• Que feriez-vous de 10m² en bas de chez vous ?
    http://carfree.fr/index.php/2021/03/18/que-feriez-vous-de-10m2-en-bas-de-chez-vous

    Et si nous pouvions enfin lâcher la main de nos enfants dans les rues parisiennes ? Ne plus longer des #parkings à ciel ouvert au cœur de nos quartiers lorsque nous Lire la suite...

    #Alternatives_à_la_voiture #Fin_de_l'automobile #Marche_à_pied #Vélo #parcs #paris #piétons #stationnement #ville

  • L’invention du colonialisme vert
    Pour en finir avec le mythe de l’Éden africain
    de Guillaume Blanc

    Lu ce #livre pas mal du tout
    https://editions.flammarion.com/Catalogue/hors-collection/essais/linvention-du-colonialisme-vert

    L’histoire débute à la fin du XIXe siècle. Persuadés d’avoir retrouvé en #Afrique la #nature disparue en Europe, les #colons créent les premiers #parcs_naturels du continent, du Congo jusqu’en Afrique du Sud. Puis, au lendemain des années 1960, les anciens administrateurs coloniaux se reconvertissent en #experts_internationaux. Il faudrait sauver l’Éden ! Mais cette Afrique n’existe pas. Il n’y a pas de vastes territoires vierges de présence humaine, et arpentés seulement par ces hordes d’animaux sauvages qui font le bonheur des safaris touristiques. Il y a des peuples, qui circulent depuis des millénaires, ont fait souche, sont devenus éleveurs ici ou cultivateurs là. Pourtant, ces hommes, ces femmes et enfants seront – et sont encore – expulsés par milliers des parcs naturels africains, où ils subissent aujourd’hui la violence quotidienne des éco-gardes soutenus par l’#Unesco, le #WWF et tant d’autres ONG.
    Convoquant archives inédites et récits de vie, ce livre met au jour les contradictions des pays développés qui détruisent chez eux la nature qu’ils croient protéger là-bas, prolongeant, avec une stupéfiante bonne conscience, le schème d’un nouveau genre de #colonialisme : le colonialisme vert.

    Guillaume Blanc parle de « conservationnistes » (exploiter les ressources naturelles, mais sans les épuiser) mais selon Thierry Paquot il serait plutôt question de « préservationnistes » (protéger des territoires de toute activité humaine)
    https://seenthis.net/messages/887068

  • #Covid-19 : #Grenoble associe des citoyens à la gestion de la pandémie

    La ville pilotée par l’écologiste Éric Piolle expérimente un « #comité_de_liaison_citoyen », réuni samedi pour la première fois. Une réponse à la « gestion de crise descendante » mise en œuvre par le gouvernement et son conseil de défense. Au menu : l’organisation des #marchés et le maintien du #lien_social.

    https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/081120/covid-19-grenoble-associe-des-citoyens-la-gestion-de-la-pandemie?onglet=fu

    #démocratie_directe #municipalisme #néo-municipalisme #cogestion #gouvernance_politique #Groupes_d’action_municipale #Hubert_Dubedou #crise_sanitaire #débat_mouvant #violences_conjugales #SDF #sans-abrisme #isolement_social #confinement #parcs #ouverture #fermeture #espace_public #alimentation

  • More Girls To Parks ! Case Study of Einsiedler Park, Vienna, Milota Sidorova

    Compared to boys, girls in the age of 9-12 years don‘t spend as much time in parks and on playgrounds. And while you may have the memory of boys actively playing football all around, girls are really missing. Girls like to chat and spend the time indoors, some explain. Well, you don‘t feel that quite a sufficient explanation even you, yourself not being a gender studies expert.

    Girls pass through Einsiedler park twice a way. Before and after school. They cross the paths through the park and quickly disappear. The park is located in ethnically diverse Viennese district. The other group of girls we have noticed were girls from families of ethnic background. They come and look up for their younger siblings, this is quite typical situation, explains Claudia Prinz-Brandenburg, landscape architect working for Park Department of Vienna.

    The pilot study consisted of several rounds of workshops with girls within one year‘s time. The results were quite surprising and showed there were no facilities for them, girls had no reason to stop here. So an inventory of the park came. Fenced, encaged basketball playground, benches, greenery and relatively poor lighting. Since there was nothing that would serve young girls, Viennese chose the strategy of quick attraction. Different elements like platforms, interactive game installations, hammocks were placed along main pedestrian roads. These elements grabbed attention of passing kids, girls among them. They stopped them for couple of more minutes. And if they are passing walking and talking and have to spend the time outdoors, why not in the park?

    Fear, which is a feeling hard to define by hard data was one of the results of workshops with the girls. They mentioned fear of probable danger. Widening main pedestrian roads leading through the park, improving lighting conditions – these were the first steps. The central element of the park is the enclosed cage playground which we call ballcage among ourselves.

    We enter the playground. After Claudia draws out the idea of fear, for a moment I see myself being eleven years old starting teenager who would be flirting with boys while playing footbal. I could see standing groups of older boys that I dared not to look at. I could see the only door into the cage and them standing very close, controlling walk-ins and walk-outs. And their comments! Oh! The intensity of a sudden memory suprised me even as a thirty years old woman. It is the the fear from impossibility to exit the enclosed space full of strangers, this is the fear that prevents girls from entering playgrounds. To prevent that a redesign ofpark was prepared by the Park Department of Vienna in cooperation with the Coordination Office for Special Needs of Women. The fence was open from three sides and double layered at sites offering three large ways to exit the playground for safe street. Suddenly you feel it and you can breathe.

    Young girls like to watch the game of the others, for example – boys. It takes a little while before they start to play themselves, they like to chat among themselves. Also you can rarely see a girl coming to the playground alone, usually they come in two or in little groups. Only when they feel confident enough they go and play. The playground space is split into two by low platform that was designed for sitting and observing. After a while it became a real center where girls started to play the music, dance and all kinds of informal, spontaneous activities emerged, says Claudia. Finally we had girls in the park!

    Gender mainstreaming carefully analyzes behavior and needs of girls, reorganizes space and improves its usability. It doesn’t necessarily improve aesthetics, but focus on optimizing functions.

    In Einsiedler park we see two playgrounds out of which one is designed for basketball and football. The other one has no signs, no equipment, nothing. With its zero design it is the space for informal ball games. Had we designed the playground, we would immediately formalize another space for football and basketball, games usually performed by boys. Girls tend to play games using whole body, including singing or chatting, throwing ball.

    The effect is that boys and men usually occupy one side of the playground, while the other is used by girls and mixed groups.

    Einsiedler park serves as a central living room of the district. Since the flats are really small here, people tend to spend quite a lot of time outdoors. To be outdoors is partially a culture, partially a necessity, especially for people of ethnic background and low income. So are sisters taking care of their younger siblings on typical playground for the youngest. Here, however they have no place to talk or play themselves. Park Department designed another playground, game elements just next to the place where their siblings are. They also placed tables and benches into the playground for kids below 6 years of age, so their baby sitters can sit inside while having their own space. Two groups of different needs were combined in one space while keeping open-ended options for both of them.

    I am passing through the park that looks nothing special at the first sight. Neither elements, nor materials look any special, hyped by design or another novelty. Still I find myself quite amazed by this behavioral explanation. Gender mainstreaming carefully analyzes behavior and needs of girls, reorganizes space and improves its usability. It doesn’t necessarily improve aesthetics, but focus on optimizing functions.

    Did you achieve what you set out to do?

    Oh yes, after a year we did an evaluation study and found out that the number of girls present in parks increased. So did the amount of informal activities. Results of this pilot project were summarized into guiding principles adopted by Park Department which have been used in design of any new park since then, sums up her part of the walk Claudia Prinz Brandenburg.

    Achieving the knowledge is a thing of expert nature, to pass on the changes – unfortunately – is something quite different.

    For me everything started when I gave birth to my twins. I had to push a giant double stroller over sidewalks of Vienna. Surely you can imagine how terrible that was – cars, narrow, uneven sidewalks, dark corners when one does not see. I immediately realized that life in city does not give the fair chances to women, especially mothers, says Renate Kaufman, sharp woman of grey eyes that directly find their target. Former teacher got incredible sensitivity towards needs of children and parents. Later on she joined politics and two years ago she concluded her fourteen years long mission on as a Chairwoman of 6th Viennese District that became the pilot district of gender mainstreaming implementation.

    Fourteen years, that is quite a time! I say to myself, I – the citizen of Central European space used to four years long political cycles that bring complete opposition towards urban planning policies of the former establishment. Political discontinuity is not efficient, but rather destructive and in its best it is – tiring. Human life however flows continually, from day to day, from year to year, slowly turning decades. It is full of duties and roles that are happening in a physical space of the city. Back home, politics is perceived as a game of sharks, dominant types discouraging more compassionate types from entering it. And when we think of our urban planning it is still considered rather a technical discipline. Parametric control over indicators of traffic, quotas on areas that are be built or not to built, volumes, heights, areas designed as development areas, all of this gives us false feeling that we are planning our cities rationally, ergo, good. But where in all of this we can find true understanding of everyday human life? Try to go even further and bring the term gender equality into this hard professional environment.

    Some municipalities tuned onto words like participation and sustainable development. We are still, however only starting. Reality of participation turns into overuse of surveys, but not a real understanding of groups representing wide range of users. We are still witnessing unprofessional processes which on the top of that are not properly paid. Awareness however kicks in and urban planners and some municipal representatives start to speak about manuals of public spaces.

    How to design good public space? For whom?

    For people.

    What kind of people?

    Well, here is where I usually don’t get the answer much further. But this is the space, the opener where you can really start to get interested in the layer of gender and gender equality. Gender mainstreaming (balancing opportunities for men and women) was implemented in Vienna in 90ties under the directive of European Union. Here is also where I stop using the passive voice. Gender mainstreaming grew into urban planning by pragmatic and practical work of Eva Kail, urban planner who had her own aha moment in 1991. She organized the exhibition Who Owns the Public Space and became interested in connections among old woman, mother, woman of ethnic background, girl using the city. She studied methodologies of gender mainstreaming in architecture and urban planning being already a norm in Germany. Later on, being an employee of Urban Planning Department of the City of Vienna, she started to lobby for budgets. Budgets for pilot studies of user behaviors, budgets for pilot projects – just like the one in Einsiedler park. During her career she was able to assist in more than 60 pilot projects, covering practical aspects of gender mainstreaming and gender equality in housing, transportation, planning and design of small scale public spaces, just like the ones of large scale.

    If you want to do something for women, do something for pedestrians.

    Results showed us women walk and use public transport more than men. Men are more frequent car drivers. Why? Well, this is connected to life roles and duties. If a woman is a mother or care taker, her way through the city is more complex. Men take cars and go to work and back. Usual. This pattern has not changed even in 2016. So, if you want to do something for women, do something for pedestrians, says Kail.

    If women are the major client in public space, how it should function? Try to look at it through eyes of mothers, girls or elderly women. The differences will come out of quite simple observation. The rest is a question of common sense and measures taken.

    How did you achieve all of this in your neighborhood? I ask Renate Kaufmann, who energetically lead our group through the streets and explain why the sidewalks are lower here, why the light was placed there or why the mirror, at all. She is much more persuasive than the gender expert herself. In politics I love to fight for the right causes, she looks at me and for a long time I have nothing to say...

    http://www.wpsprague.com/research-1/2017/1/6/more-girls-to-parks-case-study-of-einsiedler-park-viennamilota-sidorova

    #genre #femmes #espace_public #géographie #Vienne #parcs #parcs_publics #filles #garçons #enfants #enfance #villes #Autriche #urban_matter

    ping @nepthys

  • Faut-il en finir avec la civilisation ?
    Primitivisme et effondrement

    Ernest London

    https://lavoiedujaguar.net/Faut-il-en-finir-avec-la-civilisation-Primitivisme-et-effondrement

    Et si la parabole du péché originel qui nous chassa du jardin d’abondance, représentait le passage d’une vie nomade de chasse et de cueillette à une économie agricole qui nous contraint, depuis, à « gagner notre pain à la sueur de notre front » ? C’est la thèse que défendent certains primitivistes, accusant la révolution néolithique d’être à l’origine de la crise écologique et de toutes les oppressions. Pierre Madelin, avec son sens aigu de la synthèse, déconstruit ces théories, avec cependant beaucoup de nuance, leur reconnaissant parfois de grandes pertinences anthropologiques et historiques.

    Selon les dernières découvertes archéologique, Homo sapiens quitte l’Afrique il y a cent trente-cinq mille ans et colonise petit à petit l’ensemble de la planète, arrivant en Australie en ─ 65000, en Europe de l’Ouest en ─ 43000 et franchissant le détroit de Béring pour peupler les Amériques en ─ 18000. Cette expansion correspond à l’extinction de la mégafaune du Pléistocène, des animaux de plus de 40 kilos. En Afrique, la plupart d’entre eux y sont encore abondants, ayant coévolué pendant des centaines de milliers d’années avec les hommes, alors que partout ailleurs, ils auraient succombé à une chasse excessive et à un usage inconsidéré du feu, sans avoir eu le temps d’adopter des stratégies d’évitement ou de défense. Les sociétés préhistoriques ne vivaient donc pas toujours « en parfaite harmonie avec leur environnement ». Cependant, ces extinctions n’ont pas été massives et n’ont affecté que quelques centaines d’espèces, tandis qu’à l’heure actuelle plus d’un million, animales et végétales, sont « menacées par la dynamique du capitalisme industriel ». (...)

    #Pierre_Madelin #civilisation #primitivisme #Pléistocène #capitalisme_industriel #Pierre_Clastres #Marshall_Sahlins #James_Scott #Emmanuel_Guy #chasseurs-cueilleurs #Alain_Testart #Paléolithique #Murray_Bookchin #écologie_sociale #parcs_nationaux #wilderness #Thoreau

  • L’#écologie_municipale, ou la ville face à son histoire

    Les verts élus dans les grandes #villes doivent faire un #choix : se focaliser sur la qualité de vie de leurs administrés au risque de renforcer la #fracture entre #centres urbains et #périphéries, ou au contraire renouer avec les #territoires_fantômes que les #métropoles consomment et consument.

    Après le succès des candidatures et alliances écologistes dans certaines des plus grandes villes de France dimanche, une chose a très peu retenu l’attention des commentateurs politiques. C’est le paradoxe, au moins en apparence, d’une #métropolisation de l’écologie politique – le fait que les valeurs vertes semblent trouver dans les grands centres urbains leur principal lieu d’élection. Au lieu de s’interroger sur les motivations et les idéaux des personnes qui peuplent ces villes pour essayer d’y lire l’avenir, peut-être faut-il alors renverser la perspective et regarder l’objet même que constitue la #ville, sa réalité indissociablement écologique et politique.

    Au regard de l’#histoire, cette #urbanisation des #valeurs_vertes ne va pas du tout de soi. La ville a souvent été définie, en Europe au moins, par l’enveloppe protectrice des remparts qui tenait à distance les ennemis humains et non humains (animaux, maladies), et qui matérialisait la différence entre l’espace de la cité et son pourtour agraire et sauvage. En rassemblant les fonctions politiques, symboliques, sacerdotales, les villes engendrent des formes de socialité qui ont fasciné les grands penseurs de la modernisation. Saint-Simon, par exemple, voyait dans la commune médiévale italienne l’origine du développement matériel et moral propre à la #modernité. Durkheim, plus tard, faisait de la ville le prototype du milieu fait par et pour l’humain, le seul espace où pouvait se concrétiser le projet d’#autonomie.

    Aspirations urbaines

    Mais les villes sont également devenues, avec le processus d’#industrialisation, de gigantesques métabolismes matériels. L’explosion démographique des métropoles industrielles au XIXe siècle va de pair avec la concentration du travail, de l’énergie, et plus largement des flux de matière qui irriguent l’économie globale. Au cœur des transformations de la vie sociale, la ville est aussi au cœur de ses transformations matérielles : elle aspire d’immenses quantités de ressources, pour les relancer ensuite dans le commerce sous forme de marchandises. En laissant au passage les corps épuisés des travailleurs et des travailleuses, ainsi que des montagnes de déchets visibles ou invisibles, résidus non valorisés du processus productif.

    Ainsi la ville irradie le monde moderne de son prestige symbolique et culturel, mais elle tend aussi à déchirer le tissu des circularités écologiques. L’un ne va pas sans l’autre. Chaque ville, par définition, est tributaire de circuits d’approvisionnement qui alimentent ses fonctions productives, ou simplement qui la nourrissent et la débarrassent des contraintes spatiales. Chaque ville est entourée d’une périphérie fantôme qui l’accompagne comme son ombre, et qui est faite des #banlieues où vivent les exclus du #rêve_métropolitain, des champs cultivés et des sous-sols exploités. Chaque urbain mobilise malgré lui un espace où il ne vit pas, mais dont il vit.

    L’une des sources de la #sensibilité_écologique contemporaine se trouve justement dans la critique de l’avant-garde urbaine. Dans l’Angleterre victorienne, William Morris ou John Ruskin retournent à la #campagne pour démontrer qu’une relation organique au #sol est susceptible de régénérer la civilisation, sans pour autant compromettre les idéaux d’émancipation. Mais ils luttaient contre une tendance historique dont l’extraordinaire inertie a rapidement provoqué la disqualification de ces expériences. Surtout pour le #mouvement_ouvrier, qui avait en quelque sorte besoin des formes spécifiquement urbaines d’#aliénation pour construire la #solidarité_sociale en réponse.

    Si l’on replace dans cette séquence d’événements le phénomène d’urbanisation des attentes écologiques actuelles alors il y a de quoi s’interroger sur l’avenir. Deux trajectoires possibles peuvent s’esquisser, qui ont cela d’intéressant qu’elles sont à la fois absolument irréconciliables sur un plan idéologique et matériel, et quasiment impossibles à distinguer l’une de l’autre dans le discours des nouveaux édiles de la cité verte.

    Faire atterrir le #métabolisme_urbain

    D’un côté, on trouve le scénario d’une consolidation des #inégalités_sociales et spatiales à partir des valeurs vertes. Pour le dire de façon schématique, les grands pôles urbains poussent la #désindustrialisation jusqu’à son terme en éliminant les dernières nuisances et toxicités propres à la #ville_productive : elles se dotent de parcs, limitent les transports internes et créent des #aménités_paysagères (comme la réouverture de la Bièvre à Paris). C’est ce que la sociologie appelle la #gentrification_verte, dont #San_Francisco est le prototype parfois mis en avant par les prétendants écologistes aux grandes mairies. Au nom d’une amélioration difficilement critiquable de la qualité de vie, la ville des #parcs et #jardins, des boutiques bio, des #mobilités_douces et des loyers élevés court le risque d’accroître le #fossé qui la sépare des périphéries proches et lointaines, condamnées à supporter le #coût_écologique et social de ce mode de développement. #Paris est de ce point de vue caractéristique, puisque l’artifice administratif qui tient la commune à l’écart de sa banlieue est matérialisé par la plus spectaculaire infrastructure inégalitaire du pays, à savoir le #boulevard_périphérique.

    Mais si le vert peut conduire à consolider la #frontière entre l’intérieur et l’extérieur, et donc à faire de la qualité de vie un bien symbolique inégalement distribué, il peut aussi proposer de l’abolir – ou du moins de l’adoucir. Une réflexion s’est en effet engagée dans certaines municipalités sur le pacte qui lie les centres-villes aux espaces fantômes qu’elles consomment et consument. La #renégociation de la #complémentarité entre #ville et #campagne par la construction de #circuits_courts et de qualité, l’investissement dans des infrastructures de #transport_collectif sobres et égalitaires, le blocage de l’#artificialisation_des_sols et des grands projets immobiliers, tout cela peut contribuer à faire atterrir le #métabolisme_urbain. L’équation est évidemment très difficile à résoudre, car l’autorité municipale ne dispose pas entre ses mains de tous les leviers de décision. Mais il s’agit là d’un mouvement tout à fait singulier au regard de l’histoire, dans la mesure où il ne contribue plus à accroître la concentration du capital matériel et symbolique à l’intérieur de la cité par des dispositifs de #clôture et de #distinction, mais au contraire à alléger son emprise sur les #flux_écologiques.

    Le défi auquel font face les nouvelles villes vertes, ou qui prétendent l’être, peut donc se résumer assez simplement. Sont-elles en train de se confiner dans un espace déconnecté de son milieu au bénéfice d’une population qui fermera les yeux sur le sort de ses voisins, ou ont-elles engagé un processus de #décloisonnement_social et écologique ? L’enjeu est important pour notre avenir politique, car dans un cas on risque le divorce entre les aspirations vertes des centres-villes et la voix des différentes périphéries, des #ronds-points, des lointains extractifs, alors que dans l’autre, une fenêtre s’ouvre pour que convergent les intérêts de différents groupes sociaux dans leur recherche d’un #milieu_commun.

    https://www.liberation.fr/debats/2020/06/30/l-ecologie-municipale-ou-la-ville-face-a-son-histoire_1792880

    #verts #élections_municipales #France #inégalités_spatiales #mobilité_douce #coût_social ##décloisonnement_écologique

    via @isskein
    ping @reka @karine4

  • Je fais appel aux magnifiques seenthisien·nes !

    Je me rappelle d’une #carte, que mon cher copain a prêté à quelqu’un et qui ne lui a jamais été retournée (sic), de #Sarajevo... une carte où on montrait la ville assiégée et les #jardins_potagers qui y étaient cultivés pour survivre...

    La question est la suivante : savez-vous si peut-être je peux retrouver cette carte quelque part ?
    Et autre question : je pense que ce phénomène de transformer les #parcs_urbains en jardins potagers lors de moments de crises n’est pas une spécialité de Sarajevo... Avez-vous d’autres exemples ? Dans d’autres lieux et/ou d’autres époques ?

    Merci !

    #alimentation #guerre #jardinage

    @simplicissimus @reka @odilon @fil

    • Je n’ai pas le temps de chercher @cdb_77 mais j’ai en tête des cas de sécheresse sévère où les éleveurs sont tentés d’emmener leurs troupeaux dans les parcs protégés pour qu’ils puissent s’alimenter. C’était l’an passé, au Kenya je crois, mais je ne sais pas s’ils ont obtenu satisfaction. Et en France aussi, certains éleveurs avaient exprimé une demande dans ce sens. Peut-être peut faire une recherche sur cette base.

    • Dans pas mal de villes, les interstices ont été utilisés pour une agriculture de subsistance. Marion Ernwein saura peut-être te donner des exemples. Baltimore et Detroit,...
      Pour la carte de Sarajevo, peut-être que Béatrice Tratnjek, qui a pas mal bossé sur la géo de la ville en guerre dans les Balkans, pourra t’aider ? http://geographie-ville-en-guerre.blogspot.com

      Régis.

    • Je ne sais pas s’il y a un rapport mais c’est intéressant :
      Inside London’s first underground farm | The Independent
      https://www.independent.co.uk/Business/indyventure/growing-underground-london-farm-food-waste-first-food-miles-a7562151.

      At a time when UK supermarkets haven taken to rationing vegetables as a result of a poor harvest in Southern Europe, one green-fingered duo have found a new solution to the healthy-eating problem: Grow your own greens, deep down below the City of London.

      If you get off the tube at Clapham Common and then step into a cage-like lift that takes you about 100ft below the bustling streets of South London, you’ll find yourself in Growing Underground, an urban farm, housed in a network of dark and dingy tunnels originally built as air-raid shelters during World War II.

    • A #Lisbonne, les parcs deviennent des #potagers_urbains

      A Lisbonne, la municipalité a réagi à la #crise en faisant le pari que l’agriculture urbaine pouvait avoir un rôle social. Des hectares d’espaces verts sont devenus des potagers urbains, et les parcelles attribuées sur critères sociaux à 500 familles. Une façon d’augmenter leurs revenus, tout en améliorant la résilience de la ville et en répondant au changement climatique.

      Et si l’agriculture urbaine pouvait avoir un rôle social ? C’est le pari qu’a fait la mairie de Lisbonne. Car avec la crise, « les gens quittaient la ville et la qualité de vie baissait », observe Duarte Mata, architecte et conseiller auprès du maire en espaces verts et développement durable.

      Depuis 2008, la municipalité a décidé de revoir son approche. Au programme : jardins, vergers et potagers urbains, parcs, corridors verts et pistes cyclables pour relier tous ces espaces de respiration.

      Sur 32 hectares d’espaces verts, 7 sont devenus des potagers ou des jardins urbains. Des parcelles de 50 mètres carrés pour les plus petites, 1500 mètres carrés pour les plus grandes, ont été attribuées à 500 familles. Le but est de doubler ce chiffre d’ici 2017.

      Compléter les revenus, améliorer l’alimentation

      Les plus grandes parcelles sont distribuées en priorité aux chômeurs ou personnes habitant des logements sociaux. « Elles ont vraiment un rôle social, insiste Duarte Mata. Elles permettent de compléter des revenus insuffisants et d’améliorer la qualité de l’alimentation de la famille. »

      Mais cela a aussi transformé le visage de la ville. Les pelouses vertes laissent peu à peu place à des jardins riches en biodiversité. Les occupants de parcelles ont l’obligation de laisser le passage aux promeneurs dans les allées. « Les parcs ont désormais plusieurs fonctions : récréative, mais aussi de production alimentaire, se félicite l’architecte. Et la présence de personnes dans les jardins crée un sentiment de sécurité pour tous. »

      Forte de ce succès, la ville est donc en train d’augmenter la surface des parcs, tout en diminuant les coûts d’entretien. Plus besoin d’arroser les pelouses tout l’été pour les garder bien vertes, ou d’arroser d’herbicides les allées. « Désormais, ce sont les citoyens qui s’occupent des parcs », se réjouit Duarte Mata. Des formations à l’agriculture biologique sont même proposées aux heureux occupants de parcelles.
      Faire face aux pénuries alimentaires et au changement climatique

      De quoi créer une ville plus verte, mais aussi plus résiliente. C’est ce que souligne un article des Centres de ressource en agriculture urbaine, qui résume le plan stratégique d’Agriculture urbaine de la capitale portugaise :

      « Ce plan souligne combien l’agriculture urbaine est importante pour une ville, principalement à cause de sa dépendance aux légumes frais, de la montée des cours internationaux, et du revenu supplémentaire que cela apporte aux familles. Un autre facteur (…) est que cela permet de faire face aux éventuelles pénuries alimentaires. (…) Vous ne savez jamais ce qui peut arriver – événements soudains, catastrophes naturelles ou guerres (…). Par exemple, Lisbonne est située dans une région sismique et subit fréquemment des tremblements de terre, dont un en 1755 qui fût l’un des pires de l’histoire humaine. »

      Résilience, et donc également adaptation au changement climatique. « Chaque année les pluies sont plus intenses, nous avons eu cinq inondations rien que cet hiver », souligne Duarte Mata. Les sols cultivés permettent d’absorber le trop plein d’eau et d’atténuer les conséquences des fortes averses. L’été, les jardins permettent à l’inverse de lutter contre les vagues de chaleur, elles aussi de plus en plus fréquentes.

      Lisbonne n’a donc pas l’intention de s’arrêter en si bon chemin. Trois hectares de vigne, situés dans la ville, sont entretenus par un vigneron de la région. « C’est beau, c’est agréable pour la population, et cela permet à la mairie de produire du vin de la ville », explique le conseiller.

      Mais surtout, d’ici un an c’est carrément une ferme urbaine qui devrait voir le jour. Six hectares de maraîchage seront consacrés à la formation des chômeurs. La production sera vendue sur le marché local.

      De quoi transformer le paysage social de la ville, mais aussi de « faire vivre les gens au rythme des saisons, de la nature », espère l’architecte.

      https://reporterre.net/A-Lisbonne-les-parcs-deviennent
      #agriculture_urbaine

    • Benjamin Vanderlick sur FB:

      je trouve une photo de terrasse potager à Sarajevo pendant le siège (mais n’ai pas de connaissance de carte qui les mentionnait). On a eu assez peu de sièges aussi long ces derniers temps pour qu’une agriculture urbaine s’organise au niveau urbain. Au moment de la 2e Guerre mondiale, il j’ai aussi eu des témoignages d’augmentation de surfaces cultivés dans les jardins, peut être même que cela était l’occasion de faire aussi un peu de business quand les revenus avaient chutés


      https://www.facebook.com/cristina.delbiaggio/posts/10156091823775938?comment_id=10156091876300938

    • Damascus Residents Build Gardens To Feed Themselves

      Disease and malnutrition run rampant and food is scarce in many rebel-held areas blockaded by the Syrian government.

      Green rooftops are popping up across Damascus in neighborhoods under government siege. With no sign of the blockade letting up and no available agricultural land, residents in the rebel-held areas of the capital are making use of open roofs, sunlight and seeds to feed their families

      Rebel-held areas on the outskirts of Damascus have endured more than two years of government blockades aimed at making them surrender or face the prospect of starvation. Disease and malnutrition run rampant and food is scarce.

      Like in many other such areas across the country, some residents of these besieged areas have mustered the will and energy to adapt and survive, often in ingeniously creative ways.

      Notably, rooftop gardens are popping up across the towns that are allowing people to find new ways of feeding themselves and their families. Green patches now dot the rooftops of southern Damascus neighborhoods like Yelda, Babila and Beit Sahem, areas of the capital that have been under government-imposed siege for nearly 24 months.

      https://www.huffpost.com/entry/syria-war-garden_n_567481a2e4b0b958f656c7f9

      #Syrie #Damas

    • "They tried to bury us, but they didn’t know we were SEEDS"

      The 15th Garden, a cross-border movement for food sovereignty in Syria

      Report of two presentations about “The 15th Garden” by Ansar Hevi. This report combines the presentation and discussions during a workshop at Reclaim the Seeds in Nijmegen on March 4 and a meeting in Amsterdam on March 6 2017.

      Ansar Hevi shared with us her story about the 15th Garden, a beautiful, inspiring project for food sovereignty in Syria, where people show their strength via self-organization in a country in war. “In order to understand this project, we have to understand what is happening in Syria”.

      Ansar showed a map of Syria - not one with occupied areas, which we always see in the news - but showing the agricultural produce. Based on this map the political situation and start of the was in Syria was explained. The media in Europe write about the violence and cruelties, but meanwhile the life goes on and so does the revolution. We were the first to watch the latest movie Field of Battle by Abou Naddara where we see farmers continuing their everyday work on the field, with the sounds of war - bombs and gunshots - close by. “They have to, because they are the ones who feed the people. If they stop farming, their community has no food.” and “Farming is about long term planning. Your work for the next 6 month.” Ansar explained how food is used as a weapon. But, as always, there is resistance from the people. She shows a picture from the south of Damascus which states: “One day we will blast the soil open with flowers. The Revolution continues.”

      In 2011, the uprising started in the countryside. On the 15th of March there was a demonstration in Damascus in solidarity with the people in Egypt. On the 18th of March, there were also demonstrations in the south. People were angry at the police. Children had sprayed graffiti on the walls of their schools with sentences they’d seen in Egypt. These children were taken away, tortured. Their parents protested and screamed hopelessly, but the governor told them: “Go home, and make new children.”

      It is remarkable that this were often regions were the Baath party from Assads father had been popular in the past because land reforms of this regime that was relatively socialistic in the ’70s. People had free health insurance, free education etc., but no political rights whatsoever. The government employed half of the working class. But in the meantime there were 17 secret services to control the population and each other. Also the agriculture sector was controlled by the state which is one of the reasons that it is so hard right now to start up local and an independent food production.

      Since the 1990s, Syria had become more and more liberal economically. There was a dictatorship with neo-liberal policies that aligned with the bourgeoisie elites of the country. Because of reduced financial support from abroad the regime had to reduce its expenses. This resulted in the dismantling of the social system. Still, Syria was food sovereign, but farmers had to produce more export, water-intense crops instead of food for the own population. Up until 2011, agriculture was the most important pillar of the economy with 27% of the GDP (in comparison with the industry, only 7% of the GDP). Before 2011, roughly 37% of the country was used for agriculture.

      But after the uprising in the countryside in 2011, everything changed. From the beginning food has been used as weapon to control the people. Around the first besieged cities the agricultural land was ruined. The army of Assad wrote on the walls “Starve or go down on your knees”. They started to undertake all kinds of methods to starve people and make them surrender. Food is used as weapon in various ways:

      – bakeries are bombed;
      – people in prison are starved;
      – fields are burned, right before harvest time;
      – seed banks are bombed, which makes many varieties, adapted to that specific climate over thousands of years, lost for ever;
      – agricultural fields around Kobani are mined;
      – fruit trees are cut and burned;
      – urban and rural communities are sieged;
      – ’policy of scorched earth’: the army goes to an area, burns the soil and forbids access to the area.

      In this way, farmers have been pushed to the cities more and more. They are unable to leave the city, and so they have no other option than to start urban city farms, often on a roof. “If you’re lucky, you have a taller building next to you, so you are protected against gunfire.” Syrians are proud people. “They don’t want to be objects of development aid - they want to be in charge of their own lives: that is food sovereignty.” In besieged areas, people even exchange their car for a kilo of rice.

      People do anything to obtain seeds, which they can sow in their (urban) gardens. These seeds have to be open pollinated seeds, so that the people can save more seeds for the next planting period.

      While the news is extensively covering the international refugee crisis, there is less attention to the people who remain in Syria, many of whom are living under siege. With their cities under attack, it can be extremely difficult to get basic necessities, like food and fresh products. The short movie ’Love during the siege’ gives a good impression of the life in a besieged neighbourhood.

      The 15th Garden is bringing life and vivacity back to these war-torn cities across Syria. It supports locals starting gardens in empty lots, teaching them skills, and provides assistance to existing urban and rural farms. Two main goals of 15th Garden is to get food to those trapped in cities while raising awareness about food sovereignty.

      In Europe the 15th Garden still has to explain people about the cruel situation in Syria. There is a lot of attention for IS. “But there is an important difference between IS and regime: IS is proud about their cruelties while the regime is hiding it. In the past years many more people have been killed and injured by the regime.” There are about 50 communities besieged by the regime and 2 by IS, in one case even together with the regime.

      One major obstacle has been the acquisition of seeds to get the garden projects started. The regime has always been centralised the distribution of seeds; farmers had to hand in their harvest and received new seeds the next season. And obviously the war situation and sieges made it even harder to get access the right seeds.

      Another problem at the start was the lack of knowledge. Many people in the urban areas didn’t know how to grow food. And this resulted in some disappointments as well. To spread the knowledge and to educate gardeners people in Syria publish and distribute newspapers, add tutorial on Youtube and use the radio to reach people.

      Ansar: “It’s beautiful to see the creativity of people, their passion, their will to make it work, and they manage!” Currently, the 15th Garden is also thinking on setting up ways to teach farmers to make and repair their own tools and machines. There are still many challenges, everybody in the network wants food sovereignty, during and after the war: decide about what you want to eat. access to land and to seeds.
      Support the 15th Garden

      In Amsterdam the presentation resulted in a talk about how people in the Netherlands can help and contribute to the network. Some ideas that have been mentioned:

      – Collect seeds to send to Syria. It is important to collect the right seeds: open pollinated, from crops that do grow in the Syrian climate and soil, preferably crops that people like to grow. It is better to have larger quantities of a few good crop than many small bags of many different crops. It would be best to organise the packaging and transport of the seeds before we start to collect them.

      – Help with the production of tutorials for the Syrian gardeners. A lot of info has already been shared on Youtube. There are still some topics uncovered.
      Similar support is also organised for other professions like fire fighters and doctors.

      – Spread the critical news about Syria. Also in the Netherlands people see the IS as the main problem in Syria while many more people are killed by the Assad regime. It would be good to spread the message that also Assad has to go to make peace possible. This can be done by contacting the media but as well by organising solidarity protests in the streets when something happened (again) in Syria and join Syrian protests in the cities in the Netherlands.
      At the meeting in Amsterdam there were as well people who could help with awareness programmes for schools or raise the topic within Syrian women organisations.

      – Raise money for the 15th Garden network. The network is doing a lot of good work but for some of their activities they need some money. A fundraiser can go well together with spreading information about the continuous struggle and revolution in Syria. This could for example be done by organising a benefit dinner. It is already possible to donate. Transfer money to:

      Bassateen e.V.
      IBAN: DE27 4306 0967 1182 7353 00 / BIC: GENODEM1GLS / GLS Bank
      (It is a German bank account. So it could be the case that there will be charges for international charges. Please check this with your bank!)

      – Invite Syrian refugees (and other refugees) to your existing garden project or start a new project with refugees. There are concrete plans to do this at a garden project at a refugees centre at the former Bijlmer Bajes.

      Please contact 15thgarden-nl@aseed.net if you would like to help with one of those ideas or if you have another idea to support the 15th Garden in the Netherlands.

      https://www.reclaimtheseeds.nl/rts2017-15th-garden-syria.htm

    • Dig for Victory! New histories of wartime gardening in Britain

      Prompted by the curious fact that both progressive environmentalists and Conservative Party politicians have recently drawn on popular understandings of austerity associated with Britain?s wartime domestic gardening campaign, this article broadens the range of histories associated with #Dig_for_Victory. It suggests firstly that far from simply encouraging self-sufficiency, the government conceptualised Dig for Victory as requiring the extension of order and control into the domestic sphere. Second, it shows how the ideal figure of a national citizen digging for victory elided differentiated gender and class experiences of gardening, and finally the article demonstrates that statistics of food production were more about fostering trust than picturing the realities of vegetable growing. By so doing the paper illuminates the particular ways in which present-day articulations of Dig for Victory?s history are partial and selective.

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305748812000230

      #UK #Angleterre

    • The kitchen garden movement on the Soviet home front, 1941–1945

      During World War II, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union had thriving domestic gardening movements. Actively promoted by their governments, gardening was supposed to supplement diets and nourish the patriotic spirit. In the Soviet Union, however, gardening was much more than a patriotic duty; it was often a matter of survival, the primary means of supplementing near starvation bread rations. Amidst incomparable, catastrophic wartime conditions, the huge Soviet gardening movement was distinguished by the speed with which it was implemented and taken up, predominantly by women. Based on original archival and published sources, this article examines in depth the Soviet wartime legislative framework, material resources and propaganda that promoted individual kitchen gardens. The article analyzes the way the state organized and promoted individualist, small-scale urban horticulture – a politically risky initiative given that it conflicted with the Stalinist model of large-scale, industrialized agriculture – and argues that in promoting gardening self-sufficiency, the Soviet socialist state shifted much of its responsibilities for food production onto its citizenry. The article not only aims to shed new light on the crucial role gardening played in feeding a famished citizenry but also the distinctive way in which Soviet propaganda, in giving voice to the psychological satisfaction of gardening, tapped into women’s commitments to the family, in intimate alignment with patriotic, home front defence of the Soviet Motherland.

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305748818301324
      #Union_soviétique

  • #Sites_naturels : l’urgence de réguler le #tourisme_de_masse
    https://reporterre.net/Sites-naturels-l-urgence-de-reguler-le-tourisme-de-masse

    « La différence essentielle réside dans la culture générale des publics et des gestionnaires, dans l’idée qu’ils se font de la place de la #nature, explique Vincent Vlès. Pour les uns, la nature est et doit rester accessible à tous dans toutes les conditions et à tout moment. Pour les autres, elle l’est seulement lorsque l’homme ne la perturbe pas. De là débouchent des moyens de limitation très différents et à l’efficacité très variable. » Si en France, certaines zones, comme dans les #parcs_nationaux, peuvent être interdites d’accès pour permettre à des espèces de se reproduire, le scientifique constate que « cela se fait en catimini, en apposant des panneaux, car, lorsque l’interdiction est présentée en principe de gestion, le public a du mal à l’accepter ».

    Outre ces conceptions culturelles particulières, le statut des parcs nationaux anglo-saxons est également différent de celui des parcs français. Ils peuvent prendre des mesures coercitives. « Aux États-Unis, les parcs sont totalement compétents », explique Vincent Vlès. Contrairement à la France, où « le mille-feuille territorial pose des problèmes de gestion entre les établissements publics de gestion des espaces (grand site, parc naturel régional, parc national…), qui s’ajoutent aux communes, communautés de communes, départements… et rendent la #gouvernance extrêmement délicate ».

    #liberté

  • #Parcs_naturels_régionaux : un modèle à conforter, estime le #Cese
    https://www.caissedesdepotsdesterritoires.fr/cs/ContentServer?pagename=Territoires/Articles/Articles&cid=1250281751246
    https://www.caissedesdepotsdesterritoires.fr/cs/BlobServer?blobkey=id&blobnocache=false&blobwhere=1250

    Le Conseil économique, social et environnemental (Cese) a adopté ce 9 octobre un avis sur les parcs naturels régionaux (#PNR) qui dresse un bilan très favorable de l’action des parcs. Face à la montée en puissance d’autres structures concurrentes, il appelle les PNR à multiplier les partenariats avec les autres acteurs territoriaux, y compris sur le plan financier.

    #aménagement_du_territoire #consommation_foncière #paysages

  • Le gouvernement envisage de réduire le budget de protection de la #biodiversité
    https://reporterre.net/Le-gouvernement-envisage-de-reduire-le-budget-de-protection-de-la-biodiv

    Alors que Nicolas Hulot doit annoncer ce mercredi son « Plan biodiversité », un #rapport publié début juin relève le fossés entre les objectifs de préservation de la biodiversité fixés par l’État et les moyens qui lui sont alloués… avant de recommander de revoir à la baisse ces objectifs, de mutualiser les établissements et de supprimer des postes.

    #finances_de_l'État #ddtm #dreal #afb #Action_publique_2022 #comptes_publics #police_de_l'environnement #parcs_nationaux

  • Le touriste, un « colon en puissance » ?

    Étudiant l’essor du #tourisme dans l’#Algérie coloniale, #Colette_Zytnicki montre que les #hôtels, les #stations_balnéaires et les #parcs_nationaux renforcent matériellement et psychologiquement la présence française. La #patrimonialisation du territoire est une autre manière de se l’approprier.


    http://www.laviedesidees.fr/Le-touriste-un-colon-en-puissance.html
    #appropriation #colonisation #colonialisme #livre #histoire

  • Une étude décrit l’empiètement des humains sur les #zones_protégées | AFP.com
    https://www.afp.com/fr/infos/336/une-etude-decrit-lempietement-des-humains-sur-les-zones-protegees-doc-15354l3

    Des autoroutes, des forages et mêmes des villes apparaissent au beau milieu de zones qui ne sont protégées que sur le papier, ont averti jeudi des chercheurs après avoir passé en revue des millions de kilomètres carrés d’aires protégées de la planète.

    Un tiers des aires désignées officiellement dans le monde par les États comme « protégées » subissent une « importante pression humaine », conclut le rapport, publié jeudi dans la revue de référence #Science.

  • Ours, loups, éléphants : demain, un monde sans grands animaux terrestres ? - Sciencesetavenir.fr
    https://www.sciencesetavenir.fr/animaux/biodiversite/ours-loups-elephants-demain-un-monde-sans-grands-animaux-terrestres

    Les scientifiques sont d’accord pour dire qu’une nouvelle « #extinction_de_masse » a commencé, qui voit des espèces de toutes sortes et de toutes tailles disparaître 100 fois plus vite que la normale. La mégafaune est victime de risques multiples liées à l’expansion humaine, de la perte de son habitat au braconnage, en passant par les conflits avec l’#élevage, et par exemple, pour l’ours polaire, le changement climatique. « La première menace à laquelle fait face la faune d’Afrique est que nous la mangeons », note Paul Funston, directeur du programme lions de l’ONG Panthera. Une situation décrite dans certaines zones comme « le syndrome de la savane silencieuse ». « Certaines zones protégées ont l’air totalement intactes, les bois, les oiseaux, les abeilles, tout est là. Mais les grands mammifères ont disparu, parce qu’ils ont été mangés », poursuit Funston, notant l’augmentation de la population sur le continent. Pour Michael Knight, qui dirige le groupe de l’IUCN chargé des rhinocéros africains, « l’#Afrique ne correspond plus au rêve de paysages ouverts où courent des #animaux_sauvages », insiste-t-il. Et dans 50 ans, « les défis vont être dix, ou peut-être cinquante fois, plus difficiles ». Pour Paul Funston, la solution viendra d’investissements stratégiques dans des #parcs_nationaux, alors que des études montrent un lien entre les sommes investies au km2 et les taux de survie des espèces protégées.

    Quelle perspective déprimante #gestion_de_la_nature #aménagement_du_territoire #prédation #extinction_de_masse #mégafaune #grands_ mammifères #it_has_begun #on_en_est_là

  • Parution de « La Ville végétale - une histoire de la #nature en milieu #urbain (France, XVIIe-XXIe siècle) » - Biodiv’ille
    http://www.biodiville.org/a/826/-parution-de-la-ville-vegetale-une-histoire-de-la-nature-en-milieu-urbai

    Parution de "La Ville végétale - une histoire de la nature en milieu urbain (France, XVIIe-XXIe siècle)"
    La #Ville végétale. Une histoire de la nature en milieu urbain (France, XVIIe-XXIe siècle)
    Un ouvrage de Charles-François Mathis et Emilie-Anne Pépy paru aux éditions Champ Vallon

    Cette vaste synthèse étudie l’occupation urbaine depuis le XVIIe siècle par les plantes, #parcs et #jardins, mais aussi plantes « hors-sol » qui circulent dans l’espace urbain (fruits et légumes, fleurs coupées, déchets végétaux, etc.). Il s’agit de montrer que loin d’être un espace absolument artificialisé, non « naturel », la ville a constamment été imprégnée de #végétaux, mais que cette présence a fluctué au fil des siècles. Sont interrogés les raisons, les acteurs et les défis de la végétalisation urbaine qui repose sur des motivations nombreuses, esthétiques, sanitaires, écologiques. De même, la végétalisation a sans cesse été soutenue par ceux que nous appelons les mains vertes, qui sont tout aussi bien des particuliers, des professionnels que les pouvoirs publics. Mais étendre ou maintenir la présence végétale en ville impose de relever de multiples défis (fonciers, financiers, esthétiques, biologiques…) qui ont pu varier au cours des siècles.

    Ce livre propose aussi une réflexion neuve sur les usages qui ont été faits de la nature en ville, paradoxalement instrument d’#urbanité, de sociabilité et donc d’affirmation sociale, mais aussi inversement jungle, ferment de discorde et d’ensauvagement, objet d’affrontements politiques. On peut également faire usage du végétal pour bien être et bien vivre, accompagner les plaisirs, exercer les corps ou cultiver les esprits. Plus prosaïquement, la ville est aussi, tout au long de ces quatre siècles, un lieu de production et de consommation important de végétal. Enfin, c’est aussi en ville qu’une science botaniste et un savoir sur les plantes se développent.

    Ce tableau général, inédit, permet ainsi de voir la ville autrement et d’offrir des pistes de réflexion sur la nature en milieu urbain aujourd’hui.

  • Retour en #Afrique_du_Sud

    Du #Transvaal au #supermarché - Histoire et géographie

    http://www.rts.ch/play/radio/emission/histoire-vivante?id=1950967&station=a9e7621504c6959e35c3ecbe7f6bed0446cdf8da

    En 5 épisodes :

    Aujourd’hui en radio, un épisode relatant les colonisations successives de ce grand pays.
    Dimanche 3 septembre (23h15 ; RTS Deux) vous pourrez découvrir « Winnie », un documentaire sur l’ascension et la chute de Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, seconde épouse de Nelson Mandela.

    http://www.rts.ch/play/radio/histoire-vivante/audio/retour-en-afrique-du-sud-15?id=8840638&station=a9e7621504c6959e35c3ecbe7f6bed044

    Dans ce deuxième épisode, entretien sur le « #dark_tourism » en Afrique du Sud avec Fabrice Folio, géographe.

    http://www.rts.ch/play/radio/histoire-vivante/audio/retour-en-afrique-du-sud-25?id=8842854&station=a9e7621504c6959e35c3ecbe7f6bed044
    #tourisme

    Rencontre avec Frédéric Giraut pour évoquer d’autres aspects géographiques de l’Afrique du Sud, notamment sur la question des #zonages et des #parcs_naturels.

    http://www.rts.ch/play/radio/histoire-vivante/audio/retour-en-afrique-du-sud-35?id=8845994&station=a9e7621504c6959e35c3ecbe7f6bed044

    épisodes 4 et 5, à suivre...

    cc @fil

  • La mise en #art des espaces montagnards : acteurs, processus et transformations territoriales

    SOMMAIRE

    Sylvain Guyot
    La mise en art des espaces montagnards : acteurs, processus et
    transformations territoriales [Texte intégral]
    Une introduction
    The Mise en Art of Mountain Areas : Territorial Actors, Processes and
    Transformations [Texte intégral | traduction]
    An Introduction
    Benoît Antille
    #Parcs à sculptures en #Valais : vers une critique de l’économie de
    projet [Texte intégral]
    Landscape Sculpture Parks in the Valais : Towards a Critique of the
    Economy of Project Work [Texte intégral | traduction]
    Marie-Ève Férérol
    Le Massif du #Sancy et Horizons – Arts Nature : quand #Land_Art rime avec attractivité [Texte intégral]
    Le Massif du Sancy and Horizons–Arts Nature : When Land Art Rhymeswith Attractiveness [Texte intégral | traduction]
    Sylvain Guyot et Gabrielle Saumon
    La mise en art de la #Blackfoot_Valley (#Montana, #USA) ou comment (ré)concilier le front minier et le front écologique ? [Texte intégral]
    Aestheticising the Blackfoot Valley (Montana, USA), or How to
    Reconcile the Mining Frontier and the Eco-Frontier [Texte intégral |
    traduction]
    Jean-Pierre Husson
    Les #Vosges artialisées : processus, images, finalités [Texte intégral]
    Artialising the Vosges : Processes, Projections, Purposes [Texte
    intégral | traduction]
    Claire Portal
    La #montagne_artificielle : une nouvelle forme artialisée de la nature ? [Texte intégral]
    The Artificial Mountain : a New Form of “Artialization” of Nature ?
    [Texte intégral | traduction]
    Giovanni Sechi
    Quand la montagne fait œuvre d’art : #Arte_Sella et les transformations
    d’un espace alpin en déclin [Texte intégral]
    When the Mountain Becomes a Work of Art : Arte Sella and the
    Transformation of an Alpine Space in Decline [Texte intégral |
    traduction]
    Quando la montagna diventa opera d’arte : Arte Sella e le
    trasformazioni di uno spazio alpino in declino [Texte intégral |
    traduction]
    Wei Xiang, Philippe Bachimon et Pierre Dérioz
    Le #spectacle de plein air dans les sites paysagers remarquables des
    montagnes chinoises : le cas du Renard du #Mont_Tianmen à #Zhangjiajie,entre réinvention d’une #tradition et mise en #tourisme [Texte intégral]
    Outdoor Theatrical Shows in the Remarkable Landscapes of the Chinese
    Mountains, Between Reinvention of a Tradition and Development of
    Tourism : the Example of the ‘Tianmen Fox Fairy Show’ at Zhangjiajie
    [Texte intégral | traduction]
    PROPOSITIONS ARTISTIQUES PUBLIÉES DANS LA RUBRIQUE "MONTAGNES EN FICTION"

    Artistic proposals published in "Mountains in fiction" section
    Carlos de Gredos
    El Centro de Arte y Naturaleza #Cerro_Gallinero. Un Espacio Para Sentir
    el Infinito Rodeado de Silencio
    The Center for Art and Nature Cerro Gallinero. A Space to Feel the
    Infinite Surrounded by Silence
    Albert Mayr
    A Harmonic Trail in the Alps
    –-
    Professeur de Géographie - UBM & UMR 5319 Passages CNRS

    https://rga.revues.org/3656
    #revue #montagne #Alpes #Chine

    • Trump’s Border Wall Could Impact an Astonishing 10,000 Species

      The list, put together by a team led by Dr. Gerardo J. Ceballos González of National Autonomous University of Mexico, includes 42 species of amphibians, 160 reptiles, 452 bird species and 187 mammals. Well-known species in the region include the jaguar, Sonoran pronghorn, North American river otter and black bear.


      http://therevelator.org/trump-border-wall-10000-species

    • Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

      The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

      http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483
      #faune #Europe #Europe_centrale #Europe_de_l'Est #cartographie #visualisation

    • Rewriting biological history: Trump border wall puts wildlife at risk

      Mexican conservationists are alarmed over Trump’s wall, with the loss of connectivity threatening already stressed bison, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, bears and other animals.
      About one-third of the border, roughly 700 miles, already has fencing; President Trump has been pushing a controversial plan to fence the remainder.
      A wall running the entire nearly 2,000-mile frontier from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, conservationists warn, would be catastrophic for borderland ecosystems and many wildlife species, undoing years of environmental cooperation between the two countries to protect animals that must move freely or die.
      The wall is currently a key bargaining chip, and a sticking point, in ongoing immigration legislation negotiations taking place this week in Congress. Also expected this week: a federal court ruling on whether the administration can legally waive environmental laws to expedite border wall construction.


      https://news.mongabay.com/2018/02/rewriting-biological-history-trump-border-wall-puts-wildlife-at-risk
      #bisons

    • A Land Divided

      The national debate about border security doesn’t often dwell on the natural environment, but hundreds of miles of public lands, including six national parks, sit along the U.S.-Mexico border. What will happen to these lands — and the wildlife and plants they protect — if a wall or additional fences and barriers are built along the frontier?


      https://www.npca.org/articles/1770-a-land-divided
      #parcs_nationaux

    • R ULES C OMMITTEE P RINT 115–66 T EXT OF THE H OUSE A MENDMENT TO THE S ENATE A MENDMENT TO H.R. 1625

      US spending bill requires “an analysis, following consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, of the environmental impacts, including on wildlife, of the construction and placement of physical barriers” (p 677)

      http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20180319/BILLS-115SAHR1625-RCP115-66.pdf
      Extrait partagé par Reece Jones sur twitter
      https://twitter.com/reecejhawaii/status/977304504700780544

    • Activists Vow Fight as Congress Funds Portions of Border Wall

      Last week Congress voted to appropriate some monies to build new fortifications along the United States–Mexico border, but border activists in the Rio Grande Valley say the fight against President Donald Trump’s border wall is far from over.

      The nearly $1.6 billion in border wall funding included in the omnibus spending bill that Trump signed Friday provides for the construction of some 33 miles of new walls, all in Texas’s ecologically important Rio Grande Valley. Those walls will tear through communities, farms and ranchland, historic sites, and thousands of acres of protected wildlife habitat, while creating flooding risks on both sides of the border. But far from admitting defeat, border activists have already begun mapping out next steps to pressure Congress to slow down or even halt the wall’s construction.

      https://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/activists-vow-fight-congress-funds-portions-border-wall

    • State attorney general, environmental group to appeal decision on Trump’s border wall

      A ruling by a San Diego federal judge allowing construction of President Donald Trump’s border wall to go ahead will be appealed by two entities that opposed it, including the state Attorney General.

      Both the Center for Biological Diversity and Attorney General Xavier Becerra filed formal notices of appeal on Monday seeking to reverse a decision in February from U.S District Court Judge Gonzalo Curiel. The judge ruled that the Trump administration did not abuse its discretion in waiving environmental laws in its rush to begin border wall projects along the southwest border.

      The center had said after the ruling it would appeal, and Becerra also hinted the state would seek appellate court review at the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

      The notices declare an intent to appeal. They do not outline arguments to be made on appeal or why each group believe that Curiel got it wrong.

      In a prepared statement Becerra said, “When we said that a medieval wall along the U.S.-Mexico border does not belong in the 21st century, we meant it. There are environmental and public health laws in place, and we continue to believe that the Trump Administration is violating those laws. We will not stand idly by. We are committed to protecting our people, our values and our economy from federal overreach.”

      The lawsuits challenged a law that allowed the federal government not to comply with environmental and other laws and regulations when building border security projects. They argued the law was outdated and Congress never intended for it to be an open-ended waiver for all border projects, and contended it violated constitutional provisions of separation of powers and states’ rights.

      In his decision Curiel said both that the law was constitutional and it gave the Department of Homeland Security wide latitude over border security.

      Justice Department spokesman Devin O’Malley said in response to the Curiel ruling that the administration was pleased DHS “can continue this important work vital to our nation’s interest.”

      “Border security is paramount to stemming the flow of illegal immigration that contributes to rising violent crime and to the drug crisis, and undermines national security,” O’Malley said.

      http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/public-safety/sd-me-border-appeal-20180409-story.html

    • Les murs n’arrêtent pas que les humains

      Des États-Unis à la Malaisie, en passant par Israël ou la Hongrie, les hommes construisent de multiples murs pour contraindre les déplacements de nos semblables. N’oublions pas, explique l’auteur de cette tribune, que nous ne sommes pas les seuls à habiter la Terre et donc à pâtir de ces barrières.

      La #forêt_de_Bialowieza a quelque chose de mythique et de sacré. Âgée de plus de 8.000 ans, elle est la dernière forêt primaire d’Europe. S’étalant sur 150.000 hectares entre la Pologne et la Biélorussie, inaccessible aux visiteurs sans guide assermenté, elle constitue un sanctuaire d’espèces témoignant de la richesse des mondes anciens. Le bison d’Europe y vit encore de manière naturelle, côtoyant élans, cerfs, loups, lynx, etc.

      En 1981, à l’époque du rideau de fer, l’URSS a décidé de clôturer la frontière entre la Pologne et la Biélorussie, coupant à travers cette forêt et séparant en deux la dernière population de bisons d’Europe (environ 500 individus de part et d’autre). Cette clôture est symboliquement forte, car elle témoigne de la coupure existentielle (« ontologique », diraient les philosophes) que les humains se sont imposée vis-à-vis des autres êtres vivants. Ces derniers semblent ne pas exister à nos yeux.

      Mais cette séparation est plus que symbolique, elle est concrète. Les murs dressés par l’espèce humaine représentent une menace importante et sous-estimée pour de nombreux êtres vivants non humains.
      Murs de béton, de pierre, de boue, de sable ou de brique, de barbelés, de grilles en acier ou de clôtures électrifiées

      On en trouve surtout aux frontières : entre les États-Unis et le Mexique, la Corée du Nord et du Sud, Israël et la Cisjordanie, la Malaisie et la Thaïlande, l’Inde et le Pakistan, l’Iran et l’Irak, la Chine et la Mongolie, le Botswana et le Zimbabwe, etc. Ils prennent la forme de murs de béton, de pierre, de boue, de sable ou de brique, de barbelés, de grilles en acier ou de clôtures électrifiées, et viennent accompagnés de routes, de casernes, de lumières et de bruits. Leur nombre a considérablement augmenté depuis les attentats du 11 septembre 2001. Par exemple en Eurasie (sans le Moyen-Orient), il existe aujourd’hui plus de 30.000 km de murs, grillages et barbelés aux frontières.

      Ces murs affectent évidemment les populations humaines en brisant les trajectoires personnelles de millions de personnes. Ils affectent aussi les autres espèces [1]. À Białowieża, par exemple, la séparation a empêché les flux génétiques (et a donc fragilisé) des populations de bisons, d’ours, de loups et de lynx. Pire, 25 ans après la destruction du rideau de fer entre l’Allemagne et la République tchèque, les jeunes cerfs (qui n’avaient jamais vu de clôtures) ne traversaient toujours pas la frontière [2].

      En mai 2018 paraissait dans la revue Bioscience un article cosigné par dix-huit grands noms de l’étude et de la protection de la biodiversité (dont Edward O. Wilson) et signé par 2.500 scientifiques, qui alertait sur les « conséquences inattendues mais importantes » de ces murs frontaliers sur la biodiversité [3]. Ce cri d’alarme n’est pas le premier [4], mais il résume bien l’état des lieux de la recherche, et aussi l’état de préoccupation des chercheurs.
      Lorsque les habitats se fragmentent, les territoires des populations se réduisent

      Les murs nuisent à la biodiversité de plusieurs façons. Premièrement, ils peuvent blesser ou tuer des animaux directement, quand ils s’emmêlent dans les fils barbelés, sont électrocutés ou marchent sur des mines antipersonnelles.

      Deuxièmement, ils fragmentent et dégradent les habitats. Par exemple la frontière de 3.200 km entre le Mexique et les États-Unis traverse les aires de répartition géographique de 1.506 espèces natives (parmi lesquelles 1.077 espèces animales) dont 62 sont sur la liste des espèces en danger. Le mur menace cinq régions particulièrement riches en biodiversité (on les nomme « hotspots ») qui retiennent presque tous les efforts de conservation et de « réensauvagement » (rewilding). Lorsque les habitats se fragmentent, les territoires des populations se réduisent, et le nombre d’espèces présentes sur ces petites surfaces se réduit plus que proportionnellement, rendant ainsi les populations plus vulnérables, par exemple aux variations climatiques. Les clôtures frontalières contribuent aussi à accroître la mortalité de la faune sauvage en facilitant la tâche des braconniers, en perturbant les migrations et la reproduction, et en empêchant l’accès à la nourriture et à l’eau. Par exemple, le mouton bighorn (une espèce en danger) migrait naturellement entre la Californie et le Mexique mais ne peut aujourd’hui plus accéder aux points d’eau et aux sites de naissance qu’il avait l’habitude de fréquenter.

      Troisièmement, ces murs annulent les effets bénéfiques des millions de dollars investis dans la recherche et les mesures de conservation de la biodiversité. Les scientifiques témoignent aussi du fait qu’ils sont souvent l’objet d’intimidations, de harcèlements ou de ralentissements volontaires de la part des officiers responsables de la sécurité des frontières.

      Enfin, quatrièmement, les politiques de sécurité mises en place récemment font passer les lois environnementales au deuxième plan, quand elles ne sont pas simplement bafouées ou oubliées.
      Des centaines de kilomètres de clôtures de sécurité aux frontières extérieures et intérieures de l’UE

      Le double phénomène migrations/clôtures n’est pas prêt de s’arrêter. En 2015, un afflux exceptionnel d’êtres humains fuyant leurs pays en direction de l’Europe a conduit plusieurs États membres à réintroduire ou renforcer les contrôles aux frontières, notamment par la construction rapide de centaines de kilomètres de clôtures de sécurité aux frontières extérieures et intérieures de l’UE. Le réchauffement climatique et l’épuisement des ressources seront dans les années à venir des causes majeures de guerres, d’épidémies et de famines, forçant toujours plus d’humains à migrer. Les animaux seront aussi de la partie, comme en témoigne la progression vers le nord des moustiques tigres, qui charrient avec eux des maladies qui n’existaient plus dans nos régions, ou encore l’observation du loup en Belgique en mars 2018 pour la troisième fois depuis des siècles…

      Les accords entre pays membres de l’Union européenne au sujet des migrations humaines seront-ils mis en place à temps ? Résisteront-ils aux changements et aux catastrophes à venir ? Quel poids aura la « #Convention_des_espèces_migrantes » (censée réguler le flux des animaux) face aux migrations humaines ?

      En septembre 2017, un bison d’Europe a été aperçu en Allemagne. C’était la première fois depuis 250 ans qu’un représentant sauvage de cette espèce traversait spontanément la frontière allemande. Il a été abattu par la police.

      https://reporterre.net/Les-murs-n-arretent-pas-que-les-humains
      #Bialowieza

    • Les murs de séparation nuisent aussi à la #faune et la #flore

      3419 migrants sont décédés en Méditerranée en tentant de rejoindre Malte ou l’Italie. C’est ce que révèle un rapport du Haut commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés publié le 10 décembre. Il y a les barrières naturelles, et les murs artificiels. Pendant deux mois, le web-documentaire Connected Walls s’attaque aux murs de séparation entre quatre continents : le mur entre l’Amérique du Nord et l’Amérique latine incarné par les grillages entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique, celui entre l’Europe et l’Afrique incarné par les barbelés qui séparent les enclaves espagnoles du Maroc. Tous les 10 jours, Connected Walls publie un nouveau documentaire de cinq minutes sur une thématique choisie par les internautes. Cette semaine, ils ont sélectionné la thématique « animal ».

      Cette semaine, sur Connected-Walls,Valeria Fernandez (USA) et Fidel Enriquez (Mexico) ont suivi John Ladd dont la famille possède un ranch dans l’Arizona, à la frontière mexicaine, depuis cinq générations. Depuis la construction du mur frontalier en 2007, les choses ont changé pour lui et pour les animaux.

      De leur côté, Irene Gutierrez (Espagne) et Youssef Drissi (Maroc) ont rencontré Adam Camara, un jeune de Guinée Équatoriale qui a tenté de traverser plusieurs fois le détroit entre le Maroc et l’Espagne. Lors de sa dernière tentative, il a reçu l’aide d’un mystérieux ami.
      Pour chaque thématique, un partenaire associatif a carte blanche pour rédiger une tribune. Celle-ci a été rédigée par Dan Millis, de l’organisation écologiste Sierra Club :

      « Les animaux se moquent bien des frontières politiques. Le jaguar de Sonora n’a pas de passeport, et le canard morillon cancane avec le même accent, qu’il soit à Ceuta ou dans la forêt de Jbel Moussa. Les murs et les barrières ont cependant un impact considérable sur la faune et la flore. Par exemple, les rennes de l’ancienne Tchécoslovaquie ne franchissent jamais la ligne de l’ancien Rideau de Fer, alors même que cette barrière a disparu depuis 25 ans et qu’aucun des rennes vivant aujourd’hui ne l’a jamais connue. Les quelques 1000 kilomètres de barrières et de murs séparant les États-Unis et le Mexique détruisent et fragmentent l’habitat sauvage, en bloquant les couloirs de migration essentiels à la survie de nombreuses espèces. Une étude réalisée grâce à des caméras installées au niveau des refuges et des zones de vie naturellement fréquentés par la faune en Arizona a montré que des animaux comme le puma et le coati sont bloqués par les murs des frontières, alors que les humains ne le sont pas. »


      https://www.bastamag.net/Connected-Walls-le-webdocumentaire-4545
      #wildelife

    • Border Fences and their Impacts on Large Carnivores, Large Herbivores and Biodiversity: An International Wildlife Law Perspective

      Fences, walls and other barriers are proliferating along international borders on a global scale. These border fences not only affect people, but can also have unintended but important consequences for wildlife, inter alia by curtailing migrations and other movements, by fragmenting populations and by causing direct mortality, for instance through entanglement. Large carnivores and large herbivores are especially vulnerable to these impacts. This article analyses the various impacts of border fences on wildlife around the world from a law and policy perspective, focusing on international wildlife law in particular. Relevant provisions from a range of global and regional legal instruments are identified and analysed, with special attention for the Bonn Convention on Migratory Species and the European Union Habitats Directive.

      https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/reel.12169

    • Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

      The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.


      https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483

    • Butterfly Preserve On The Border Threatened By Trump’s Wall

      The National Butterfly Center, a 100-acre wildlife center and botanical garden in South Texas, provides a habitat for more than 100 species of butterflies.

      It also sits directly in the path of the Trump administration’s proposed border wall.

      The federal spending bill approved in September includes $1.6 billion in 2019 for construction of the wall. In October, the Department of Homeland Security issued a waiver to 28 laws protecting public lands, wildlife and the environment to clear the way for construction to proceed.

      https://www.npr.org/2018/11/01/660671247/butterfly-preserve-on-the-border-threatened-by-trumps-wall
      #papillons

    • Wildlife advocates, local indigenous tribes protest preparations for new border wall construction

      The federal government this week began moving bulldozers and construction vehicles to the Texas border with Mexico to begin building a new six-mile section of border wall — the first new wall under President Donald Trump, administration officials confirmed Tuesday.

      The move immediately triggered angry protests by a local butterfly sanctuary — The National Butterfly Center — and local indigenous tribes who oppose the wall and say construction will damage natural habitats. U.S. Customs and Border Protection said the wall will run through land owned by federal government. The dispute came amid an administration claim that a caravan of 2,000 migrants had arrived in northern Mexico along the Texas border.

      “We’re a recognized tribe and no one’s going to tell us who we are especially some idiots in Washington,” said Juan Mancias of the indigenous peoples’ tribe Carrizo-Comecrudo, who led protests on Monday. “We’re the original people of this land. We haven’t forgot our ancestors.”

      So far, the Trump administration has upgraded only existing fencing along the border. The president has called for some $5 billion for new wall construction, and Democrats have refused, resulting in a budget dispute that shut down the government for five weeks.

      This latest Texas project relies on previously appropriated money and won’t require further congressional approval. Construction plans for the Rio Grande Valley, just south of McAllen, Texas, call for six to 14 miles of new concrete wall topped with 18-foot vertical steel bars.

      Last year, Homeland Security Secretary Kristen Nielsen waived a variety environmental restrictions, including parts of the Endangered Species and Clean Water Acts, to prepare for construction in the area. Construction on the Rio Grande Valley project is expected to start in the coming weeks.

      Marianna Wright, executive director of the National Butterfly Center, remains a staunch advocate against the border wall. She met this week with authorities who she said wants to buy the center’s land for wall construction.

      She traveled to Washington last month to explain the environmental damage that would be caused by the construction in testimony on Capitol Hill.

      “The bulldozers will roll into the lower Rio Grande Valley wildlife conservation corridor, eliminating thousands of trees during spring nesting season for hundreds of species of migratory raptors and songbirds,” Wright told the House Natural Resources Committee.

      When asked by ABC News what message she has for people who aren’t there to see the impact of the new border wall, Wright paused, searching for words to express her frustration.

      “I would drive my truck over them, over their property, through their fence,” she said.

      DHS continues to cite national security concerns as the reason for building the border wall, with Homeland Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen saying in a statement Tuesday that migrants in the new caravan that had arrived at the Texas border would try to cross over illegally.

      “Such caravans are the result of Congress’s inexcusable failure to fully fund a needed physical barrier and unwillingness to fix outdated laws that act as an enormous magnet for illegal aliens,” Nielsen said in a statement.

      The last so-called caravan that caused alarm for the administration resulted in thousands of migrants taking shelter in the Mexican city of Tijuana. Just across the border from San Diego, many waited several weeks for the chance to enter the U.S.

      https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wildlife-advocates-local-indigenous-tribes-protest-preparations-border/story?id=60859814
      #résistance #peuples_autochtones #Carrizo-Comecrudo #McAllen #Texas

    • As Work Begins on Trump’s Border Wall, a Key Wildlife Refuge Is at Risk

      Construction is underway on a stretch of President Trump’s border wall cutting through the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. Biologists warn the steel wall will disrupt carefully preserved habitat critical for the survival of ocelot, jaguarundi, and other threatened species.

      As Tiffany Kersten descends from a levee into a verdant forest that stretches to the Rio Grande more than a mile away, she spots a bird skimming the treetops: a red-tailed hawk. Later, other birds — great blue herons, egrets — take flight from the edge of an oxbow lake. This subtropical woodland is one of the last remnants of tamaulipan brushland — a dense tangle of Texas ebony, mesquite, retama, and prickly pear whose U.S. range is now confined to scattered fragments in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in south Texas. The ecosystem harbors an astonishing array of indigenous wildlife: ocelot, jaguarundi, Texas tortoise, and bobcat, as well as tropical and subtropical birds in a rainbow of colors, the blue bunting and green jay among them.

      But the stretch of tamaulipan scrub Kersten is exploring, in the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, won’t be around much longer. About 15 feet from the forest edge, Kersten — a board member of a local conservation group — spots red ribbons tied to tree branches on both sides of the trail. Soon, an excavator will uproot those trees to make way for a 140-foot-wide access road and an 18-foot-high wall atop the levee, all part of the Trump administration’s plan to barricade as much of the Texas/Mexico border as possible. On Valentine’s Day, two days before I visited the border, crews began clearing a path for the road, and soon the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) will plant a cement foundation in the levee and top it with a steel bollard barrier.

      This construction is the first project under a plan to build 33 miles of new wall along the levee in South Texas, with $641 million in funding that Trump requested and Congress authorized last year. That 33-mile stretch, cutting through some of the most unique and endangered habitat in the United States, will be joined by an additional 55 miles of wall under a funding bill Trump signed February 15 that allocates another $1.375 billion for wall construction. The same day, Trump also issued a national emergency declaration authorizing another $6 billion for border walls. That declaration could give the administration the power to override a no-wall zone Congress created in three protected areas around the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge.

      Since the mid-20th century, ranches, oil fields, and housing tracts have consumed 97 percent of the tamaulipan brushland.

      Since the mid-20th century, ranches, farms, oil fields, subdivisions, and shopping centers have consumed 97 percent of the tamaulipan brushland habitat at ground zero of this new spate of border wall construction. That loss led Congress to create the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge in the 1970s and spurred a 30-year-effort by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, conservation organizations, and private landowners to protect the remaining pockets of tamaulipan brushland and restore some of what has been lost. The Fish and Wildlife Service has purchased 10,000 acres of cropland and converted it back into tamaulipan woodlands; it hopes to replant another 30,000 acres. The refuge, now totaling 98,000 acres, has been likened to a string of pearls, with connected jewels of old-growth and restored habitat adorning the 300-mile lower Rio Grande Valley.

      Into this carefully rebuilt wildlife corridor now comes the disruption of a flurry of new border wall construction. Scientists and conservationists across Texas warn that it could unravel decades of work to protect the tamaulipan brushland and the wildlife it harbors. “This is the only place in the world you can find this habitat,” says Kersten, a board member of Friends of the Wildlife Corridor, a non-profit group that works closely with the Fish and Wildlife Service on the corridor program. “And only 3 percent of this habitat is remaining.”

      For all its efforts to turn cropland into federally protected habitat, the Fish and Wildlife Service finds itself with little recourse to safeguard it, precisely because it is federal property. The easiest place for the federal government to begin its new wave of border wall construction is the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, which includes the picturesque La Parida Banco tract, where I joined Kersten. Under a 2005 law, the Department of Homeland Security can waive the environmental reviews that federal agencies such as the Fish and Wildlife Service typically conduct for projects that could alter federally protected lands.

      The tract Kersten and I visited is one of four adjacent “pearls” in the wildlife corridor — long , roughly rectangular parcels stretching from an entrance road to the river. From west to east they are the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge’s La Parida Banco tract, the Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, the refuge’s El Morillo Banco tract, and the privately owned National Butterfly Center. A levee runs through all four properties, and the first sections of fence to be built atop it would cut off access to trails and habitat in the refuge tracts. Citizens and local and state officials have successfully fought to keep the fence from crossing the National Butterfly Center, the Bentsen-Rio Grande state park, and the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge farther downstream — at least for now. If Trump’s national emergency declaration survives court challenges, the border barriers could even be extended into these holdouts.

      When the wall and access road are completed at La Parida Banco, a crucial piece of intact native habitat will become isolated between the wall and the river. Species that either rely on the river for water or migrate across it will find pathways they’ve traversed for thousands of years blocked.

      While biologists are concerned about the impacts of the wall all along the U.S.-Mexico border, the uniqueness of South Texas’ ecosystems make it an especially troublesome place to erect an 18-foot fence, they say. The 300-mile wildlife corridor in South Texas, where the temperate and the tropical intermingle, is home to an astounding concentration of flora and fauna: 17 threatened or endangered species, including the jaguarundi and ocelot; more than 530 species of birds; 330 butterfly species, about 40 percent of all those in the U.S.; and 1,200 types of plants. It’s one of the most biodiverse places on the continent.

      `There will be no concern for plants, endangered species [and] no consultation with the Fish and Wildlife Service,’ says a biologist.

      “This is a dry land, and when you have dry land, your diversity is near the water,” says Norma Fowler, a biologist with the University of Texas at Austin who studies the tamaulipan brushland ecosystem. She co-authored an article published last year in the scientific journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment warning of the consequences of the new wall for the region’s singular ecosystems and wildlife. Since the wall can’t be built in the river, it’s going up a mile or more north of it in some areas, placing both the riparian habitat right along the river and the tamaulipan thornscrub on higher ground at risk.

      “Both of those habitats have been fragmented, and there’s not much left,” Fowler says. “Some of it is lovingly restored from fields to the appropriate wild vegetation. But because they’ve waived every environmental law there is, there will be no concern for plants, endangered species. There will be no consultation with the Fish and Wildlife Service.”

      When the wall rises, the barrier and the new patrol road alongside it will cut an unusually wide 140-foot swath to improve visibility through the dense brush. In her article, Fowler estimated that construction of the border wall would destroy 4.8 to 7.3 acres of habitat per mile of barrier. The fence will also cut off access to the river and habitat on the Mexican side of the border for many animals. Including bobcats, ocelot, jaguarundi, and javelina. Some slower-moving species, like the Texas tortoise, could be caught in floods that would swell against the wall.

      If new walls must be built along the Rio Grande, Fowler says, the Department of Homeland Security should construct them in a way that causes the least harm to wildlife and plants. That would include limiting the footprint of the access roads and other infrastructure, designing barriers with gaps wide enough for animals to pass through, and using electronic sensors instead of physical barriers wherever possible.

      One of the most at-risk species is the ocelot, a small jaguar-like cat that historically roamed throughout Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Arizona, but that numbers only about 80 today. The sole breeding population left in the U.S. is in South Texas, and it is wholly dependent on the dense shrubland in the Lower Rio Grande Valley that the wall will bisect. Some species could be wiped out altogether: The few sites where Physaria thamnophila, a native wildflower, still grows are directly in the path of the wall, Fowler says.

      With 1,254 miles of border — all following the languid, meandering course of the Rio Grande — Texas has far more of the United States’ 1,933-mile southern boundary than any other state, yet it has the fewest miles of existing fence. That’s because much of the Texas border is private riverfront land. The first major push to barricade the Texas border, by the George W. Bush administration, encountered opposition from landowners who balked at what they saw as lowball purchase offers and the use of eminent domain to take their property. (Years later, some of those lawsuits are still pending.) Federal land managers also put up a fight.

      Natural areas already bisected by a Bush-era fence offer a preview of the potential fate of the Rio Grande wildlife refuge.

      When Ken Merritt — who oversaw the federal South Texas Refuge Complex, which includes the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Santa Ana, and the Laguna Atascosa refuge near where the Rio Grande meets the Gulf of Mexico — questioned the wisdom of a barrier through Santa Ana during the Bush administration, he was forced out of his job.

      “I was getting a lot of pressure,” says Merritt, who still lives in the valley and is retired. “But it just didn’t fit. We were trying to connect lands to create a whole corridor all along the valley, and we knew walls were very much against that.”

      Natural areas already bisected by the Bush-era fence offer a preview of the potential fate of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge. A few miles downstream from the La Parida tract, the Hidalgo Pumphouse and Birding Center, which anchors the southern end of the tiny town of Hidalgo, now looks out at a stretch of steel bollard fence atop a concrete wall embedded in the levee.

      On a recent Monday morning, a few tourists milled about the gardens behind the pumphouse, listening to the birds — curve-billed thrashers, green monk parakeets, kiskadee flycatchers — and enjoying the view from the observation deck. Curious about the wall, all of them eventually walk up to it and peek through the four-inch gaps between the steel slats. On the other side lies another pearl: a 900-acre riverside piece of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge called the Hidalgo Bend tract. It was once a popular spot with birders drawn to its ferruginous Pygmy owls, elf owls, and other wildlife. But since the wall went up in 2009, few birders visit anymore.

      At The Nature Conservancy’s Sabal Palm Preserve, a 557-acre piece of the wildlife corridor near the Gulf of Mexico, a wall installed in 2009 cuts through one of the last stands of sabal palm forest in the Rio Grande Valley. Laura Huffman, regional director for The Nature Conservancy, worries that the more walls erected on the border, the less hope there is of completing the wildlife corridor.

      Kersten and others remain unconvinced that the danger on the border justifies a wall. She believes that sensors and more Border Patrol agents are more effective deterrents to drug smugglers and illegal immigrants. Earlier on the day we met, Kersten was part of a group of 100 or so protestors who marched from the parking lot at nearby Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park to the adjacent National Butterfly Center, holding signs that read “No Border Wall” and “Solidarity Across Borders.” One placard listed the more than two dozen environmental and cultural laws that the Trump administration waived to expedite the fence. Among them: the National Environmental Policy Act, which requires environmental analysis before federal projects can begin; the Endangered Species Act; the Clean Water Act; the Migratory Bird Treaty Act; the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act; the National Historic Preservation Act; and the Native American Graves and Repatriation Act.

      Even as the wall goes up in the refuge, preparations for this year’s restoration projects are moving ahead. Betty Perez, whose family has lived in the Lower Rio Grande Valley for generations, is one of several landowners who grow seedlings for replanting on refuge lands each year. At her ranch, about a 45-minute drive northwest of the La Parida Banco tract, she’s beginning to collect seeds to grow this year’s native shrub crop: coyotillo, in the buckthorn family; yucca; Texas persimmon.

      Next to a shed in her backyard sit rows of seedlings-to-be in white tubes. To Perez, the delicate green shoots hold a promise: In a few years, these tiny plants will become new habitat for jaguarundi, for ocelot, for green jays, for blue herons. Despite the new walls, the wildlife corridor project will go on, she says, in the spaces in between.

      https://e360.yale.edu/features/as-work-begins-on-trumps-border-wall-a-key-wildlife-refuge-is-at-risk

    • Border Wall Rising In #Arizona, Raises Concerns Among Conservationists, Native Tribes

      Construction has begun on President Trump’s border wall between Arizona and Mexico, and conservationists are furious. The massive barrier will skirt one of the most beloved protected areas in the Southwest — Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, recognized by the United Nations as an international biosphere reserve.

      On a recent drive along the borderline, a crew was transplanting tall saguaro cactus out of the construction zone.

      “There may be misconceptions that we are on a construction site and just not caring for the environment,” intones a voice on a video released by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which is overseeing the project. “We are relocating saguaro, organ pipe, ocotillo...”

      But a half-mile away, a big yellow bulldozer was scraping the desert clean and mowing down cactus columns that were likely older than the young man operating the dozer.

      Customs and Border Protection later said 110 desert plants have been relocated, and unhealthy ones get bulldozed.

      This scene illustrates why environmentalists are deeply skeptical of the government’s plans. They fear that as CBP and the Defense Department race to meet the president’s deadline of 450 miles of wall by Election Day 2020, they will plow through one of the most biologically and culturally rich regions of the continental United States.

      The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has warned that the wall, with its bright lights, human activity and impermeable barrier, could negatively impact 23 endangered and at-risk species, including the Sonoran pronghorn antelope. And the National Park Service says construction could destroy 22 archaeological sites. Yet, for this stretch of western desert, the government has waived 41 federal environmental laws to expedite construction.

      “This is a wall to fulfill a campaign promise. It’s really clear. And that’s what makes so many of us so angry. It’s being done so fast outside the rule of law and we know it’ll have an incredible impact,” says Kevin Dahl, Arizona representative for the National Parks Conservation Association. He sits beside a serene, spring-fed pond fringed by cattails, and dive-bombed by dragonflies. It is called Quitobaquito Springs, and it’s located on the southern edge of the #Organ_Pipe_Cactus_National_Monument.

      A biologist peers into a rivulet that feeds this oasis in the middle of the Sonoran desert.

      “These guys are very tiny, maybe half the size of a sesame seed. Those are the Quitobaquito tryonia. And there are literally thousands in here,” says Jeff Sorensen, wildlife specialist supervisor with Arizona Game and Fish Department. He’s an expert on this tiny snail, which is one of three species — along with a mud turtle and a pupfish — whose entire universe is this wetland.

      The springs have been used for 16,000 years by Native Americans, followed by Spanish explorers, traders and farmers.

      But the pond is a stone’s throw from the international border, and the path of the wall. Conservationists fear workers will drill water wells to make concrete, and lower the water table which has been dropping for years.

      “We do have concerns,” Sorensen continues. “Our species that are at this site rely on water just like everything else here in the desert southwest. And to take that water away from them means less of a home.”

      The Trump administration is building 63 miles of wall in the Tucson Sector, to replace outdated pedestrian fences and vehicle barriers. CBP says this stretch of desert is a busy drug- and human-trafficking corridor. In 2019, the Tucson sector had 63,490 apprehensions and seized more than 61,900 pounds of illegal narcotics. The Defense Department is paying Southwest Valley Constructors, of Albuquerque, N.M., to erect 18- to 30-foot-tall, concrete-filled steel bollards, along with security lights and an all-weather patrol road. It will cost $10.3 million a mile.

      The rampart is going up in the Roosevelt Reservation, a 60-foot-wide strip of federal land that runs along the U.S. side of the border in New Mexico, Arizona and California. It was established in 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt.

      Congress refused to authorize money for construction of the wall in Arizona. Under Trump’s national emergency declaration, the Defense Department has reprogrammed counterdrug funding to build the border wall.

      In responses to questions from NPR, CBP says contractors will not drill for water within five miles of Quitobaquito Springs. The agency says it is coordinating with the National Park Service, Fish & Wildlife and other stakeholders to identify sensitive areas “to develop avoidance or mitigation measures to eliminate or reduce impacts to the environment.” Additionally, CBP is preparing an Environmental Stewardship Plan for the construction project.

      Critics are not appeased.

      “There is a whole new level of recklessness we’re seeing under Trump. We thought Bush was bad, but this is a whole other order of magnitude,” says Laiken Jordahl, a former national park ranger and now borderlands campaigner with the Center for Biological Diversity.

      There was an outcry, too, back in the late 2000s when President George W. Bush built the first generation of bollard wall. Those barriers topped out at 18 feet. The structures rising southwest of Tucson are as tall as a two-story building. They look like they could hold back a herd of T-rexes.

      The Trump administration is using the same Real ID Act of 2005 that empowered President George W. Bush to build his border wall without heeding environmental protections. But the pace of waivers is quickening under Trump’s aggressive construction timeline. Under Bush, the Department of Homeland Security issued five waiver proclamations. Under Trump, DHS has issued 15 waivers that exempt the contractors from a total of 51 different laws, ranging from the Clean Water Act to the Archeological Resources Protection Act to the Wild Horse and Burro Act.

      “The waivers allow them to bypass a lot of red tape and waive the public input process,” says Kenneth Madsen, a geography professor at Ohio State University at Newark who monitors border wall waivers. “It allows them to avoid getting bogged down in court cases that might slow down their ability to construct border barriers along the nation’s edges.”

      The most important law that CBP is able to sidestep is the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA—known as the Magna Carta of federal environmental laws. It requires a detailed environmental assessment of any “federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.” NEPA covers most large federal construction projects, such as dams, bridges, highways, and waterway projects.

      Considering the construction of 450 miles of steel barriers on the nation’s southern boundary, “There is no question that NEPA would require preparation of an environmental impact statement, with significant input from the public, from affected communities, tribal governments, land owners, and land managers throughout the process. And it is outrageous that a project of this magnitude is getting a complete exemption from NEPA and all the other laws,” says Dinah Bear. She served as general counsel for the White House’s Council on Environmental Quality for 24 years under four presidents.

      To some border residents, barriers — regardless how controversial — are the best way to stop illegal activity.

      “I support Donald Trump 100%. If you’re going to build a wall, build it!” declares rancher John Ladd.

      His family has bred cattle in Arizona since it was a territory. Their ranch backs up to the Mexican border near the town of Naco. The surrounding mountains purple at dusk, as a bull and his harem of cows munch gramma grass.

      Time was when the Ladd ranch was overrun by people crossing the border illegally. They stole things and cut fences and left trash in the pastures. Then in 2016, at the end of the Obama years, CBP built a fence, continuing what Bush started.

      Ladd reserves judgment on the propriety of a wall through a federally protected wilderness. But for his ranch, walls worked.

      “When this 18-foot wall went in, it was obvious that immigrants quit coming through here,” he says. “It was an immediate improvement with the security of our border as well as our houses.”

      Other border neighbors feel differently.

      The vast Tohono O’odham Nation — nearly as big as Connecticut — shares 62 miles with Mexico. The tribe vehemently opposes the border wall. Several thousand tribal members live south of the border, and are permitted to pass back and forth using tribal IDs.

      Already, border barriers are encroaching on the reservation from the east and west. While there is currently no funding to wall off the Arizona Tohono O’odham lands from Mexico, tribal members fear CBP could change its mind at any time.

      “We have lived in this area forever,” says Tribal Chairman Ned Norris, Jr. “And so a full-blown 30-foot wall would make it that much difficult for our tribal citizens in Mexico and in the U.S. to be able to actively participate with family gatherings, with ceremonial gatherings.”

      Traditions are important to the Antone family. The father, son and daughter recently joined other tribal members walking westward along State Highway 86, which runs through the reservation. They were on a pilgrimage for St. Francis.

      Genae Antone, 18, stopped to talk about another rite of passage. Young Tohono O’odham men run a roundtrip of 300 miles from the reservation, across the border, to the salt flats at Mexico’s Sea of Cortez.

      “The salt run, for the men, that’s really important for us as Tohono O’odham. For the men to run all the way to the water to get salt,” she said. “Some people go and get seashells. So I don’t really necessarily think it (the border wall) is a good idea.”

      The Antone family — carrying a feathered walking stick, a statue of the virgin, and an American flag — then continued on its pilgrimage.

      https://www.npr.org/2019/10/13/769444262/border-wall-rising-in-arizona-raises-concerns-among-conservationists-native-tri
      #cactus

  • If nature is so good for us, why aren’t all public green spaces accessible?

    There’s nothing better than a breath of fresh air. Scientists have proven that getting out and smelling the roses can make you feel more relaxed. Spending time in green spaces is associated with lower stress levels and blood pressure too. In fact, research has shown that contact with natural environments can improve our social development and encourage us to make better choices on a daily basis.


    https://theconversation.com/if-nature-is-so-good-for-us-why-arent-all-public-green-spaces-acces
    #espaces_verts #parcs #accès #espace_public #urban_matter #urbanisme #nature

  • Making of the National Parks of the United States poster

    I’ve been overwhelmed by the positive reaction to my National Parks of the United States poster. I want to thank everyone for such kind words. I also want to thank everyone who shared it with others. Several people have asked how I made it so I’ll outline process, list my sources and show a few early prototypes as an extra bonus.


    http://www.c82.net/blog/?id=69

    #parcs_nationaux #USA #Etats-Unis #cartographie #visualisation #cartoexperiment
    signalé par @fil

  • Les chutes d’Iguaçu (Hervé Théry, Braises, 16 mai 2015)
    http://braises.hypotheses.org/664

    Les chutes d’Iguaçu, situées près de Foz do Iguaçu (Paraná) et de la triple frontière Brésil-Argentine-Paraguay, ont été choisies comme l’une des sept merveilles naturelles du monde après une campagne organisée par la Fondation New 7 Wonders qui a recueilli plus de cent millions de votes sur internet. Les chutes étaient parmi les 28 finalistes, et la liste finale a été annoncée lors de la cérémonie de déclaration le 7 Juillet 2007 (07.07.07).
    [...]
    Les chutes sont maintenant incluses dans deux parcs contigus, Parc national d’Iguaçu, au Brésil et le Parc national d’Iguazú, en Argentine. La superficie totale des deux parcs nationaux totalise 250 000 hectares de forêt subtropicale. Le parc national argentin a été créée en 1934 et le parc national brésilien en 1939 (il était le deuxième parc national brésilien créé), afin de gérer et de protéger les sources qui alimente les chutes et tout l’environnement qui les englobe. Les deux parcs, brésilien et argentin, ont été classés site du patrimoine mondial, en 1984 et 1986 respectivement.

    #Géographie #Brésil #Chutes #Géographie_du_Brésil #Hervé_Théry #Parc_National #Argentine #Géographie_de_l_Argentine #Espaces_Protégés #Géographie_des_Espaces_Protégés #Tourisme #Frontières #Parcs_Transfrontaliers #Géographie_du_Tourisme #Protection_de_l_Espace #Iguaçu #Chutes_d_Iguaçu #Paraná #Triple_Frontière #Paraguay #Géographie_du_Paraguay