophia operation — was to equip Libyan authorities to intercept migrant boats setting off from the Libyan coast and bring people back to shore. This saved Europe from sending its own ships close to coast, and meant that people could be brought back to Libya, rather than to Europe, as required by international maritime law — or more specifically, Italy.

    Here too, the EU was aware it was pursuing a problematic strategy, as the Libyan coast guard has a well-documented relationship with Libyan smugglers.

    A leaked report from Frontex, the EU’s coast guard, noted in 2016: “As mentioned in previous reports, some members of Libya’s local authorities are involved in smuggling activities.” The report cited interviews with recently rescued people who said they were smuggled by Libyans in uniform. It also noted that similar conclusions were reported multiple times by the Italian coast guard and Operation Sophia.

    “Many of [the coast guard officers] were militia people — many of them fought with militias during the civil war" — Rabih Boualleg, Operation Sophia translator

    In Sophia’s leaked status report from 2017, operation leaders noted that “migrant smuggling and human trafficking networks remain well ingrained” throughout the region and that smugglers routinely “pay off authorities” for passage to international waters.

    “Many of [the coast guard officers] were militia people — many of them fought with militias during the civil war,” said Rabih Boualleg, who worked as a translator for Operation Sophia in late 2016 on board a Dutch ship involved in training the coast guard from Tripoli.

    “They were telling me that many of them hadn’t gotten their government salaries in eight months. They told me, jokingly, that they were ‘forced’ to take money from smugglers sometimes.”

    The coast guards talked openly about accepting money from smuggling networks in exchange for escorting rubber boats to international waters instead of turning them back toward the shore, Boualleg said.

    “If the [on-duty] coast guard came,” Boualleg added, “they would just say they were fishermen following the rubber boats, that’s all.”

    Frontex’s 2016 report documents similar cases. Two officials with close knowledge of Sophia’s training of the Libyan coast guard also confirmed that members of the coast guard are involved in smuggling networks. A spokesperson for the Libyan coast guard did not return repeated requests for comment.

    EU governments have, for the most part, simply looked the other way.

    And that’s unlikely to change, said a senior European official with close knowledge of Operation Sophia who spoke on condition of anonymity. For the first time since the start of the operation, Libyan authorities are returning more people to Libya than are arriving in Italy.

    “If Italy decides — since it is the country in command of Operation Sophia — to stop it, it is up to Italy to make this decision" — Dimitris Avramopoulos, immigration commissioner

    “Europe doesn’t want to upset this balance,” the official said. “Any criticism of the coast guards could lead to resentment, to relaxing.”

    Two years into the training program, leaked reports also show the Libyan coast guard was unable to manage search-and-rescue activities on its own. Sophia monitors their operations with GoPro cameras and through surveillance using ships, airplanes, drones and submarines.

    The operation is limited by its mandate, but it has made progress in difficult circumstances, an EEAS spokesperson said. Operation Sophia officials did not respond to multiple interview requests and declined to answer questions via email.

    “The provision of training the Libyan coast guard and navy, as well as continued engagement with them have proven to be the most effecting complementary tool to disrupt the activities of those involved in trafficking,” the EEAS spokesperson said in an email.

    The spokesperson maintained that Libyan coast guards who are trained by Operation Sophia undergo a “thorough vetting procedure." The spokesperson also stated that, while Operation Sophia does advise and monitor the Libyan coast guard, the operation is not involved “in the decision-making in relation to operations.”

    *

    With the March deadline for the operation’s renewal fast approaching, pressure is mounting to find a way to reform Sophia or disband it altogether.

    When Salvini closed Italy’s ports to NGO and humanitarian ships last July, the country’s foreign minister turned to the EU to negotiate a solution that would ensure migrants rescued as part of Operation Sophia would be resettled among other countries. At the time, Italy said it expected results “within weeks.” Six months later, neither side has found a way through the impasse.

    “The fate of this operation is not determined yet,” European Commissioner for Immigration Dimitris Avramopoulos told reporters last month, adding that discussions about allowing migrants to disembark in non-Italian ports are still underway among member countries.

    “If Italy decides — since it is the country in command of Operation Sophia — to stop it, it is up to Italy to make this decision.”

    The political fight over the future of the operation has been made more acute by an increase in criticism from human rights organizations. Reports of violence, torture and extortion in Libyan detention centers have put the naval operation and EEAS on the defensive.

    A Human Rights Watch report published in January found that Europe’s support for the Libyan coast guard has contributed to cases of arbitrary detention, and that people intercepted by Libyan authorities “face inhuman and degrading conditions and the risk of torture, sexual violence, extortion, and forced labor.” Amnesty International has also condemned the conditions under which migrants are being held, and in an open letter published earlier this month, 50 major aid organizations warned that “EU leaders have allowed themselves to become complicit in the tragedy unfolding before their eyes.”

    These human rights violations have been well documented. In 2016, the U.N. Human Rights Office said it considered “migrants to be at high risk of suffering serious human rights violations, including arbitrary detention, in Libya and thus urges States not to return, or facilitate the return of, persons to Libya.”

    Last June, the U.N. sanctioned six men for smuggling and human rights violations, including the head of the coast guard in Zawiya, a city west of Tripoli. A number of officials under his command, a leaked EEAS report found, were trained by Operation Sophia.

    An EEAS spokesperson would not comment on the case of the Zawiya coast guards trained by Operation Sophia or how the officers were vetted. The spokesperson said that none of the coast guards “trained by Operation Sophia” are on the U.N. sanctions list.

    The deteriorating human rights situation has prompted a growing chorus of critics to argue the EU’s arrangement with Libya is unsustainable.

    “What does the EU do in Libya? They throw money at projects, but they don’t have a very tangible operation on the ground" — Tarek Megerisi, Libyan expert

    “Returning anyone to Libya is against international law,” said Salah Margani, a former justice minister in Libya’s post-civil war government. “Libya is not a safe place. They will be subject to murder. They will be subjected to torture.”

    “This is documented,” Margani added. “And [Europe] knows it.”

    Sophia is also indicative of a larger, ineffective European policy toward Libya, said Tarek Megerisi, a Libya specialist at the European Council on Foreign Relations.

    “What does the EU do in Libya? They throw money at projects, but they don’t have a very tangible operation on the ground. They really struggle to convert what they spend into political currency — Operation Sophia is all they’ve got,” he said.

    The project, he added, is less a practical attempt to stop smuggling or save migrants than a political effort to paper over differences within the EU when it comes to migration policy.

    With Sophia, he said, Europe is “being as vague as possible so countries like Italy and Hungary can say this is our tool for stopping migration, and countries like Germany and Sweden can say we’re saving lives.”

    “With this operation, there’s something for everyone,” he said.

    https://www.politico.eu/article/europe-deadly-migration-strategy-leaked-documents

    Commentaire ECRE :

    Leaked documents obtained by @POLITICOEurope show that the #EU knew its military operation “Sophia” in the Mediterranean made sea crossing more dangerous.

    https://twitter.com/ecre/status/1101074946057482240

    #responsabilité #Méditerranée #mourir_en_mer #asile #migrations #réfugiés #mer_Méditerranée #Frontex #EU #UE
    #leaks #sauvetage #externalisation #frontières

    –-----------------------------------------

    Mise en exergue de quelques passages de l’article qui me paraissent particulièrement intéressants :

    The confidential reports also show the EU is aware that a number of its policies have made the sea crossing more dangerous for migrants, and that it nonetheless chose to continue to pursue those strategies. Officials acknowledge internally that some members of the Libyan coast guard that the EU funds, equips and trains are collaborating with smuggling networks.

    Named after a baby girl born on an EU rescue ship, Sophia is the uneasy compromise to resolve a deep split across the bloc: between those who pushed for proactive search-and-rescue efforts to save more lives and those who favored pulling resources from the sea to make the crossing more dangerous.
    The naval operation sits uncomfortably between the two, rescuing migrants in distress at sea, but insisting its primary focus is to fight smugglers off the coast of Libya. The two activities are frequently in conflict.

    The report acknowledged however that the policy has pushed migrants into using rubber boats, putting them in greater danger. “Effectively, with the limited supply and the degree of overloading, the migrant vessels are [distress] cases from the moment they launch,” it said.

    In a leaked status report from 2017 (https://g8fip1kplyr33r3krz5b97d1-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ENFM-2017-2.pdf), Sophia officials made a highly unusual suggestion: that the operation be granted permission to suspend its rescue responsibilities in order to focus on its anti-smuggling operations.

    “Consideration should be given to an option that would allow the operation to be authorized for being temporarily exempt from search and rescue when actively conducting anti-smuggling operations against jackals in international waters,” the report read.

    A leaked report from #Frontex (https://theintercept.com/2017/04/02/new-evidence-undermines-eu-report-tying-refugee-rescue-group-to-smuggl), the EU’s coast guard, noted in 2016: “As mentioned in previous reports, some members of Libya’s local authorities are involved in smuggling activities.” The report cited interviews with recently rescued people who said they were smuggled by Libyans in uniform. It also noted that similar conclusions were reported multiple times by the Italian coast guard and Operation Sophia.

    In Sophia’s leaked status report from 2017, operation leaders noted that “migrant smuggling and human trafficking networks remain well ingrained” throughout the region and that smugglers routinely “pay off authorities” for passage to international waters. “Many of [the coast guard officers] were militia people — many of them fought with militias during the civil war,” said Rabih Boualleg, who worked as a translator for Operation Sophia in late 2016 on board a Dutch ship involved in training the coast guard from Tripoli. The coast guards talked openly about accepting money from smuggling networks in exchange for escorting rubber boats to international waters instead of turning them back toward the shore, Boualleg said.

    Frontex’s 2016 report documents similar cases. Two officials with close knowledge of Sophia’s training of the Libyan coast guard also confirmed that members of the coast guard are involved in smuggling networks. A spokesperson for the Libyan coast guard did not return repeated requests for comment.

    Two years into the training program, leaked reports (https://g8fip1kplyr33r3krz5b97d1-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ENFM-Monitoring-of-Libyan-Coast-Guard-and-Navy-Report-October-2017-January-2018.pdf) also show the Libyan coast guard was unable to manage search-and-rescue activities on its own. Sophia monitors their operations with GoPro cameras and through surveillance using ships, airplanes, drones and submarines.

    A Human Rights Watch report (https://www.hrw.org/report/2019/01/21/no-escape-hell/eu-policies-contribute-abuse-migrants-libya) published in January found that Europe’s support for the Libyan coast guard has contributed to cases of arbitrary detention, and that people intercepted by Libyan authorities “face inhuman and degrading conditions and the risk of torture, sexual violence, extortion, and forced labor.” Amnesty International has also condemned (https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/LY/DetainedAndDehumanised_en.pdf) the conditions under which migrants are being held, and in an open letter published earlier this month, 50 major aid organizations warned that “EU leaders have allowed themselves to become complicit in the tragedy unfolding before their eyes.”

    “Returning anyone to Libya is against international law,” said Salah Margani, a former justice minister in Libya’s post-civil war government. “Libya is not a safe place. They will be subject to murder. They will be subjected to torture.”

    “This is documented,” Margani added. “And [Europe] knows it.”
    Sophia is also indicative of a larger, ineffective European policy toward Libya, said Tarek Megerisi, a Libya specialist at the European Council on Foreign Relations.
    “What does the EU do in Libya? They throw money at projects, but they don’t have a very tangible operation on the ground. They really struggle to convert what they spend into political currency — Operation Sophia is all they’ve got,” he said.

    With Sophia, he said, Europe is “being as vague as possible so countries like Italy and Hungary can say this is our tool for stopping migration, and countries like Germany and Sweden can say we’re saving lives.”
    “With this operation, there’s something for everyone,” he said.

    #flou


  • La #low-tech : un outil de #résilience pour l’humanité ? - Green IT
    https://www.greenit.fr/2019/02/07/la-low-tech-un-outil-de-resilience-pour-lhumanite

    Dans un monde fini tel que le nôtre, comment peut on encore croire que l’univers numérique va continuer son expansion dans sa forme et à son rythme actuels ? Les ressources pour fabriquer nos doudous numériques commencent déjà à manquer.

    Dit autrement, le numérique, tel qu’il existe aujourd’hui, est en voie d’extinction. Et il accélère notre perte.

    […] Low-tech, #décroissance, #communs, #open_source, bienveillance, #éthique, #accessibilité, #écoconception, #économie_collaborative et circulaire, #zéro_déchet, lutte contre l’#obsolescence_programmée, etc. : tous les mouvements et toutes les initiatives convergent pour proposer un avenir alternatif enviable, créatif et plaisant.

    Et si nous nous trompions de transition ? - Libération
    https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2018/11/17/et-si-nous-nous-trompions-de-transition_1692567

    Donnant l’illusion confortable d’une dématérialisation de l’économie à l’heure où il nous faut réduire notre empreinte écologique, la transition numérique entrave les écosystèmes naturels.


  • FDA takes fresh look at whether opioids are effective for chronic pain - The Washington Post
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/fda-takes-fresh-look-at-whether-opioids-are-effective-for-chronic-pain/2019/02/25/227a5fe6-3917-11e9-a06c-3ec8ed509d15_story.html

    The Food and Drug Administration will require drug companies to study whether prescription opioids are effective in quelling chronic pain — another step in the government’s efforts to rein in use of the narcotics that spawned the drug epidemic.

    Some studies already indicate that opioids are ineffective for pain beyond 12 weeks and many experts say long-term use can cause addiction, by prompting patients to build up tolerance to the drugs and seek higher doses. But conclusive, controlled research is scarce.

    A finding of ineffectiveness in more rigorous studies supervised by the FDA could allow the agency to change the labeling on some opioids, impose special rules for prescribing, dispensing and taking them, and even prohibit their use in some cases, according to FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb.

    But at least one longtime critic of the FDA’s response to the opioid crisis expressed frustration with the move. Andrew Kolodny, director of Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing, said the FDA already has all the research it needs — and authority under existing law — to tighten restrictions on the use of opioids for chronic pain by changing instructions for how they should be prescribed.

    “Here we go again,” Kolodny said in an interview. “That’s exactly what the FDA said to us in 2013. . . . Five years later, we don’t have the studies and another FDA commissioner says, ‘We’re going to do the studies.’ ”

    In 2013, after Kolodny’s group complained that opioids should be labeled unsafe and ineffective for chronic pain, the FDA ordered similar research, including an attempt to determine whether painkillers cause hyperalgesia. Gottlieb said those studies were difficult to carry out because, at the time, the FDA had authority only to require post-market studies of safety, rather than effectiveness.

    On Sunday, the CBS program “60 Minutes” explored the FDA’s decision in 2001 to allow long-term use of OxyContin despite the lack of research showing it was safe and effective. Gottlieb conceded that “it’s regrettable we didn’t do this many years ago.”

    The vast majority of opioid prescriptions written in 2017 were for generic versions of the drugs. The research would be required only of companies that produce brand-name narcotics; generic producers would be required to adopt the same changes.

    #Opioides #USA #FDA #Efficacité


  • Opioid crisis engulfs blockaded Gaza Strip
    https://www.apnews.com/ff3cf542ded542d5b2e51ceb3fbe051c

    GAZA CITY, Gaza Strip (AP) — An opioid crisis has quietly spread in the Gaza Strip, trapping thousands in the hell of addiction and adding another layer of misery to the blockaded and impoverished coastal territory.

    The scourge can be traced to the mass import of cheap opioid-based Tramadol pain pills through smuggling tunnels under Gaza’s border more than a decade ago. A more addictive black-market form of the drug called Tramal has since taken hold.

    “I have seen the top elites taking it — university students, girls and respectful people,” said Dr. Fadel Ashour, who treats addicts in his dimly lit clinic.

    Tramadol, a synthetic opioid analgesic, is considered a controlled substance by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in the same category as well-known medications like Valium and Xanax.

    The WHO study cited the blockade, high unemployment among university graduates and never-ending conflict with Israel as factors associated with “widespread” Tramadol abuse.

    It said users turned to the drug to “escape problems,” obtain a “feeling of relaxation,” to “not think” and to fall asleep.

    Tramal, believed to be a more addictive black market form of Tramadol, arrived later, gaining popularity after the first war between Hamas and Israel in 2009.

    Tramal was cheap, less than 50 cents a tablet, and people discovered its sedative effects at a time when they were “trying to overcome their anxiety because Gaza was a very traumatic environment,” said Dr. Ashour.

    But in recent months, prices have shot up. A single pill can cost about $20, well beyond most people’s means.

    Being a health worker himself, Abu Karim was able to get prescriptions to buy the milder Tramadol legally and more affordably.

    “It was not as powerful as the smuggled Tramal, but with more pills, it does part of the job,” he said.

    Today, he’s among the few patients at the Hope Center, the first and only rehab facility in Gaza. Since opening at Gaza’s only psychiatric hospital in 2017, it has treated 230 people, 90 percent of them tramadex users.

    Nearly a year of border protests against the Israeli blockade have added a new element to the crisis. Hundreds of young men have been shot by the Israeli army, which says it is defending its border.

    Mahmoud, a 29-year-old, said he became addicted to Lyrica after he was shot during a protest. Unemployed and unmarried, he is now being treated by Dr. Ashour.

    “I don’t want to reach a level in which I lose my personality and dignity because of the drugs,” said Mahmoud, who would not give his family name because of the social stigma associated with addiction. “I want to stop.”

    #Opioides #Gaza #Addiction


  • L’addiction, une garantie pour les profits | Entre les lignes entre les mots
    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2019/02/27/laddiction-une-garantie-pour-les-profits

    par Didier Epsztajn

    Patrick Radden Keefe débute son texte par le Metropolitan Museum, l’« aile Sackler » du nom d’une « des plus grandes dynasties de philanthropes américains ». Il interroge l’origine de cette richesse, « aussi obscure que celle des barons voleurs », l’entreprise familiale Purdue Pharma.

    Une entreprise privée, un antalgique, OxyContin, un opioïde et ses propriétés addictives, des campagnes marketing, le financement de médecins pour construire des « arguments »… « Depuis 1999, 300 000 à 500 000 Américains selon les évaluations, sont morts d’overdose liées à OxyContin ou d’autres opioïdes délivrés sur ordonnance ».

    L’auteur analyse la place du commerce – et non de la pratique médicale – ayant fait la fortune des frères Sackler, les campagnes de séduction des médecins, la multiplication des ordonnances de tranquillisants, les vertus thérapeutique du pavot à opium et les risques addictifs, la commercialisation de « jumbo pills », les choix liés aux « impératifs » de rentabilité, les informations – véritables publicités – fournies aux médecins, « l’entreprise persuadait les médecins que le médicament était sans danger en s’appuyant sur des documents produits par des médecins payés ou fiancés par l’entreprise », la diffusion des comprimés sur le marché noir, le refus de reconnaître le caractère addictif du médicament, le rejet de la responsabilité sur les seul·es individu·es (une ritournelle du néolibéralisme), la sur-prescription et les énormes profits, les arrangements pour éviter les procès, le blocage de la concurrence des médicaments génériques, le lobbyisme…

    Une mise en cause tant de la marchandisation de la santé, des mensonges et de la propagande des laboratoires pharmaceutiques, des addictions propagées par le capitalisme, des systèmes privatisés de soins et de la place des fondations – du cynisme de la philanthropie – sans oublier leur rôle dans l’évitement fiscal…

    Une nouvelle collection interventions (« il s’agit de dévoiler les détournements, les enclosures et les accaparements ou d’évoquer des solutions ouvertes, originales et coopératives ») à suivre.

    #Addiction_ordonnance #C&F_éditions #Sackler #Opioides #Patrick_Radden_Keefe