operatingsystem:microsoft vista

  • Common sense: An examination of three Los Angeles community WiFi projects that privileged public funding over commons-based infrastructure management » The Journal of Peer Production
    http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-10-peer-production-and-work/varia/common-sense-an-examination-of-three-los-angeles-community-wifi-proj

    Several high-profile incidents involving entire communities cut off from broadband access—the result of natural disasters such as Superstorm Sandy in the Northeastern United States in 2012, to totalitarian governments in Egypt and Tunisia shutting down infrastructure in 2011—have raised awareness of the vulnerabilities inherent in a centralized internet. Policymakers are increasingly interested in the potential of community mesh networks (Harvard University, 2012), which use a decentralized architecture. Still, government agencies rarely fund community WiFi initiatives in U.S. cities. Three grassroots mesh networks in Los Angeles are distinct, however, as both local and state agencies subsidized their efforts. By comparing a public goods framework with theory of the commons, this study examines how government support impacted L.A.-based community wireless projects.

    By examining public investments in peer-to-peer networking initiatives, this study aims to better understand how substantial cash infusions influenced network design and implementation. Stronger community ties, self-reliance and opportunities for democratic deliberation potentially emerge when neighbors share bandwidth. In this sense, WiFi signal sharing is more than a promising “last mile” technology able to reach every home for a fraction of the cost required to lay fiber, DSL and cable (Martin, 2005). In fact, grassroots mesh projects aim to create “a radically different public sphere” (Burnett, 1999) by situating themselves outside of commercial interests. Typically, one joins, as opposed to subscribes to, the services. As Lippman and Reed (2003, p. 1) observed, “Communications can become something you do rather than something you buy.” For this reason, the economic theories of both public goods and the commons provide an ideal analytical framework for examining three community WiFi project in Los Angeles.

    The value of this commons is derived from the fact that no one owns or controls it—not people, not corporations, not the government (Benkler 2001; Lessig, 2001). The peer-to-peer architecture comprising community wireless networks provides ideal conditions for fostering civic engagement and eliminating the need to rely on telecommunications companies for connectivity. Instead of information passing from “one to many,” it travels from “many to many.” The primary internet relies on centralized access points and internet service providers (ISPs) for connectivity. By contrast, in a peer-to-peer architecture, components are both independent and scalable. Wireless mesh network design includes at least one access point with a direct connection to the internet—via fiber, cable or satellite link—and nodes that hop from one device to the next

    As the network’s popularity mounted, however, so did its challenges. The increasing prevalence of smartphones meant more mobile devices accessing Little Tokyo Unplugged. This required the LTSC to deploy additional access points, leading to signal interference. Network users overwhelmed LTSC staff with complaints about everything from lost connections to computer viruses. “We ended up being IT support for the entire community,” the informant said.

    Money, yes. Meaningful participation, no.

    Despite its popularity, the center shut down the WiFi network in 2010. “The decision was made that we couldn’t sustain it,” the informant said. While the LTSC (2010) invested nearly $3 million in broadband-related initiatives, the center neglected to seek meaningful participation from the wider Little Tokyo community. The LTSC basically functioned according to a traditional ISP model. In a commons, it is imperative that a fair relationship exists between contributions made and benefits received (Commons Sommerschule, 2012). However, the LTSC neither expected nor asked network users to contribute to Little Tokyo Unplugged in exchange for free broadband access. As a result, individual network users did not feel they had a stake in ensuring the stability of the network.

    HSDNC board members believed free WiFi would facilitate more efficient communication with their constituents, coupled with “the main issue” of digital inclusion, according to an informant. “The reality is that poor, working class Latino members of our district have limited access to the internet. A lot of people have cell phones, but we see gaps,” this informant said. These comments exemplify how the pursuit of public funding began to usurp social-production principles associated with a networked commons. While closing the digital divide and informing the public about community issues are laudable goals, they are clearly institutional ones.

    Rather than design Open Mar Vista/Open Neighborhoods according to commons-based peer production principles, the network co-founders sought ways to align the project with public good goals articulated by local and federal agencies. For instance, an informant stressed that community WiFi would enable neighborhood councils to send email blasts and post information online. This argument is a direct response to the city’s push for neighborhood councils to reduce paper correspondence with constituents (City of Los Angeles, 2010). Similarly, the grant application Open Neighborhoods submitted to the federal Broadband Technologies Opportunities Program—which exclusively funded broadband infrastructure and computer adoption initiatives—focused on the potential for community WiFi networks to supply Los Angeles’ low-income neighborhoods with affordable internet (National Telecommunications & Information Administration, 2010). The proposal is void of references to concepts associated with the commons, even though this ideological space can transform broadband infrastructure from a conduit to the internet into a technology for empowering participants. It seems that, ultimately, the pursuit of public funding supplanted initial goals of creating a WiFi network that fostered inclusivity and collaboration.

    There’s little doubt that Manchester Community Technologies accepted a $453,000 state grant in exchange for a “mesh cloud” it never deployed. These findings suggest an inherent conflict exists between the quest to fulfill the state’s public good goals, and the commons-based community building necessary to sustain a grassroots WiFi network. One could argue that this reality should have prevented California officials from funding Manchester Community Technologies’ proposal in the first place. Specifically, a successful community WiFi initiative cannot be predicated on a state mandate to strengthen digital literacy skills and increase broadband adoption. Local businesses and residents typically share bandwidth as part of a broader effort to create an alternative communications infrastructure, beyond the reach of government—not dictated by government. Grassroots broadband initiatives run smoothly when participants are committed to the success of a common enterprise and share a common purpose. The approach taken by Manchester Community Technologies does not reflect these principles.

    #Communs #wifi #mesh_networks #relations_communs_public


  • Warning: for Windows systems: important spread of #WannaCry (#Wcry) ransomware

    http://thehackernews.com/2017/05/wannacry-ransomware-unlock.html?m=1
    https://arstechnica.com/security/2017/05/an-nsa-derived-ransomware-worm-is-shutting-down-computers-worldwide

    The malware/worm is causing disruptions at banks, hospitals, telecommunications services, train stations, and other mission-critical organisations in multiple countries, including the UK, Spain, Germany, and Turkey. Telefonica, FedEx, and the UK government’s National Health Service (NHS) have been hit. Operations were cancelled, x-rays, test results and patient records became unavailable and phones did not work.

    The ransomware completely encrypts all your files and render them unusable. They ask you to pay some money to get the decryption key. ($300 to $600 worth in bitcoins). Paying does not guarantee you will get a decryption key though.

    The malware spreads through social engineering e-mails.
    Be careful with any attachments you receive from unknown sources (and even known sources). Make sure the files are sent intentionally.
    Watch out for .pdf or .hta files, or links received via e-mail that point to .pdf or .hta files.

    More than 45.000 computers worldwide have already been infected, but there appears to be a kill switch, i.e. a way to stop its spreading.
    As one of the first operations, the malware tries to connect to the website www.iuqerfsodp9ifjaposdfjhgosurijfaewrwergwea.com. It doesn’t actually download anything there, just tries to connect. If the connection succeeds, the program terminates.

    This can be seen as a kind of kill switch provision, or perhaps it had some particular reason. Whichever it is, the domain has now been sinkholed and the host in question now resolves to an IP address that hosts a website. Therefore, nothing will happen on any new systems that runs the malware. This will of course not help anyone already infected.

    Microsoft has released a patch to block the malware on Windows machines:

    MS17-010
    https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/security/ms17-010.aspx

    It is important to apply the patch because other variants of the malware can exploit the same vulnerability and/or use a different domain name check.

    Nice technical analysis of the worm:

    https://blog.malwarebytes.com/threat-analysis/2017/05/the-worm-that-spreads-wanacrypt0r

    And more technical info about the worm itself: (careful)

    https://gist.github.com/rain-1/989428fa5504f378b993ee6efbc0b168

    <64-bit SIGNATURE>        - WANACRY!
    <length of encrypted key> - 256 for 2048-bit keys, cannot exceed 4096-bits
    <encrypted key>           - 256 bytes if keys are 2048-bits
    <32-bit value>            - unknown
    <64 bit file size>        - return by GetFileSizeEx
    <encrypted data>          - with custom AES-128 in CBC mode
    

    #malware #worm #ransomware #NSA #Shadow_Broker #EternalBlue



  • Il me semblait avoir vu passer sur seenthis, mais je ne retrouve pas

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AltaVista#Origins

    Email from early January, 1996:

    ...

    Alta Vista is a very large project, requiring the cooperation of at
    least 5 servers, configured for searching huge indices and handling
    a huge Internet traffic load. The initial hardware configuration
    for Alta Vista is as follows:

    Alta Vista — AlphaStation 250 4/266
    4 GB disk
    196 MB memory
    Primary web server for gotcha.com
    Queries directed to WebIndexer or NewsIndexer

    NewsServer — AlphaStation 400 4/233
    24 GB of RAID disks
    160 MB memory
    News spool from which news index is generated
    Serves articles (via http) to those without news server

    NewsIndexer — AlphaStation 250 4/266
    13 GB disk
    196 MB memory
    Builds news index using articles from NewsServer
    Answers news index queries from Alta Vista

    Spider — DEC 3000 Model 900 (replacement for Model 500)
    30 GB of RAID disk
    1GB memory
    Collects pages from the web for WebIndexer

    WebIndexer — Alpha Server 8400 5/300
    210 GB RAID disk (expandable)
    4 GB memory (expandable)
    4 processors (expandable)
    Builds the web index using pages sent by Spider.
    Answers web index queries from Alta Vista

    #altavista #indexation #moteur_de_recherche


  • A Guide to Mass Shootings in America | Mother Jones
    http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/07/mass-shootings-map

    Editor’s note, July 16, 2015: We have updated this database with the mass shooting at a military center in Chattanooga, Tennessee, which came a month after the one at a historic black church in Charleston, South Carolina. The interactive map below and our downloadable database, first published in July 2012, have been expanded with nine additional cases from 2013-2015.* Other public shooting attacks in that period—such as a rampage at Fort Hood, another in Isla Vista, California, and another on a bridge in Wisconsin—have not been added because there were fewer than four victims shot to death in each of those cases. For more about that distinction and its limitations, see this piece and this piece.

    It is perhaps too easy to forget how many times this has happened. The horrific mass murder at a movie theater in Colorado in July 2012, another at a Sikh temple in Wisconsin that August, another at a manufacturer in Minneapolis that September—and then the unthinkable nightmare at a Connecticut elementary school that December—were some of the latest in an epidemic of such gun violence over the last three decades. Since 1982, there have been at least 71 public mass shootings across the country, with the killings unfolding in 31 states from Massachusetts to Hawaii. Thirty-four of these mass shootings have occurred since 2006. Seven of them took place in 2012 alone, including Sandy Hook. A recent analysis of this database by researchers at Harvard University, further corroborated by a recent FBI study, determined that mass shootings have been on the rise.

    We’ve gathered detailed data on more than three decades of cases and mapped them below, including information on the shooters’ profiles, the types of weapons they used, and the number of victims they injured and killed. The following analysis covers our original dataset comprised of 62 cases from 1982-2012.


  • TrueCrypt
    http://truecrypt.sourceforge.net

    WARNING: Using TrueCrypt is not secure as it may contain unfixed security issues

    This page exists only to help migrate existing data encrypted by TrueCrypt.

    The development of TrueCrypt was ended in 5/2014 after Microsoft terminated support of Windows XP. Windows 8/7/Vista and later offer integrated support for encrypted disks and virtual disk images. Such integrated support is also available on other platforms (click here for more information). You should migrate any data encrypted by TrueCrypt to encrypted disks or virtual disk images supported on your platform.

    Migrating from TrueCrypt to BitLocker:

    On ne sait pas encore si le site s’est fait hacker ou pas ... #a_suivre #ne_pas_bouger_pour_l'instant
    #truecrypt


  • liste (dans le désordre) pré-reformatage PC (sous windows donc ;) )

    Wink - [Homepage]
    http://www.debugmode.com/wink

    Wink is a Tutorial and Presentation creation software, primarily aimed at creating tutorials on how to use software

    EasyPHP | Install a local WAMP server : PHP 5 VC9, Apache 2 VC9, MySQL 5, PhpMyAdmin, Xdebug and Modules on Windows XP/Vista/Seven
    http://www.easyphp.org

    EasyPHP installs a complete WAMP environment for PHP developers in Windows including PHP, Apache, MySQL, PhpMyAdmin, Xdebug...

    Produits - Hofmann
    http://www.hofmann.es/fr/web/hofmann/productos

    L´authentique album photo prestige avec couverture luxe et son exclusive ouverture à plat, 180º. Si vous avez un Hofmann vous savez qu´il n´y à pas d´autres comme lui. Si c´est votre premier album, il ne sera pas le dernier.

    FileZilla - The free FTP solution
    http://filezilla-project.org

    Welcome to the homepage of FileZilla, the free FTP solution. Both a client and a server are available.

    LinuxLive USB Creator
    http://www.linuxliveusb.com

    LinuxLive USB Creator est un logiciel gratuit à code source libre pour Windows. Il vous aidera dans votre voyage de découverte de Linux.

    Pour vous, LiLi crée des clés USB portables, amorçables et virtualisées faisant tourner Linux.

    WinMerge
    http://winmerge.org

    WinMerge est un outil Open Source de différenciation et de fusion pour Windows. WinMerge peut comparer et les dossiers et les fichiers, en repésentant les différences dans un fichier texte visuel qui est facile à comprendre ou manipuler.

    PuTTY Download Page
    http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html

    Here are the PuTTY files themselves:

    7-Zip
    http://www.7-zip.org

    7-Zip is open source software. Most of the source code is under the GNU LGPL license.

    Qu’est-ce que WinSCP ? :: WinSCP
    http://winscp.net/eng/docs/lang:fr

    WinSCP est un client SFTP graphique pour Windows. Il utilise SSH et est open source. Le protocole SCP est également supporté.

    Cygwin
    http://www.cygwin.com

    a collection of tools which provide a Linux look and feel environment for Windows.

    PrtScr about
    http://www.fiastarta.com/PrtScr/index.html

    Sure, there are loads of free screen capture tools, but this is not another cheesy, spreadsheet-looking one. This one offers directness, ease of use, and does it with style.

    Dropbox
    http://www.dropbox.com

    Pidgin, the universal chat client
    http://www.pidgin.im

    Pidgin is an easy to use and free chat client used by millions. Connect to AIM, MSN, Yahoo, and more chat networks all at once.

    PHP IDE :: JetBrains PhpStorm
    http://www.jetbrains.com/phpstorm

    PhpStorm is a lightweight and smart PHP IDE focused on developer productivity that deeply understands your code, provides smart code completion, quick navigation and on-the-fly error checking. It is always ready to help you shape your code, run unit-tests or provide visual debugging.

    TrueCrypt - Free Open-Source On-The-Fly Disk Encryption Software for Windows 7/Vista/XP, Mac OS X and Linux
    http://www.truecrypt.org

    Free open-source disk encryption software for Windows 7/Vista/XP, Mac OS X, and Linux

    VideoLAN - Official page for VLC media player, the Open Source video framework !
    http://www.videolan.org/vlc

    is a free and open source cross-platform multimedia player and framework that plays most multimedia files as well as DVD, Audio CD, VCD, and various streaming protocols.

    µTorrent - un (tout) petit client BitTorrent
    http://www.utorrent.com/intl/fr

    un (tout) petit client BitTorrent

    tortoisesvn.tigris.org
    http://tortoisesvn.tigris.org

    TortoiseSVN is a really easy to use Revision control / version control / source control software for Windows.

    Appels gratuits sur Internet et appels téléphoniques économiques - Skype
    http://www.skype.com/intl/fr/home

    Skype ne remplace pas votre téléphone ordinaire et ne peut pas être utilisé pour appeler les services d’urgence

    InfraRecorder
    http://infrarecorder.org

    InfraRecorder is a free CD/DVD burning solution for Microsoft Windows

    tortoisegit - Porting TortoiseSVN to TortoiseGIT - Google Project Hosting
    http://code.google.com/p/tortoisegit

    TortoiseGit - The coolest Interface to Git Version Control

    Money Manager Ex - CodeLathe
    http://www.codelathe.com/mmex/index.php

    Money Manager Ex is a free, open-source, cross-platform, easy-to-use personal finance software.

    Communauté LibreOffice francophone : bienvenue ! » LibreOffice
    http://fr.libreoffice.org

    Ce site vous apporte des informations sur la vie du projet francophone et également sur la version officielle de LibreOffice.

    Notepad++ Home
    http://notepad-plus-plus.org/fr

    Notepad++ est un éditeur de code source qui prend en charge plusieurs langages.

    Mp3tag - the universal Tag Editor (ID3v2, MP4, OGG, FLAC, ...)
    http://www.mp3tag.de/en

    Mp3tag is a powerful and yet easy-to-use tool to edit metadata of common audio formats

    Pourquoi sur seenthis ? juste parce que c’est l’outil le plus pratique là tout de suite sous la main pour faire ça.

    #seenthis_fait_aussi_le_café