• New report exposes global reach of powerful governments who equip, finance and train other countries to spy on their populations

    Privacy International has today released a report that looks at how powerful governments are financing, training and equipping countries — including authoritarian regimes — with surveillance capabilities. The report warns that rather than increasing security, this is entrenching authoritarianism.

    Countries with powerful security agencies are spending literally billions to equip, finance, and train security and surveillance agencies around the world — including authoritarian regimes. This is resulting in entrenched authoritarianism, further facilitation of abuse against people, and diversion of resources from long-term development programmes.

    The report, titled ‘Teach ’em to Phish: State Sponsors of Surveillance’ is available to download here.

    Examples from the report include:

    In 2001, the US spent $5.7 billion in security aid. In 2017 it spent over $20 billion [1]. In 2015, military and non-military security assistance in the US amounted to an estimated 35% of its entire foreign aid expenditure [2]. The report provides examples of how US Departments of State, Defense, and Justice all facilitate foreign countries’ surveillance capabilities, as well as an overview of how large arms companies have embedded themselves into such programmes, including at surveillance training bases in the US. Examples provided include how these agencies have provided communications intercept and other surveillance technology, how they fund wiretapping programmes, and how they train foreign spy agencies in surveillance techniques around the world.

    The EU and individual European countries are sponsoring surveillance globally. The EU is already spending billions developing border control and surveillance capabilities in foreign countries to deter migration to Europe. For example, the EU is supporting Sudan’s leader with tens of millions of Euros aimed at capacity building for border management. The EU is now looking to massively increase its expenditure aimed at building border control and surveillance capabilities globally under the forthcoming Multiannual Financial Framework, which will determine its budget for 2021–2027. Other EU projects include developing the surveillance capabilities of security agencies in Tunisia, Burkina Faso, Somalia, Iraq and elsewhere. European countries such as France, Germany, and the UK are sponsoring surveillance worldwide, for example, providing training and equipment to “Cyber Police Officers” in Ukraine, as well as to agencies in Saudi Arabia, and across Africa.

    Surveillance capabilities are also being supported by China’s government under the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ and other efforts to expand into international markets. Chinese companies have reportedly supplied surveillance capabilities to Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador [3]. In Ecuador, China Electronics Corporation supplied a network of cameras — including some fitted with facial recognition capabilities — to the country’s 24 provinces, as well as a system to locate and identify mobile phones.

    Edin Omanovic, Privacy International’s Surveillance Programme Lead, said

    “The global rush to make sure that surveillance is as universal and pervasive as possible is as astonishing as it is disturbing. The breadth of institutions, countries, agencies, and arms companies that are involved shows how there is no real long-term policy or strategic thinking driving any of this. It’s a free-for-all, where capabilities developed by some of the world’s most powerful spy agencies are being thrown at anyone willing to serve their interests, including dictators and killers whose only goal is to cling to power.

    “If these ‘benefactor’ countries truly want to assist other countries to be secure and stable, they should build schools, hospitals, and other infrastructure, and promote democracy and human rights. This is what communities need for safety, security, and prosperity. What we don’t need is powerful and wealthy countries giving money to arms companies to build border control and surveillance infrastructure. This only serves the interests of those powerful, wealthy countries. As our report shows, instead of putting resources into long-term development solutions, such programmes further entrench authoritarianism and spur abuses around the world — the very things which cause insecurity in the first place.”


    #surveillance #surveillance_de_masse #rapport

    Pour télécharger le rapport “Teach ’em to Phish: State Sponsors of Surveillance”:

    ping @fil

    • China Uses DNA to Track Its People, With the Help of American Expertise

      The Chinese authorities turned to a Massachusetts company and a prominent Yale researcher as they built an enormous system of surveillance and control.

      The authorities called it a free health check. Tahir Imin had his doubts.

      They drew blood from the 38-year-old Muslim, scanned his face, recorded his voice and took his fingerprints. They didn’t bother to check his heart or kidneys, and they rebuffed his request to see the results.

      “They said, ‘You don’t have the right to ask about this,’” Mr. Imin said. “‘If you want to ask more,’ they said, ‘you can go to the police.’”

      Mr. Imin was one of millions of people caught up in a vast Chinese campaign of surveillance and oppression. To give it teeth, the Chinese authorities are collecting DNA — and they got unlikely corporate and academic help from the United States to do it.

      China wants to make the country’s Uighurs, a predominantly Muslim ethnic group, more subservient to the Communist Party. It has detained up to a million people in what China calls “re-education” camps, drawing condemnation from human rights groups and a threat of sanctions from the Trump administration.

      Collecting genetic material is a key part of China’s campaign, according to human rights groups and Uighur activists. They say a comprehensive DNA database could be used to chase down any Uighurs who resist conforming to the campaign.

      Police forces in the United States and elsewhere use genetic material from family members to find suspects and solve crimes. Chinese officials, who are building a broad nationwide database of DNA samples, have cited the crime-fighting benefits of China’s own genetic studies.

      To bolster their DNA capabilities, scientists affiliated with China’s police used equipment made by Thermo Fisher, a Massachusetts company. For comparison with Uighur DNA, they also relied on genetic material from people around the world that was provided by #Kenneth_Kidd, a prominent #Yale_University geneticist.

      On Wednesday, #Thermo_Fisher said it would no longer sell its equipment in Xinjiang, the part of China where the campaign to track Uighurs is mostly taking place. The company said separately in an earlier statement to The New York Times that it was working with American officials to figure out how its technology was being used.

      Dr. Kidd said he had been unaware of how his material and know-how were being used. He said he believed Chinese scientists were acting within scientific norms that require informed consent by DNA donors.

      China’s campaign poses a direct challenge to the scientific community and the way it makes cutting-edge knowledge publicly available. The campaign relies in part on public DNA databases and commercial technology, much of it made or managed in the United States. In turn, Chinese scientists have contributed Uighur DNA samples to a global database, potentially violating scientific norms of consent.

      Cooperation from the global scientific community “legitimizes this type of genetic surveillance,” said Mark Munsterhjelm, an assistant professor at the University of Windsor in Ontario who has closely tracked the use of American technology in Xinjiang.

      Swabbing Millions

      In Xinjiang, in northwestern China, the program was known as “#Physicals_for_All.”

      From 2016 to 2017, nearly 36 million people took part in it, according to Xinhua, China’s official news agency. The authorities collected DNA samples, images of irises and other personal data, according to Uighurs and human rights groups. It is unclear whether some residents participated more than once — Xinjiang has a population of about 24.5 million.

      In a statement, the Xinjiang government denied that it collects DNA samples as part of the free medical checkups. It said the DNA machines that were bought by the Xinjiang authorities were for “internal use.”

      China has for decades maintained an iron grip in Xinjiang. In recent years, it has blamed Uighurs for a series of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang and elsewhere in China, including a 2013 incident in which a driver struck two people in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

      In late 2016, the Communist Party embarked on a campaign to turn the Uighurs and other largely Muslim minority groups into loyal supporters. The government locked up hundreds of thousands of them in what it called job training camps, touted as a way to escape poverty, backwardness and radical Islam. It also began to take DNA samples.

      In at least some of the cases, people didn’t give up their genetic material voluntarily. To mobilize Uighurs for the free medical checkups, police and local cadres called or sent them text messages, telling them the checkups were required, according to Uighurs interviewed by The Times.

      “There was a pretty strong coercive element to it,” said Darren Byler, an anthropologist at the University of Washington who studies the plight of the Uighurs. “They had no choice.”

      Calling Dr. Kidd

      Kenneth Kidd first visited China in 1981 and remained curious about the country. So when he received an invitation in 2010 for an expenses-paid trip to visit Beijing, he said yes.

      Dr. Kidd is a major figure in the genetics field. The 77-year-old Yale professor has helped to make DNA evidence more acceptable in American courts.

      His Chinese hosts had their own background in law enforcement. They were scientists from the Ministry of Public Security — essentially, China’s police.

      During that trip, Dr. Kidd met Li Caixia, the chief forensic physician of the ministry’s Institute of Forensic Science. The relationship deepened. In December 2014, Dr. Li arrived at Dr. Kidd’s lab for an 11-month stint. She took some DNA samples back to China.

      “I had thought we were sharing samples for collaborative research,” said Dr. Kidd.

      Dr. Kidd is not the only prominent foreign geneticist to have worked with the Chinese authorities. Bruce Budowle, a professor at the University of North Texas, says in his online biography that he “has served or is serving” as a member of an academic committee at the ministry’s Institute of Forensic Science.

      Jeff Carlton, a university spokesman, said in a statement that Professor Budowle’s role with the ministry was “only symbolic in nature” and that he had “done no work on its behalf.”

      “Dr. Budowle and his team abhor the use of DNA technology to persecute ethnic or religious groups,” Mr. Carlton said in the statement. “Their work focuses on criminal investigations and combating human trafficking to serve humanity.”

      Dr. Kidd’s data became part of China’s DNA drive.

      In 2014, ministry researchers published a paper describing a way for scientists to tell one ethnic group from another. It cited, as an example, the ability to distinguish Uighurs from Indians. The authors said they used 40 DNA samples taken from Uighurs in China and samples from other ethnic groups from Dr. Kidd’s Yale lab.

      In patent applications filed in China in 2013 and 2017, ministry researchers described ways to sort people by ethnicity by screening their genetic makeup. They took genetic material from Uighurs and compared it with DNA from other ethnic groups. In the 2017 filing, researchers explained that their system would help in “inferring the geographical origin from the DNA of suspects at crime scenes.”

      For outside comparisons, they used DNA samples provided by Dr. Kidd’s lab, the 2017 filing said. They also used samples from the 1000 Genomes Project, a public catalog of genes from around the world.

      Paul Flicek, member of the steering committee of the 1000 Genomes Project, said that its data was unrestricted and that “there is no obvious problem” if it was being used as a way to determine where a DNA sample came from.

      The data flow also went the other way.

      Chinese government researchers contributed the data of 2,143 Uighurs to the Allele Frequency Database, an online search platform run by Dr. Kidd that was partly funded by the United States Department of Justice until last year. The database, known as Alfred, contains DNA data from more than 700 populations around the world.

      This sharing of data could violate scientific norms of informed consent because it is not clear whether the Uighurs volunteered their DNA samples to the Chinese authorities, said Arthur Caplan, the founding head of the division of medical ethics at New York University’s School of Medicine. He said that “no one should be in a database without express consent.”

      “Honestly, there’s been a kind of naïveté on the part of American scientists presuming that other people will follow the same rules and standards wherever they come from,” Dr. Caplan said.

      Dr. Kidd said he was “not particularly happy” that the ministry had cited him in its patents, saying his data shouldn’t be used in ways that could allow people or institutions to potentially profit from it. If the Chinese authorities used data they got from their earlier collaborations with him, he added, there is little he can do to stop them.

      He said he was unaware of the filings until he was contacted by The Times.

      Dr. Kidd also said he considered his collaboration with the ministry to be no different from his work with police and forensics labs elsewhere. He said governments should have access to data about minorities, not just the dominant ethnic group, in order to have an accurate picture of the whole population.

      As for the consent issue, he said the burden of meeting that standard lay with the Chinese researchers, though he said reports about what Uighurs are subjected to in China raised some difficult questions.

      “I would assume they had appropriate informed consent on the samples,” he said, “though I must say what I’ve been hearing in the news recently about the treatment of the Uighurs raises concerns.”
      Machine Learning

      In 2015, Dr. Kidd and Dr. Budowle spoke at a genomics conference in the Chinese city of Xi’an. It was underwritten in part by Thermo Fisher, a company that has come under intense criticism for its equipment sales in China, and Illumina, a San Diego company that makes gene sequencing instruments. Illumina did not respond to requests for comment.

      China is ramping up spending on health care and research. The Chinese market for gene-sequencing equipment and other technologies was worth $1 billion in 2017 and could more than double in five years, according to CCID Consulting, a research firm. But the Chinese market is loosely regulated, and it isn’t always clear where the equipment goes or to what uses it is put.

      Thermo Fisher sells everything from lab instruments to forensic DNA testing kits to DNA mapping machines, which help scientists decipher a person’s ethnicity and identify diseases to which he or she is particularly vulnerable. China accounted for 10 percent of Thermo Fisher’s $20.9 billion in revenue, according to the company’s 2017 annual report, and it employs nearly 5,000 people there.

      “Our greatest success story in emerging markets continues to be China,” it said in the report.

      China used Thermo Fisher’s equipment to map the genes of its people, according to five Ministry of Public Security patent filings.

      The company has also sold equipment directly to the authorities in Xinjiang, where the campaign to control the Uighurs has been most intense. At least some of the equipment was intended for use by the police, according to procurement documents. The authorities there said in the documents that the machines were important for DNA inspections in criminal cases and had “no substitutes in China.”

      In February 2013, six ministry researchers credited Thermo Fisher’s Applied Biosystems brand, as well as other companies, with helping to analyze the DNA samples of Han, Uighur and Tibetan people in China, according to a patent filing. The researchers said understanding how to differentiate between such DNA samples was necessary for fighting terrorism “because these cases were becoming more difficult to crack.”

      The researchers said they had obtained 95 Uighur DNA samples, some of which were given to them by the police. Other samples were provided by Uighurs voluntarily, they said.

      Thermo Fisher was criticized by Senator Marco Rubio, Republican of Florida, and others who asked the Commerce Department to prohibit American companies from selling technology to China that could be used for purposes of surveillance and tracking.

      On Wednesday, Thermo Fisher said it would stop selling its equipment in Xinjiang, a decision it said was “consistent with Thermo Fisher’s values, ethics code and policies.”

      “As the world leader in serving science, we recognize the importance of considering how our products and services are used — or may be used — by our customers,” it said.

      Human rights groups praised Thermo Fisher’s move. Still, they said, equipment and information flows into China should be better monitored, to make sure the authorities elsewhere don’t send them to Xinjiang.

      “It’s an important step, and one hopes that they apply the language in their own statement to commercial activity across China, and that other companies are assessing their sales and operations, especially in Xinjiang,” said Sophie Richardson, the China director of Human Rights Watch.

      American lawmakers and officials are taking a hard look at the situation in Xinjiang. The Trump administration is considering sanctions against Chinese officials and companies over China’s treatment of the Uighurs.

      China’s tracking campaign unnerved people like Tahir Hamut. In May 2017, the police in the city of Urumqi in Xinjiang drew the 49-year-old Uighur’s blood, took his fingerprints, recorded his voice and took a scan of his face. He was called back a month later for what he was told was a free health check at a local clinic.

      Mr. Hamut, a filmmaker who is now living in Virginia, said he saw between 20 to 40 Uighurs in line. He said it was absurd to think that such frightened people had consented to submit their DNA.

      “No one in this situation, not under this much pressure and facing such personal danger, would agree to give their blood samples for research,” Mr. Hamut said. “It’s just inconceivable.”

      #USA #Etats-Unis #ADN #DNA #Ouïghours #université #science #génétique #base_de_données

  • Le monde selon #Xi_Jinping

    Depuis 2012, le désormais « président à vie » Xi Jinping a concentré tous les pouvoirs sur sa personne, avec l’obsession de faire de la #Chine la superpuissance du XXIe siècle. Plongée au coeur de son « rêve chinois ».

    Derrière son apparente bonhomie se cache un chef redoutable, prêt à tout pour faire de la Chine la première puissance mondiale, d’ici au centenaire de la République populaire, en 2049. En mars dernier, à l’issue de vastes purges, Xi Jinping modifie la Constitution et s’intronise « président à vie ». Une concentration des pouvoirs sans précédent depuis la fin de l’ère maoïste. Né en 1953, ce fils d’un proche de Mao Zedong révoqué pour « complot antiparti » choisit à l’adolescence, en pleine tourmente de la Révolution culturelle, un exil volontaire à la campagne, comme pour racheter la déchéance paternelle. Revendiquant une fidélité aveugle au Parti, il gravira en apparatchik « plus rouge que rouge » tous les degrés du pouvoir.
    Depuis son accession au secrétariat général du Parti en 2012, puis à la présidence l’année suivante, les autocritiques d’opposants ont réapparu, par le biais de confessions télévisées. Et on met à l’essai un système de surveillance généralisée censé faire le tri entre les bons et les mauvais citoyens. Inflexible sur le plan intérieur, Xi Jinping s’est donné comme objectif de supplanter l’Occident à la tête d’un nouvel ordre mondial. Son projet des « routes de la soie » a ainsi considérablement étendu le réseau des infrastructures chinoises à l’échelle planétaire. Cet expansionnisme stratégique, jusque-là développé en silence, inquiète de plus en plus l’Europe et les États-Unis.

    Impériale revanche
    Dans ce portrait très documenté du leader chinois, Sophie Lepault et Romain Franklin donnent un aperçu inédit de sa politique et montrent que l’itinéraire de Xi Jinping a façonné ses choix. De Pékin à Djibouti – l’ancienne colonie française est depuis 2017 la première base militaire chinoise à l’étranger – en passant par la mer de Chine méridionale et l’Australie, les réalisateurs passent au crible les projets et les stratégies d’influence du nouvel homme fort de la planète. Nourrie d’images d’archives et de témoignages (de nombreux experts et de dissidents, mais aussi d’un haut gradé proche du pouvoir), leur enquête montre comment Xi Jinping a donné à la reconquête nationaliste de la grandeur impériale chinoise, projet nourri dès l’origine par la République populaire, une spectaculaire ampleur.

    #biographie #démocratie #trauma #traumatisme #Mao #révolution_culturelle #Terres_Jaunes #exil #Prince_Rouge #nationalisme #rêve_chinois #renaissance_nationale #histoire_nationale #totalitarisme #stabilité #idéologie #anti-corruption #lutte_contre_la_corruption #purge #dictature #investissements_à_l'étranger #prêts #dette #KUKA #ports #droits_humains #Australie #infiltration_chinoise #Nouvelle-Zélande #David_Cameron #Jean-Pierre_Raffarin #matières_premières #capitalisme_autoritaire #Ouïghours #arrestations #répression #censure #liberté_d'expression #défilés_militaires #armée #puissance_militaire #Mer_de_Chine_méridionale #îles_de_Spratleys #liberté_de_la_presse #prisonniers_politiques #Hong_Kong

    #Djibouti #base_militaire (de Djibouti)

    #Sri_Lanka —> Au Sri Lanka, le #port de #Hambantota est sous contrôle chinois, ceci pour au moins 99 ans (accord signé avec le Sri Lanka qui n’a pas pu rembourser le prêt que la Chine lui a accorder pour construire le port...)
    v. aussi :
    Comment la Chine a fait main basse sur le Sri Lanka

    Histoire semblable pour le #Port_du_Pirée à #Athènes, en #Grèce ou l’#aéroport de #Toulouse, en #France.

    #Organisation_de_coopération_de_Shangaï :

    #Grande_unité_mondiale #enrichissement_pour_tous

    Quelques cartes et images tirées du #film #documentaire.

    La #nouvelle_route_de_la_soie et autres investissements chinois dans les infrastructures mondiales de #transport :

    La #Chinafrique :

    Afrique où la Chine propose la « #solution_chinoise », programme de #développement basé sur le #développement_économique —> « #modèle_chinois de développement »

    Le programme de #surveillance_de_masse :

    Outre la surveillance, mise en place d’un programme appelé « #crédit_social » :

    Le #Système_de_crédit_social est un projet du gouvernement chinois visant à mettre en place d’ici 2020 un système national de #réputation_des_citoyens. Chacun d’entre eux se voit attribuer une note, échelonnée entre 350 et 950 points, dite « crédit social », fondée sur les données dont dispose le gouvernement à propos de leur statut économique et social. Le système repose sur un outil de surveillance de masse et utilise les technologies d’analyse du #big_data. Il est également utilisé pour noter les entreprises opérant sur le marché chinois.


    Voici ce que cela donne :

    #surveillance #contrôle_de_la_population #vidéosurveillance #reconnaissance_faciale #contrôle_social
    #cartographie #visualisation
    ping @etraces

    ping @reka

  • Tracking China’s Muslim Gulag

    China is accused of incarcerating hundreds of thousands of Muslims in detention camps that are rising from the desert sands in Xinjiang. A forensic analysis of satellite images of 39 of these facilities shows they are expanding at a rapid rate.

    #chine #camps_de_travail #musulman #Ouïghours #détention

    • Très belle illustration visuelle !

      La légende des différentes étapes :

      Here are the footprints of all 39 camps. Prior to April 2017, these facilities had a total of 539 buildings covering 379,000 square meters.

      By August this year, the number of buildings at these facilities had more than doubled to 1,129. The area they covered had almost tripled to more than 1 million square meters - roughly the size of 140 soccer fields.

      And the expansion continues. A further 67 buildings, covering an area of 210,000 square meters, are now under construction in these compounds, according to the most recent satellite imagery that was analyzed.

      Infographie vraiment remarquable.

      #merci @odilon

    • Opinion: The Strange Silence Over China’s Muslim Crackdown

      President Trump says trade talks between the United States and China have been, “going very well.” The United States put $250 billion worth of tariffs on Chinese goods last year, to counter what it considers unfair trade practices and theft of U.S. technology.

      But there are no indications the United States, the United Nations, or any government is prepared to use any economic or diplomatic leverage to oppose China locking up between 800,000 and 2 million Uighurs, Kazakhs and other Chinese Muslims into internment camps in the western Xinjiang region.

      The camps are in remote locations — closed to the world — and ringed with barbed wire. But they have been photographed by satellite. The Chinese government calls them “re-education centers,” a phrase that carries a sinister history from the murderous purges of Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution.

      The people in the camps are forced to denounce their faith and pledge loyalty to the Communist Party. According to multiple reports, a number of people in the camps have also been tortured.

      As Sophie Richardson, China director at Human Rights Watch, told The Independent, “If any other government in the world was locking up a million Muslims I think we can reasonably expect to have seen demands for a debate at the U.N. Security Council or an international investigation. That’s generally unlikely to happen with China.”

      There were calls in the U.S. Congress last fall for the Trump administration to consider sanctions against China for what Secretary of State Mike Pompeo denounced as “awful abuses.”

      But China is America’s largest creditor: it holds more than a trillion dollars in U.S. Treasury securities. Look down at whatever you’re wearing, carrying, riding in or working on right now. American businesses get rich relying on Chinese workers who earn low wages to produce our clothing, mobile phones, building materials, and dazzling new tech devices.

      The Trump administration imposed tariffs on China over unfair trade practices. But it has offered no more than a few rhetorical flourishes over human rights crimes. Neither did the Obama administration, or the European Union.

      And Muslim countries — including Saudi Arabia and Iran — have been similarly, conspicuously, silent. China invests heavily, and strategically in their nations too.

      Sometimes, the price of human rights just cannot compete.


  • China blacklists millions of people from booking flights as ’social credit’ system introduced

    Officials say aim is to make it ‘difficult to move’ for those deemed ‘untrustworthy’.

    Millions of Chinese nationals have been blocked from booking flights or trains as Beijing seeks to implement its controversial “#social_credit” system, which allows the government to closely monitor and judge each of its 1.3 billion citizens based on their behaviour and activity.

    The system, to be rolled out by 2020, aims to make it “difficult to move” for those deemed “untrustworthy”, according to a detailed plan published by the government this week.

    It will be used to reward or punish people and organisations for “trustworthiness” across a range of measures.

    A key part of the plan not only involves blacklisting people with low social credibility scores, but also “publicly disclosing the records of enterprises and individuals’ untrustworthiness on a regular basis”.

    The plan stated: “We will improve the credit blacklist system, publicly disclose the records of enterprises and individuals’ untrustworthiness on a regular basis, and form a pattern of distrust and punishment.”

    For those deemed untrustworthy, “everywhere is limited, and it is difficult to move, so that those who violate the law and lose the trust will pay a heavy price”.

    The credit system is already being rolled out in some areas and in recent months the Chinese state has blocked millions of people from booking flights and high-speed trains.

    According to the state-run news outlet Global Times, as of May this year, the government had blocked 11.14 million people from flights and 4.25 million from taking high-speed train trips.

    The state has also begun to clamp down on luxury options: 3 million people are barred from getting business class train tickets, according to Channel News Asia.

    The aim, according to Hou Yunchun, former deputy director of the development research centre of the State Council, is to make “discredited people become bankrupt”, he said earlier this year.

    The eastern state of Hangzou, southwest of Shanghai, is one area where a social credit system is already in place.

    People are awarded credit points for activities such as undertaking volunteer work and giving blood donations while those who violate traffic laws and charge “under-the-table” fees are punished.

    Other infractions reportedly include smoking in non-smoking zones, buying too many video games and posting fake news online.

    Punishments are not clearly detailed in the government plan, but beyond making travel difficult, are also believed to include slowing internet speeds, reducing access to good schools for individuals or their children, banning people from certain jobs, preventing booking at certain hotels and losing the right to own pets.

    When plans for the social credit scheme were first announced in 2014, the government said the aim was to “broadly shape a thick atmosphere in the entire society that keeping trust is glorious and breaking trust is disgraceful”.

    As well as the introduction in Beijing, the government plans a rapid national rollout. “We will implement a unified system of credit rating codes nationwide,” the country’s latest five-year plan stated.

    The move comes as Beijing also faces international scrutiny over its treatment of a Muslim minority group, who have been told to turn themselves in to authorities if they observe practices such as abstention from alcohol.

    #Hami city government in the far-western #Xinjiang region said people “poisoned by extremism, terrorism and separatism” would be treated leniently if they surrendered within the next 30 days.

    As many as a million Muslim Uighurs are believed to have been rounded up and placed in “re-education” centres, in what China claims is a clampdown on religious extremism.

    #Chine #surveillance #contrôle #liberté_de_mouvement #liberté_de_circulation #mobilité #crédit_social #comportement #liste_noire #volontariat #points #don_de_sang #alcool #extrémisme #terrorisme #séparatisme #Ouïghours

    via @isskein

  • En Chine, les musulmans du Xinjiang fichés jusqu’au sang - Libération

    Selon l’ONG Human Rights Watch, les autorités enregistrent les données biologiques de la totalité des habitants.

    C’est un épisode qui semble sorti tout droit d’un film de science-fiction des années 70. Depuis un an, les autorités chinoises ont mis en place un programme nommé « des examens médicaux pour tous » dans la province reculée du Xinjiang. Mais selon l’ONG Human Rights Watch, qui s’est procuré les « consignes pour l’enregistrement et une vérification précise de la population », des échantillons #ADN et sanguins, le scan de l’iris et les empreintes digitales semblent être enregistrés sans l’accord des patients.

    Région désertique de l’extrême ouest de la Chine, située à 3000 kilomètres de Pékin, le #Xinjiang est habité par 10 millions de #Ouïghours, des #musulmans turcophones, et autant de Chinois Han installés par le pouvoir depuis deux décennies. Au prétexte d’une réelle menace terroriste (plusieurs attentats ont été commis ces dernières années, et des dizaines de Ouïghours avaient rejoint les rangs d’Al-Qaeda ou de l’Etat islamique en Syrie), le Parti communiste chinois a transformé la province en laboratoire sécuritaire et ses habitants, en très grande majorité pacifistes et sans vélléité indépendantiste, en cobayes d’un #néototalitarisme.

    Les documents analysés par Human Rights Watch cette semaine donnent pour consigne de « vérifier le nombre exact de la population du Xinjiang, et de rassembler des informations biométriques multiples sur les personnes âgées de 12 à 65 ans ». Dans le cas des citoyens « personnellement ciblés », ce qui peut signifier n’importe qui accusé d’un comportement « suspect » aux yeux des autorités, l’information doit être collectée sans restriction d’âge. Les autorités demandent à la police et aux comités locaux du Parti communiste de « protéger les droits de la population, de les guider dans la coopération », et de s’assurer que les informations soient collectées « pour tout le monde, dans chaque maison, dans chaque village du Xinjiang, et que nul ne manque ».

    Aucune mention de l’accord des habitants n’apparaît. Selon les témoignages recueillis par l’ONG, les habitants seraient fermement incités à se présenter aux visites médicales, pourtant présentées comme une démarche volontaire. La Chine est donc en train de collecter des informations ultrasensibles sur des millions de citoyens qui n’ont aucun lien avec une entreprise criminelle ou terroriste. Les autorités sont aidées par deux entreprises américaines, Thermo Fisher Scientific, qui procure l’équipement pour le séquençage des ADN, et la sulfureuse société de sécurité privée #Blackwater, qui entraîne les agents de sécurité dans cette région au sous-sol riche en réserves pétrolières.

    Ces dernières consignes ne sont pas limitées aux musulmans, mais elles viennent s’ajouter à une longue liste de limitations des libertés et de persécutions qui les vise directement. La pratique de la religion est désormais considérée comme une « menace pour la sécurité », et de nombreuses mosquées ont été détruites. On peut se faire arrêter parce que l’on porte une « barbe anormale » ou qu’on a écrit « halal » sur sa devanture, que l’on a « refusé de suivre les programmes officiels de radio ou de télévision » ou que l’on a donné à son bébé un prénom musulman interdit, comme Mohamed ou Arafat. Depuis octobre 2016, Chen Quanguo, nouveau secrétaire régional du Parti communiste, perfectionne dans le désert du Taklamakan sa méthode de « gestion sociale par le quadrillage » qu’il a mise au point sur les hauts plateaux du Tibet. Des milliers de postes de police ont été installés dans les villes, des barrages de police équipés de scanners 3D se sont multipliés sur les routes, la 4G a été supprimée, le GPS rendu obligatoire et une vaste campagne de délation rémunérée a été lancée par les autorités.

    Aussi extrêmes qu’elles soient au Xinjiang, ces mesures humiliantes et liberticides s’inscrivent dans la ligne générale du Parti communiste chinois, qui prône depuis toujours le contrôle et la répression sur l’ensemble de la population. Elles rejoignent aussi l’obsession sécuritaire de Xi Jinping, qui vient d’être reconduit pour cinq ans à la tête du pays. A sa prise de fonctions, Chen Quanguo avait confisqué les passeports des 20 millions d’habitants de la province. Pour déposer une nouvelle demande, il fallait accepter de livrer ses données biométriques. Désormais, la collecte est passée au stade industriel.
    Laurence Defranoux

    #chine #islamophobie #Thermo_Fisher_Scientific #contrôle #biométrique

  • Uighur students in limbo after crackdown in Egypt

    Mehmet Nur has been hiding out, spending time in mosques, living at friends’ houses and avoiding police at all costs since Egyptian authorities began a crackdown on Uighur residents, arresting scores of them in July.


    #ouïghours #Egypte #migrations #étudiants #limbe #arrestations #répression #migrants_ouïghours

  • Valuing Culture Over Money in an Ancient Chinese City

    For more than two millennia, #Kashgar, in far western China, has served as an oasis along the Northern Silk Road, connecting the eastern empires to central Asia, Persia and beyond. Surrounded by a harsh, dry desert, the city has been ruled alternately by Chinese, Mongol, Turkic and Tibetan powers.

    #Ouïghours #photographie #Chine

  • Le Xinjiang et la question ouïghoure


    Vaste comme trois fois la France, le Xinjiang a longtemps été un des principaux carrefours des fameuses routes de la soie. Conquis par la dynastie mandchoue des Qing au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, il se situe à la confluence entre le monde des steppes dans sa partie nord et celui des oasis centrasiatiques dans sa partie sud. Le paysage ethno-religieux qui le caractérise est le fruit des interactions ancestrales entre ces deux mondes, le puissant voisin chinois à l’est et les marges voisines du sous-continent indien au sud.

    #chine #xingjiang #ouïghours

  • Le combat d’une mère ouïgoure pour les disparus d’Urumqi

    Patigul Ghulam est une petite femme ouïgoure, obstinée comme un roc. Une seule obsession l’habite : connaître la vérité sur la disparition de son fils de 17 ans aux mains de la police chinoise, en 2009. Incarcérée depuis mai 2014, Mme Ghulam aurait été jugée à huis clos jeudi 7 avril à Urumqi, la capitale de la région autonome ouïgoure du Xinjiang, pour « divulgation de secrets d’Etat à des forces étrangères ».

    Au fil des ans, la sexagénaire est devenue la plus tenace d’une fronde éparse de parents de « disparus d’Urumqi », ces hommes ouïgours, jeunes pour la plupart, saisis lors des rafles policières consécutives aux heurts interethniques du 5 juillet 2009. Les Ouïgours, musulmans et turcophones, sont le peuple autochtone du #Xinjiang, dernière marche de l’empire chinois avant l’Asie centrale. Ballottés d’une administration à l’autre, ces pétitionnaires ont vite subi un harcèlement policier intense. Patigul Ghulam fut détenue à maintes reprises. Sa dernière arrestation eut lieu après l’attentat suicide du marché d’#Urumqi de mai 2014 (39 morts), un crime avec lequel cette veuve, mère de quatre enfants, n’avait évidemment rien à voir. On lui reprochait une interview à la radio américaine Radio Free Asia (RFA), doté d’un service en ouïgour très actif.


  • Le Parti islamique du Turkestan (Turkistan Islamic Party), groupe jihadiste principalement composé de Ouïghours, qui opère désormais aussi dans le Nord-Ouest de la Syrie en collaboration notamment avec al-Nusra, vient de publier sur son compte twitter des photos les montrant en train d’utiliser des missiles anti-tanks américains TOW dans des combats récents contre l’armée syrienne dans les plaines du Ghab (nord de Hama).
    Photo du compte twitter : https://twitter.com/turkstanIslamia/status/679199894654074880

    Si la chose est avérée, la question se pose une nouvelle fois, comme pour d’autres groupes jihadistes, de savoir qui leur a livré ces armes. Certains des alliés des Américains qui en ont récemment acheté (Arabie saoudite/Qatar) ou bien des groupes labellisés modérés de l’Armée Syrienne Libre équipés avec ces missiles par la CIA ?
    Précision : le Parti Islamique du Turkestan - très probablement soutenu par la Turquie (voir l’article de Sy Hersh) - est classé organisation terroriste par l’ONU, l’UE, les USA, la Russie et la Chine...

    Turkistan Islamic Party claims using US-made anti-tank missile in northwest Syria

    The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP), an al Qaeda-linked Uighur jihadist group, has posted a photo to social media claiming its fighters recently used at least one US-made TOW anti-tank missile against Syrian regime forces in northwestern Syria. This photo is part of a wider release from the strategic Al Ghab plain in northern Hama province.
    The photo above was released on one of the TIP’s official Twitter accounts with an English caption saying, “The Turkistani mujahideen brothers deliver a strong response to the Nusayri [derogatory term referring to the Assad regime] army by the Russians.” However, it is unclear if the jihadist group is actually using the American-made missile. It is entirely possible that a TOW-supplied rebel group belonging to the Free Syrian Army (FSA) was operating alongside the TIP at the time of the photo. While many jihadist groups, including al Qaeda’s official branch in the country, operate in the Al Ghab plain, several FSA groups operate alongside these forces against the Assad regime and its allies.
    If the missile was operated by an FSA group, this would offer more evidence that TOW-supplied rebel groups continue to support jihadist operations in the country

  • #Ouïghours, prisonniers de l’absurde

    Vingt-deux hommes se trouvent en #Afghanistan en octobre 2001 lorsque les États-Unis envahissent le pays pour traquer Oussama ben Laden. Ils sont turcophones musulmans et appartiennent à la minorité chinoise ouïghoure, réprimée par le pouvoir central de Beijing. Du nord de la #Chine à la base américaine de #Guantanamo, le nouveau #film de #Patricio_Henrìquez suit l’incroyable odyssée de trois de ces #rescapés de l’absurde associés malgré eux au #terrorisme mondial.


    Bande annonce :

  • Des mariages mixtes rémunérés pour faire taire les Ouïghours

    Le district de Qiemo vient d’annoncer l’octroi d’une allocation d’un montant d’environ 1 250 euros annuels pendant cinq ans aux nouveaux époux de couples mixtes, si tant est que l’un d’eux est han (chinois de souche) et l’autre une « minorité ethnique ». Cette prime, destinée officiellement à promouvoir « l’intégration culturelle », représente plus que le revenu annuel moyen de ce district.

  • Une ville chinoise interdit le bus aux barbus - Libération

    Une ville du Xinjiang, région musulmane du nord-est de la Chine, a interdit aux hommes barbus et aux femmes voilées de prendre les transports en commun, selon un média officiel, suscitant l’ire d’un groupe de défense des droits des #Ouïghours. Les autorités de Karamay ont interdit aux hommes portant « de grandes barbes » et aux personnes arborant le croissant islamique sur leurs vêtements de monter à bord des bus municipaux, a rapporté le Quotidien de Karamay, un journal local.

    De même, les femmes portant un hijab (voile couvrant les cheveux et le cou), un niqab (qui couvre le visage pour n’en montrer que les yeux) ou une burqa (qui cache entièrement le corps) sont bannies des transports en commun. « Ceux qui ne coopèrent pas avec les équipes d’inspection auront affaire à la police », a averti le journal. Cette interdiction s’applique durant toute la durée d’une compétition sportive locale, qui doit s’achever le 20 août, a-t-il précisé.

    #discrimination #islamophobie #Chine #voile #barbe

  • #Chine : des #arrestations après le #carnage de la #gare de #Kunming

    La #police #chinoise a annoncé l’arrestation de trois personnes suspectées de faire partie du « gang de terroristes » #ouïghours qui a tué, à l’aide de #couteaux, 29 voyageurs dans la gare de Kunming samedi soir, en blessant 143 autres, dont plusieurs sont dans un état toujours critique.


    Revue de Presse Hebdomadaire sur la Chine du 03/03/2014

  • #Tuerie à #Kunming : 29 morts, la #Chine accuse des « #terroristes »

    Des assaillants armés de #couteau se sont livrés à une véritable tuerie samedi soir en gare de Kunming, dans le sud-ouest de la Chine, tuant au moins 29 personnes, une attaque inédite et « terroriste » selon #Pékin qui a désigné les séparatistes #ouïghours musulmans du #Xinjiang.

    Un drame terrible qui ne doit pas pour autant masquer les tensions inter-ethniques vives dans cette région du Nord-Ouest de la Chine


    Revue de Presse Hebdomadaire sur la Chine du 03/03/2014

  • Chine : L’attaque au couteau du « 3.01 » suscite le débat sur l’internet | Encres de Chine

    L’évènement restera sous le nom de « 3.01 », c’est la plus importante attaque terroriste menée à ce jour sur le territoire chinois. Il était un peu plus de 21 heures hier soir lorsqu’un groupe armé de couteaux s’en est pris aux voyageurs de la gare de Kunming dans le sud-ouest du pays. Le bilan encore provisoire fait état de 33 morts et plus d’une centaine de blessés. Un attentat qui selon Pékin porte la marque des séparatistes ouighours

    #Chine #attentat #ouighours

  • #Chine : au #Xinjiang, #méfiance et #haine séparent #Han et #Ouïghours

    Dans la ville d’origine de « terroristes » accusés par les autorités chinoises d’un récent attentat place #Tiananmen à #Pékin, les clivages ethniques sont bien marqués, à l’image de ce restaurateur qui bannit de son établissement les musulmans ouïghours.

    La « ville des terroristes »...avec un tel phrasé, ça n’aide pas à se détendre ; merci @le_Parisien...


    Revue de Presse Hebdomadaire sur la Chine du 18/11/2013

  • #Tiananmen : Pourquoi la #Chine #suspecte des #Ouïghours

    La #police est sur la piste de #suspects venant de la région du Xinjiang après qu’un véhicule a foncé sur la foule puis explosé place Tiananmen lundi

    Suite à l’attentat s’étant produit sur la Place Tian An Men (天安门) le lundi 28 octobre 2013, les recherchent semblent se focaliser sur des terroristes d’origine Ouïghours


    Revue de Presse Hebdomadaire sur la Chine du 28/10/2013

  • Uighurs in China Say Bias Is Growing - NYTimes.com


    KASHGAR, China — Job seekers looking for opportunities in this ancient oasis town in China’s far western Xinjiang region would seem to have ample options, based on a quick glance at a local help-wanted Web site. The Kashgar Cultural Center has an opening for an experienced dance choreographer, the prefectural Communist Party office is hiring a driver and nearby Shule County needs an archivist.

    #chine #xinjiang #ouighours