person:george washington

  • A Database of Fugitive Slave Ads Reveals Thousands of Untold Resistance Stories

    Readers of the May 24, 1796 Pennsylvania Gazette found an advertisement offering ten dollars to any person who would apprehend Oney Judge, an enslaved woman who had fled from President George Washington’s Virginia plantation, Mount Vernon. The notice described her in detail as a “light mulatto girl, much freckled, with very black eyes and bushy black hair,” as well as her skills at mending clothes, and that she “may attempt to escape by water … it is probable she will attempt to pass as a free woman, and has, it is said, wherewithal to pay her passage.” She did indeed board a ship called the Nancy and made it to New Hampshire, where she later married a free black sailor, although she was herself never freed by the Washingtons and remained a fugitive.

    The advertisement is one of thousands that were printed in newspapers during colonial and pre-Civil War slavery in the United States. The Freedom on the Move (FOTM) public database project, now being developed at Cornell University, is the first major digital database to organize together North American fugitive slave ads from regional, state, and other collections. FOTM recently received its second of its two National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) digital humanities grants.


  • FYI France: Tom Paine!

    Une lecture critique du livre «Révolution Paine» (C&F éditions) par Jack Kessler depuis San Francisco.

    A new book which can remind us all, again, of what France and the US have in-common... at a good time for remembering all this, on both similarly-beleaguered sides of The Pond right now...

    Révolution Paine: Thomas Paine penseur et défenseur des droits humains, by Thomas Paine, Peter Linebaugh (pref.), Nicolas Taffin (dir.),

    (C&F éditions, 35 C rue des Rosiers, 14000 Caen, t., fx.,; août 2018) ISBN: 978-2-915825-85-5

    Tom Paine was British, it must be remembered — but then so were we all, back then, in revolutionary “America”, citizens of an empire which spanned the globe until very recently, our “shots heard round the world” the first of many which ultimately would bring that empire and others to heel and create new ways of thinking about government for the modern world.

    In all that mælstrom we very much needed ideas, and cheerleaders, for encouraging and inspiring ourselves and our fellow citizens, and Tom Paine was that. Whatever his opponents and most severe critics — and there were many — thought of him, and even friends and fans worried about him, but he was encouraging and inspiring, and for careful and conservative American “colonists” like the wealthy plantation-owner George Washington and the gentleman-printer Benjamin Franklin and the Boston lawyer John Adams, Paine’s encouragement and inspiration were enough, and at times they were very badly needed in fact.

    And the French were there for us, very different but close in spirit to the Americans, and always needed, for their spirit & their money & their guns & for many other resources and reasons — at the very least they were enemies of our enemies and so our friends, on whom we could rely for insight, breadth of vision, even occasionally at their own ruinous expense...

    France entertained Paine the rebellious Brit after the excitements of the British colonies had hosted him for a long while — in both places his own exciting language and the clarity of his vision helped citizens greatly, in the great troubles of their times — so now a glimpse of Tom Paine may help again, both to see our current troubles more clearly too, and to remember what we and the French share in-common in all this. When things change, for the US and France, neither of us is ever alone.

    The book is a “reader” — not a compendium, but a comfortable and thoughtful armchair-piece to browse-through and then keep handy, as headline-events of current troubled-times pour in, descending upon us daily.

    First comes a preface — avant-propos — by Nicolas Taffin, outlining why and how the idea for the book occurred to him: 2018 saw the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, he says, and still we face troubles that first were defined for us by events of 1789 — after such a long time the birthday-celebration required a renewal of the effort, he thought, and who better than Tom Paine who first inspired it, in both the US and France, and the “Human Rights” and “Commons” forms in which the ideas were first presented.

    Then comes an elegant introduction to Paine and his works by historian Peter Linebaugh, translated from l’américain...

    It is a useful thing, to know Paine’s history, as he landed somewhat un-announced upon the Americans with his outrageous views and funny accent (?) and stunning phrasings. That he had a tradition, and a context, back home in also-turbulent England, only makes sense — and that early-on England experimented with many of the ideas the colonists were confronting later in their own contests with the Crown, deserves recalling, many of the same conflicts were heard before in early Industrial Revolution England, as workers and owners confronted one another, and governments moved to tax and otherwise control the new techniques.

    Paine and his East Anglia neighbors had rehearsed many of the confrontations he was to witness and comment upon in his sojourns in the American colonies — the issues were similar, new techniques & how to cope with change & the sharing of burdens and benefits & working conditions & and of course taxes... not exactly “taxation without representation”, there at-home in England, but taxation all-the-same...

    Whether Paine was a Che Guevara, as Linebaugh I-hope-playfully suggests, whether the Introduction successfully demonstrates that Americans of that time, “ambitiously risked class warfare on a global scale”, well, other readers will have to read and judge... Linebaugh, described by Wikipedia as a “Marxist historian”, does weave through initial attributions of Paine’s ideas to his having been, “conscious of classes, sensible to differences in power and wealth” — he describes Paine’s concerns for “Agrarian Justice” as involving “class injustice”.

    It matters that Paine’s life in mid-18th c. England greatly preceded the writings of Marx a century later; but also of course there may have been historical connections, workers’ lives a century earlier were very much what the historicist Marx was interested in and wrote about. Linebaugh carefully outlines that Paine, “lived at the time of an industrial revolution, of commercial expansion & urbanization & population increase” — he grants that Paine’s views did not fall cleanly into any contest between “communism and capitalism”, terms which, apparently per Edmund Burke, were, “still cartilaginous, not yet well defined or formed”.

    But Paine had a good sense for “the commons”, he insists, “and of its long presence in English history”, a matter which he says has not been well considered in previous studies of Paine. “A long anti-capitalist tradition in England”, Linebaugh believes he’s found, through Tom Paine, “one which contributes to our understanding about current notions of ‘revolution’ and ‘constitution’ in modern Britain” — for this suggestion alone, Linebaugh’s Introduction makes for some very interesting reading.

    Beyond this Introduction there are excerpts, then, from Paine’s own “Rights of Man” — fascinating, the differences, between one culture’s “emotive” language and another’s — French easily is the equal of English in this regard...

    And finally a fascinating Post-Script by editor Nicolas Taffin: he takes “Tom Paine of Thetford” several significant steps further than the little local American Revolution — several steps further, even, than the nascent Class Warfare of the Levellers and workers’-revolts of East Anglia which maybe-led to the Marxian revolutions of the 19th century — Taffin going-further finds, in Paine, the freeing of the human imagination, from the illusory securities and comforts and oppressions of the previous era’s religion-controlled philosophies, the emergence of the Enlightenment’s idealisms into a modern world of “real” rights and responsibilities and true-freedom, governed by reason alone...

    Paine may have had a glimmer. The American Founders who fought our little revolution here certainly had some glimpse as well... Certainly the young Virginia lawyer who boldly wrote, “We hold these truths to be self-evident” and then chafed as the elders to whom he submitted that draft picked it apart... Jefferson had read much of what the young Paine had read as well — in 1776, when arguably they both were at their most-inspired, Jefferson was age 33, Tom Paine was age 37 — as Wordsworth observed of youth in a slightly-later revolution, “Bliss was it in that Dawn to be alive, but to be young was very heaven”.

    But the true significance of what they all were doing did not emerge until much, much later... as late as the 1820s the two then very elderly American patriots Jefferson and Adams, both preparing for death and fondly reminiscing in their dotage-correspondance, could recall what they had done for the little United States, and for Britain, but only the more daring Jefferson seriously considered what they may have done ‘way back then to, “free the human spirit in general”...

    Taffin gives Paine the greater credit. Well, history has benefit of hindsight... Whether Paine himself, or truly his contemporaries, really understood what he was accomplishing with his amazing writings, back then, seems questionable. There are crackpots writing this sort of thing about The Future today — just as there were in East Anglia long before Paine’s birth there, which later he read, a few of them, in the Old School at Thetford — so qua-dreamer Paine’s contribution may well have been fortuitous, simply a matter of good timing... The poet appears to have felt this about his own contribution to the French Revolution, and others have suggested Paine contributed little there too...

    But ideas have lives of their own, and History has control of this. Taffin doubtless is correct that if we are “free” today — universally — then some part of that is due to the writings of Tom Paine, almost regardless of how exactly that happened and what agencies promoted it and why, Marxist or Liberal or French, English, American, or other... Mao Tse Tung and Ho Chi Minh both are said to have read Tom Paine, I expect Steve Bannon has as well, and Marion (Le Pen) Maréchal (age 29) and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (age 29) are reading Paine now...

    So the mystery of origins and influences continues, but so do the ideas. Read Taffin’s fascinating rendition here of Tom Paine’s context and continuing influence, and see what you yourself think... it is what many of us are worrying about in both the US and France, now, & that particular “common-concern” coincidence has made vast historical waves before...


    And now a Note:

    Tom Paine in epigrams, 1737-1809: & now I understand better why Ben Franklin must have enjoyed his company so much... —

    “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value.”

    “I love the man that can smile in trouble, gathers strength from distress, and grows brave by reflection.”

    “If there must be trouble, let it be in my day, that my child may have peace.”

    “To argue with a person who has renounced the use of reason is like administering medicine to the dead.”

    “The world is my country, all mankind are my brethren, and to do good is my religion.”

    “Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom must, like men, undergo the fatigue of supporting it.”

    “Government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable one.”

    “’Tis the business of little minds to shrink; but he whose heart is firm, and whose conscience approves his conduct, will pursue his principles unto death.”

    “Reputation is what men and women think of us; character is what God and angels know of us.”

    “Reason obeys itself, and ignorance submits to whatever is dictated to it.”

    “Moderation in temper is a virtue, but moderation in principle is a vice.”

    “Belief in a cruel God makes a cruel man.”

    “The most formidable weapon against errors is reason.”

    — and the following three Tom Paine épigrammes seem of particular relevance to our present Franco & américain mutual Times-of-Troubles —

    “Character is much easier kept than recovered.”

    “A long habit of not thinking a thing wrong gives it a superficial appearance of being right.”

    “We have it in our power to begin the world over again.”

    Jack Kessler

    #Révolution_Paine #C&F_éditions #Peter_Linebaugh #Droits_humains

  • A Database of Fugitive Slave Ads Reveals Thousands of Untold Resistance Stories

    Readers of the May 24, 1796 Pennsylvania Gazette found an advertisement offering ten dollars to any person who would apprehend Oney Judge, an enslaved woman who had fled from President George Washington’s Virginia plantation, Mount Vernon. The notice described her in detail as a “light mulatto girl, much freckled, with very black eyes and bushy black hair,” as well as her skills at mending clothes, and that she “may attempt to escape by water … it is probable she will attempt to pass as a free woman, and has, it is said, wherewithal to pay her passage.” She did indeed board a ship called the Nancy and made it to New Hampshire, where she later married a free black sailor, although she was herself never freed by the Washingtons and remained a fugitive.

    The advertisement is one of thousands that were printed in newspapers during colonial and pre-Civil War slavery in the United States. The Freedom on the Move (FOTM) public database project, now being developed at Cornell University, is the first major digital database to organize together North American fugitive slave ads from regional, state, and other collections. FOTM recently received its second of its two National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) digital humanities grants.

    Runaway Slaves in Britain :: Home

  • Military toxins are becoming more harmful to our veterans | TheHill

    The environmental exposure Bowman referenced — known as toxic exposures in the military — is of increased interest to lawmakers, advocates, and medical professionals as a result of the frequency with which it is occurring in post-9/11 veterans. However, given the notoriously slow pace of legislative oversight and government-funded medical studies, advocacy groups are now playing an important role in finding answers for military families.

    Although most people are familiar with the term Agent Orange, problems that stem from toxic exposures while serving in the military are nearly as old as civilization itself. Arrows with poisoned tips were used on the battlefield as early as 1500 B.C. And in 1776, a Tory sympathizer tried to add an unknown poison to George Washington’s food at a New York City tavern.

    However, military toxicology, i.e., the study of substances that cause harmful effects in those who serve, became exponentially more harmful during the 20th century. And, unfortunately, we, as a nation, still have not figured out how to take care of those who have come into contact with such toxic exposures during their military service.

  • “A Night at the Garden” Is the Most Terrifying Movie You Can Watch This Halloween

    Terrifying Movie You Can Watch This Halloween
    Jon Schwarz

    The obscure 2008 movie “Synecdoche, New York,” written and directed by Charlie Kaufman, originated when Sony Pictures Classics approached Kaufman about creating a horror film. Kaufman, best known for deeply wacky scripts like “Being John Malkovich,” agreed. But he wasn’t interested in making the kind of paint-by-numbers movie for teenagers that appears to take place in another dimension. Instead, he later said, he wanted to make a horror film for adults, “about things that are scary in the real world, and in our lives.”

    I can attest that Kaufman succeeded. In fact, I found “Synecdoche, New York” so frightening that I’ll never watch it again. Slasher movies like “Friday the 13th” and its 11 sequels are ultimately pleasurable — they end and you wake up from the dream buzzing with the adrenaline evolution gives you to escape predators, yet realize you are not in fact being stalked by Jason Voorhees. But when “Synecdoche, New York” is over and the lights come up, you understand that what was hunting its characters is hunting you too, outside the theater, in reality.

    No other movie had ever given me the same jolt of pure dread until I saw the new Field of Vision documentary “A Night at the Garden,” directed by Marshall Curry. (Field of Vision is a division of First Look Media, as is The Intercept.)

    Curry’s film, watchable above, is just six minutes long, and is a tiny masterpiece. It should be taught in history and filmmaking courses, as well as in classes about human psychology.

    On its surface, it’s simply about a rally held by the German-American Bund in February 1939 at the old Madison Square Garden at Eighth Avenue and 50th Street in Manhattan.

    The Bund – meaning “federation” – never metastasized to any appreciable size. Estimates vary, but its dues-paying membership did not top 25,000. However, it was allied with the Christian Front, an organization inspired by the notorious anti-Semitic demagogue Father Charles Coughlin. Tens of millions of Americans tuned into Coughlin’s weekly radio show; one of his slogans was “Less care for internationalism and more concern for national prosperity.”

    The Christian Front helped turn out a capacity crowd of almost 20,000 people. It’s particularly notable that this was possible in New York, then as now a symbol of liberalism, and suggests both organizations enjoyed significant passive local support far beyond those who attended.

    The marquee outside reads that it is a “Pro American Rally” — to be followed the next day by the Rangers playing the Detroit Red Wings, and the day after that by Fordham facing Pittsburgh in college basketball. The night begins with marchers filing in with dozens of American flags and then standing before a huge backdrop of George Washington.

  • Historians Question Trump’s Comments on Confederate Monuments - The New York Times

    President Trump is not generally known as a student of history. But on Tuesday, during a combative exchange with reporters at Trump Tower in New York, he unwittingly waded into a complex debate about history and memory that has roiled college campuses and numerous cities over the past several years.

    Asked about the white nationalist rally that ended in violence last weekend in Charlottesville, Va., Mr. Trump defended some who had gathered to protect a statue of Robert E. Lee, and criticized the “alt-left” counterprotesters who had confronted them.

    Many of those people were there to protest the taking down of the statue of Robert E. Lee,” Mr. Trump said. “So this week, it is Robert E. Lee. I noticed that Stonewall Jackson is coming down.

    George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, the president noted, were also slave owners. “I wonder, is it George Washington next week?” Mr. Trump said. “And is it Thomas Jefferson the week after?
    Mr. Grossman [executive director of the American Historical Association] noted that most Confederate monuments were constructed in two periods: the 1890s, as Jim Crow was being established, and in the 1950s, during a period of mass Southern resistance to the civil rights movement.

    We would not want to whitewash our history by pretending that Jim Crow and disenfranchisement or massive resistance to the civil rights movement never happened,” he said. “That is the part of our history that these monuments testify to.

    How the events in Charlottesville, and Mr. Trump’s comments, will affect the continuing debate over Confederate monuments remains to be seen. Mr. Witt [a professor of history at Yale], for one, suggested that white nationalist support might backfire.

    He noted that it was the 2015 murder of nine African-American churchgoers in Charleston, S.C., by a white supremacist that led to the removal of the Confederate flag from the grounds of the statehouse.

    The amazing thing is that the president is doing more to endanger historical monuments than most of the protesters,” he said. “The alt-right is producing a world where there is more pressure to remove monuments, rather than less.

    • Baltimore Removes Confederate Statues in Overnight Operation | 2017-08-16


      Workers removed the Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson monument in Baltimore.

      Beginning soon after midnight on Wednesday, a crew, which included a large crane and a contingent of police officers, began making rounds of the city’s parks and public squares, tearing the monuments from their pedestals and carting them out of town.


      Small crowds gathered at each of the monuments and the mood was “celebratory,” said Baynard Woods, the editor at large of The Baltimore City Paper, who documented the removals on Twitter.


      The statues were taken down by order of Mayor Catherine Pugh, after the City Council voted on Monday for their removal. The city had been studying the issue since 2015, when a mass shooting by a white supremacist at a historic black church in Charleston, S.C., prompted a renewed debate across the South over removing Confederate monuments and battle flags from public spaces.
      The police confirmed the removal.


      By 3:30 a.m., three of the city’s four monuments had been removed. They included the Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson Monument, a double equestrian statue of the Confederate generals erected in 1948; the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, erected in 1903; and the Roger B. Taney Monument, erected in 1887.


      Taney was a Supreme Court chief justice and Maryland native who wrote the landmark 1857 decision in the Dred Scott case, ruling that even free blacks had no claim to citizenship in the United States. Although Taney was never part of the Confederacy, the court’s decision was celebrated by supporters of slavery.

      The fourth statue, the Confederate Women’s Monument, was dedicated in 1917. Pictures showed that it too had been taken down early on Wednesday.


      One Twitter user, James MacArthur, live-streamed the removal of the Lee and Jackson monument as it was unceremoniously torn from its pedestal and strapped to a flatbed truck. At street level, lit by the harsh glare of police klieg lights, the two generals appeared small.

      Residents were seen celebrating on the pedestal, on which someone had spray-painted “Black Lives Matter.”


      A team of police cars escorted the statues out of town. Ms. Pugh suggested on Monday that the statues might be relocated to Confederate cemeteries elsewhere in the state. (Although Maryland never seceded from the Union during the Civil War, there was popular support for the Confederacy in Baltimore and Southern Maryland, where Confederate soldiers are buried.)


      trouvé en cherchant au réseau

      #Baltimore #Charlottesville #statues #États_Unis
      #suprématisme_blanc #iconoclasme #Confédération #histoire #racisme #esclavage

    • Baltimore Removes Confederate Statues After Activists Gave City Ultimatium | (#vidéo 7’15’’) TRNN 2017-08-16


      Owen Silverman Andrews: Sure, I think it’s exciting, and the culmination of intense, years-long grassroots organizing and pressure that was a flashpoint, like you said, when white supremacist violence occurred in Charleston and then again in Charlottesville, but also in response to ongoing white supremacist violence here in Baltimore City. And so Fredrick Douglass said, “Power yields nothing without demand.” And that’s exactly what happened here. It was, “Oh, this is too expensive. This will take too long,” and ultimately, when push comes to shove, the government will respond when we force the government to respond and not before.

      Jaisal Noor: And so defenders, even liberal defenders I talk to say, “This is history. We can’t remove history. It needs to be preserved. We shouldn’t take them down.” How do you respond to those arguments?

      Owen Silverman Andrews: Sure. The Lee/Jackson monument is not history. It’s a false narrative. It’s the Lost Cause mythology. It was put up in the 1940s, not to honor fallen Confederate veterans like some of the older monuments supposedly were alluding to, but it was put up as a triumphant symbol of rising white supremacy and resurgent white power. And so leaving the Lee/Jackson statue in place is the erasure of history, not the removal of it. If you look at the way Nazi Germany, for example, has dealt with their past, they do not leave statues of Hitler and Eichmann in place. They remove them and put up plaques and said, “Jewish families lived here,” and that’s the way to remember history. Not to leave up triumphant statues of genocidal maniacs.

      Jaisal Noor: Yeah, and you didn’t hear those same people defending the statues of Saddam in Iraq.

      Owen Silverman Andrews: Exactly. Exactly. It’s a false logic, and it’s a defense mechanism of people who can’t grapple with either their own privilege or internalized white supremacy, and so we can remember history without celebrating slavery and genocide and rape.

      Jaisal Noor: And so is the work now done now that this is down?

      Owen Silverman Andrews: Columbus is next. There are two Columbus statues in Baltimore, One in Druid Hill Park, and another in Little Italy. And if those don’t come down based on government action from the City, then they’ll come down based on #grassroots_action. So those are the next two, Columbus in Druid Hill and Columbus in Little Italy. Columbus started the trans-Atlantic slave trade. He brought syphilis to the hemisphere. He was a rapist who took indigenous women to Europe and had sex with them against their will, and so we’re planning a funeral for Columbus to lay him to rest, and to move onto the next chapter so we can celebrate people like Thurgood Marshall and Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass, and hold up those leaders who struggled against that type of oppression instead of honoring those who initiated it.


      trouvé en cherchant dans le réseau

      #air_du_temps #goût_du_jour
      #séquelles #activisme

  • North Korea war not ’imminent,’ Trump aides say

    Top Trump administration officials sought to assure Americans on Sunday that the nation is not on the brink of nuclear war with North Korea, despite the president’s recent threats.

    National security adviser H.R. McMaster and Central Intelligence Agency Director Mike Pompeo said an attack by North Korea does not appear imminent, and that the threat of war is no closer today than it was last week.

    I think we’re not closer to war than a week ago, but we are closer to war than we were a decade ago,” McMaster said on ABC’s This Week. “The danger is much greater and is growing every day, with every missile test, with the consideration of possibly a sixth nuclear test. And so what we can no longer do is afford to procrastinate.”

    I’ve heard folks talking about [the U.S.] being on the cusp of nuclear war,” Pompeo said on Fox News Sunday. “I’ve seen no intelligence that would indicate that we’re in that place today.”

    McMaster said President Trump’s references to the U.S. military being “locked and loaded” is an effort to maintain peace, not provoke war. The military has made no significant movement of troops or equipment in recent days to prepare to fight North Korea.

    The United States military is always locked and loaded, but the purpose of capable, ready forces is to preserve peace and prevent war," he said. "George Washington said it: The most effective way of preserving peace is to be prepared for war.

    Tout est bon pour rétropédaler, même attribuer l’antique si vis pacem para bellum au pater conscriptus George Washington…

  • Who Is Tony Kim? North Korea Has Detained A Korean-American University Professor

    On Sunday, The Wall Street Journal reported that North Korea had detained an American citizen at the Pyongyang international airport. According to CBS News, Tony Kim is one of three American citizens currently in North Korean custody.

    It was not clear on Sunday if North Korean officials had confirmed Kim’s arrest, but the Swedish embassy in North Korea said that the incident occurred as Kim was trying to board a flight out of North Korea’s capital city. The Swedish embassy represents American interests in North Korea, since the U.S. does not formally maintain relations with Kim Jong-Un’s government.

    It also wasn’t clear on Sunday exactly when the incident took place. CNBC reported that Kim was detained on Friday, while CNN and CBS News reported his arrest as occurring on Saturday. Also unknown were Kim’s charges, if any.

    What is clear, though, is Kim’s reason for being in the controversial country. According to various media reports, Kim is a Korean-American professor who had been teaching accounting at the Pyongyang University of Science and Technology (PUST). Kim, who is reportedly in his 50s, also goes by his Korean name, Kim Sang-duk.

    • Occasion de découvrir la #PUST, Pyongyang University of Science and Technology

      Inside North Korea’s Western-funded university - BBC News
      (février 2014, avec une vidéo incorporée)

      In the heart of North Korea’s dictatorship, a university - largely paid for by the West - is attempting to open the minds of the state’s future elite. The BBC’s Panorama has been granted unique access.
      Entering the Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, it is immediately clear this is no ordinary academic institution.
      A military guard salutes us as our vehicle passes through the security checkpoint. Once inside the campus we hear the sound of marching and singing, not more guards but the students themselves.
      They are the sons of some of the most powerful men in North Korea, including senior military figures.
      Our supreme commander Kim Jong-un, we will defend him with our lives,” they sing as they march to breakfast.

    • séminaire de statistiques à la PUST…

      PSI Instructor Dr. Rene Paulson and her students in Statistics Primer gathered together after the last day of her class.

      In North Korea, GW Lecturer Teaches Statistics | GW Today | The George Washington University
      Justin Fisher said he was surprised by how similar North Korean and GW students are.

      July 23, 2012
      After spending a week in North Korea as part of a Statistics Without Borders program, George Washington Elliott School of International Affairs Lecturer Justin Fisher is sure his summer students now have a better understanding of survey sampling, computer analysis and how (some) Americans greet each other.

      They were quick to pick up the fist bump,” said Mr. Fisher, who taught it to students one day over lunch. “They probably think Americans greet each other like that all the time!”

      Mr. Fisher, B.A./B.S. ’97, was one of 13 professors who recently taught a combined seven courses for the Pyongyang Summer Institute (PSI) in survey science and quantitative methodology in North Korea. PSI is an international teaching program at the Pyongyang University of Science and Technology (PUST).

      In the mornings, Mr. Fisher, who is also a senior statistician at the U.S. Government Accountability Office, led a survey sampling class and, in the afternoons, he taught computer analysis. He said that, although he didn’t initially know what to expect from his students, he found commonalities with GW students, and they were friendly, eager and curious about Americans “despite the usual rhetoric between the U.S. and North Korea.”

      My biggest surprise was how similar the students were to those at GW: just a group of kids working hard to understand the material and get good grades to secure the best job for their future,” Mr. Fisher said.

  • Quelle différence politique entre George Washington et Hillary Clinton ? Tromperie possible avec Trump ?

     Quelle différence politique entre George Washington et Hillary Clinton ? Aucune. Ceux qui suivent depuis des décennies William Blum et quelques autres… ceux qui auront lu notamment ses « pensées » récentes (voir notre post du 10 novembre) savent exactement à … Lire la suite →


  • Les hommes du président Trump.

    L’homme qui sera à « un battement de cœur de la présidence » représente le lien qui n’a pas été rompu avec le Parti républicain. Mike Pence, 57 ans, incarne l’élu conservateur traditionnel, marié à la même femme depuis 32 ans (quand Trump en a eu trois), élu au Congrès pendant 12 ans, gouverneur de l’Indiana depuis 2009, chrétien fervent et l’un des piliers du Parti républicain. Mike Pence est opposé à l’avortement, au contrôle des armes, au mariage gay, il a voté contre la réforme de la santé d’Obama et se classe également parmi les climatosceptiques : « la lutte contre le changement climatique menée par Obama et Clinton détruit des emplois aux Etats-Unis ». Les conseillers de Trump ont poussé pour qu’il soit choisi comme colistier afin de servir de pont avec les élus républicains dont beaucoup avaient déclaré que Trump n’était pas qualifié pour être président. Un lien qui pourrait lui permettre de conserver une influence au sein de la future administration même si le nouveau président aime à répéter qu’il prend ses décisions seul. Durant la campagne, Mike Pence avait su aussi parler aux électeurs du Midwest, dont l’Indiana fait partie, et qui ont massivement voté Trump.

    Ex-étoile montante du Parti républicain, âgé de 54 ans, le populaire et médiatique gouverneur du New Jersey a échoué dans sa candidature à la primaire républicaine avant de rallier Donald Trump en février. Décrit comme modéré, il n’en reste pas moins fidèle aux principes de son parti : opposé au contrôle des armes, à l’avortement et au mariage gay. Son avenir est assombri par l’affaire du « Bridgegate » dans laquelle Chris Christie est accusé d’avoir fermé deux voies sur le pont George Washington pour se venger d’un maire qui ne l’avait pas soutenu pour sa réélection au poste de gouverneur : les embouteillages avaient bloqué la ville. Plusieurs des assistants de Chris Christie sont sous le coup d’une enquête qui pourrait s’étendre jusqu’à lui. Un temps pressenti comme colistier pour la vice-présidence, il a reconnu que ce scandale lui avait peut-être coûté la place. « Il aurait voulu être à la place de Donald Trump. S’il ne s’’était pas lancé dans la course à la présidentielle, Chris Christie aurait été le candidat brut au parler franc de cette élection », explique Dan Cassino, « mais Trump a été meilleur que lui à ce jeu-là. Si les investigations ne le rattrapent pas, il pourrait être le prochain attorney general (ministre de la Justice) », ajoute Dan Cassino.

    « Rudy » Giuliani, 72 ans, est connu pour avoir été le maire de New York au moment des attentats du 11 septembre mais il incarne aussi la politique de « tolérance zéro » mené contre la délinquance et la criminalité dans les années 90. « Durant la campagne, il a été le plus virulent des opposants à Hillary Clinton », analyse Dan Cassino, « et l’un des soutiens indéfectibles de Trump : il l’a défendu contre les accusations de racisme, d’agressions sexuelles ou de fraude fiscale ». Accusé d’avoir joué de ses relations au FBI pour relancer l’enquête sur les emails d’Hillary Clinton à quelques jours du vote, il a finalement nié avoir été en contact avec des agents fédéraux dans cette affaire. Rudolph Giuliani pourrait devenir le prochain ministre de la Justice (attorney general),"mais il est pressenti aussi pour être à la tête du département de la sécurité intérieure", affirme Dan Cassino (department of homeland security, équivalent lointain du ministère de l’Intérieur français).

    L’ancien speaker de la Chambre des représentants avait incarné l’opposition féroce des Républicains aux Démocrates du temps de la présidence de Bill Clinton. Il avait poussé l’obstruction au vote du budget jusqu’à obliger le pouvoir fédéral à fermer ("shutdown") pendant 27 jours entre 1995 et 1996 ; certains fonctionnaires avaient dû faire une croix sur leur salaire durant cette période. Newt Gingrich, 73 ans, est évoqué comme potentiel secrétaire d’Etat. Élu à la Chambre de 1979 à 1999, il connaît le tout -Washington, mais a aussi une personnalité volcanique, comme Donald Trump. Au moment du « shutdown », le New York Daily News s’était moqué de lui dans une première page restée célèbre : « Cry Baby » où Newt Gingrich est dessiné en bébé capricieux. Le journal l’accusait d’avoir bloqué le gouvernement car il avait été vexé que Bill Clinton l’ait fait asseoir à l’arrière d’Air Force One et non à l’avant pour se rendre aux obsèques de Yitzhak Rabin.

    Kellyanne Conway est la première femme à avoir occupé le poste de directrice de campagne d’un candidat républicain. A 49 ans, c’est une enquêtrice d’opinion aguerrie du « Grand Old Party ». Elle a rejoint l’équipe Trump pendant l’été après avoir soutenu pendant les primaires le sénateur texan Ted Cruz. Elle a souvent fait le service après-vente de Donald Trump dans les médias, notamment pour tenter d’éteindre les polémiques initiées par le candidat. Mais son nom n’est pas cité pour occuper un poste au sein du futur gouvernement.

    Directeur général de l’équipe de campagne, Stephen Bannon, 62 ans, tire les ficelles en coulisses. Il n’a rejoint l’équipe qu’en août à la faveur d’un remaniement de l’équipe Trump, se mettant en congés du site d’information conservateur Breitbart News. Andrew Breitbart, le fondateur de ce site, avait encensé M. Bannon, le qualifiant de « Leni Riefenstahl du Tea Party » pour ses documentaires très engagés. Relativement nouveau dans le milieu politique, son expérience chez Breitbart en fait un important porte-voix de l’"alt-right", un mouvement qui rassemble des nationalistes blancs anti-immigrés et des personnes farouchement opposées à l’establishment politique. L’an dernier, une enquête de l’agence Bloomberg l’avait qualifié de personnalité politique « la plus dangereuse » d’Amérique. Comme Kellyanne Conway, il n’est pas cité pour faire partie de la future administration.

    Les moins connus...
    Le sénateur du Tennessee Bob Corker, président de la commission des Affaires étrangères du Sénat, est également sur la liste pour le poste de secrétaire d’Etat. Le sénateur de l’Alabama Jeff Sessions, membre de la commission des forces armées du Sénat, est un soutien inconditionnel de Trump. Il a été présenté comme un possible secrétaire à la Défense, tout comme l’ancien sénateur du Missouri Jim Talent. Le général Mike Flynn, ancien patron du renseignement militaire américain - caution militaire du milliardaire - pourrait être choisi pour être ministre de la Défense. Steven Hadley, ancien conseiller à la Sécurité nationale de George W. Bush, est également évoqué. Donald Trump considérerait aussi le néo-conservateur John Bolton, ancien ambassadeur à l’ONU sous George W. Bush, pour le poste de secrétaire d’Etat.

    ... et quelques contempteurs
    #Donald_Trump compte enfin quantité de détracteurs qui mettent en doute sa capacité à savoir s’entourer. Parmi eux, RTL a retrouvé l’ancien chef cuisinier du milliardaire, un Français aujourd’hui installé en Floride : « Il m’adorait. (...) Mais le jour où il a commencé à me taper dessus, j’ai compris qu’il y avait un problème. (...) Je ne sais pas s’il a un peu de cervelle. Il est cinglé. Trump président ? On va rigoler. » Son ancien nègre, Tony Schwartz, l’homme à qui le magnat de l’immobilier avait confié l’écriture d’une biographie à sa gloire ("The Art of the Deal", 1987) regrette aujourd’hui d’avoir passé sous silence les tares du milliardaire : dans un entretien au New Yorker en juillet, il déclare « Je pense sincèrement que si Trump gagne et obtient les codes nucléaires, il y a de grandes chances que cela entraîne la fin de notre civilisation » ou encore « Les millions de personnes qui ont voté pour lui et croient qu’il représente leurs intérêts apprendront […] qu’il se fiche complètement d’eux. » Interloqué par la capacité de Trump à mentir, « une seconde nature », Tony Schwartz confie en fin d’entretien que s’il devait réécrire sa biographie, il choisirait « the sociopath » en titre...

    Source : Maxime Tellier.

  • What `Watergate’ meant, before it meant scandal

    I had joined the Army the year before — Regular Army, thank you — and was strolling along the tow path of the old Chesapeake and Ohio Canal one Saturday afternoon. It’s a lovely old canal almost lost to the ages half a century ago when local road planners wanted to pave it over and make it a freeway.

    Had they done so, they would have wiped out nearly two centuries worth of American history. In 1754, George Washington had envisioned the C&O Canal as a way to link the Chesapeake Bay to the Midwest. The plan was to build a canal from Georgetown on the Potomac River to Pittsburgh on the Ohio River, and on to the heartland via the Mississippi.

    The canal would begin just about where Rock Creek empties into the Potomac River, with a canal and locks system paralleling the Potomac River valley. President John Quincy Adams broke ground for the canal in 1828. Builders got as far as Cumberland, Md., 184.5 miles upstream.

    It was profitable for a time, but the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, roughly paralleling the canal, ultimately doomed it. Floods took their toll as well, though the railroad continued operating parts of the C&O canal until 1924. The government bought it in 1938, and by the early 1950s had hatched the parkway plan.

    Then Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, an outdoorsman and historian, went to work. He recruited a party of editorial writers from The Washington Post, which had backed the plan to pave over the canal, and led them on a hike along the entire length of the C&O canal. By the end of the trip the writers had changed their minds, and eventually Congress preserved it as a National Historical Park.

    Without that designation, the canal would have disappeared, and so might the little-known area around the canal’s Milepost 0. When we first saw it that afternoon in 1969, it was little more than an old jumble of stones and timbers. But it was, we later learned, the water gate — the last lock, where water coming downstream along the C&O canal could empty into the Potomac. It was the place where canal boats could move on and off the Potomac River. With the water gate closed and the channel filling with water, they could begin the long process of locking up through the C&O.

    When a new complex with a hotel, condominiums, offices, restaurants and shops was built just across Rock Creek Parkway, it took its name from that old water gate — and became the Watergate.

    #histoire #USA #politique #ouvrage_hydraulique

  • A Tangled Web of Alliances - Metrocosm

    Je ne sais pas ce que ça vaut, pas eu le temps de m’y plonger mais je référence pour le futur proche.

    In his farewell address, George Washington warned, “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliance with any portion of the foreign world.” Thomas Jefferson echoed the same sentiment at his inauguration: “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations; entangling alliances with none.”

    Since then (really, since WWII), the U.S. has done just the opposite, accumulating defense pacts with 64 other countries, representing about 25% of the world’s population. If one of those 64 countries is attacked, the U.S. may be obligated to provide active military support.

    #armées #armement #alliances #alliances_militaires
    America’s defense pacts, along with those of the rest of the world, are shown as lines in the map below. The pacts include bilateral agreements from one country to another, as well as large multilateral agreements between many countries (for example, NATO).

    Bubble size = population.
    Click a bubble to show only that country’s defense pacts.
    Press the orange button to switch between Venn Diagram and World Map views.

  • Il est temps de refonder une école française de pensée stratégique sur la #Russie

    C’était il y a un peu plus d’un an ...

    Il est temps de refonder une école française de pensée stratégique sur la Russie

    Le | 02.06.2015 à 12h37 • Mis à jour le 02.06.2015 à 12h45

    Depuis plus d’un an et demi, la crise ukrainienne a mis en lumière le dynamisme des recompositions (géo)politiques dans l’espace postsoviétique : cette région du monde est en mouvement, et ce mouvement impacte directement l’espace européen. L’enjeu est loin d’être limité à l’avenir des marges orientales de l’Europe. La Russie et l’Europe partagent un même continent, et ne peuvent avoir des trajectoires historiques cloisonnées.

    La crise ukrainienne – de la Crimée au Donbass – a également révélé à quel point le paysage stratégique français était polarisé sur la question. Non qu’il faille viser l’unanimité des points de vue. Mais on ne peut qu’être inquiet de la pauvreté relative du débat stratégique. Comme souvent concernant l’espace postsoviétique, seules les positions radicales aux deux extrêmes du spectre – la simple reproduction du discours du Kremlin, ou le renouveau d’une russophobie viscérale – se sont exprimées. Diabolisation et dénonciations ont laissé l’opinion publique, les médias et les cercles de décision politiques et économiques dans l’impasse intellectuelle et stratégique.

    Cette situation est le résultat des nombreuses années durant lesquelles la Russie et les pays de l’ex-URSS ont été considérés comme les parents pauvres du débat stratégique français. L’État s’est largement désinvesti de son soutien à la production d’un savoir sur la région, accélérant la chute des études russes et eurasiennes dans les universités françaises, et siphonnant les fonds alloués à la connaissance des langues et contextes locaux. Dans les centres d’analyse stratégique, la zone Russie-Eurasie est devenue un secteur marginal, les jeunes esprits brillants étant invités à s’investir dans des sujets plus porteurs, ou n’arrivaient pas à accéder aux lieux de visibilité. Bien sûr, dans ce climat morose de désintérêt pour la région, quelques exceptions ont tenu bon et ont appris à gérer au mieux la rareté des fonds, de ressources humaines et de soutien administratif.

    Il manque toutefois à la France une école de pensée globale structurée autour de trois grands enjeux :
    – Faire dialoguer les spécialistes des questions de politique intérieure, d’identité et de culture avec ceux qui s’occupent du secteur économique et des politiques étrangères et de défense. On a vu à quel point la crise ukrainienne était au carrefour des questions intérieures et des questions internationales – et les guerres de mémoire en cours n’en sont qu’à leurs débuts.
    – Favoriser le dialogue, courant dans le monde anglo-saxon mais absent en France, entre les think tanks et la recherche universitaire.
    – Replacer les enjeux liés à la Russie dans un contexte global qui touche l’Europe de plein fouet : viennent à l’esprit, parmi bien d’autres, flux migratoires, désespérance sociale qui pousse à la radicalisation, nouvelles infrastructures transcontinentales chinoises, etc.

    Sur la base d’un tel constat, il est temps de refonder une école française de pensée stratégique sur la Russie. Temps de faire tomber les clichés sur une Russie qui ne serait qu’un monstre froid avide d’expansion territoriale, ou à l’autre extrême, d’une Russie seule en mesure de sauver l’Europe de ses démons libéraux et transatlantiques. Temps d’avoir une vision proactive vis-à-vis de la Russie et de mettre en place de nouvelles plateformes où la recherche sur ce pays puisse s’élaborer en prenant en compte la profondeur historique, la dimension économique, les contextes locaux ou encore l’expression du pluralisme qui existe en Russie même. Temps que tous ceux qui contribuent à la prise de décision puissent s’appuyer sur des analyses objectives – qui intègrent aussi bien le long passé des relations franco-russes que les tensions et rivalités contemporaines – et soient libérés des différents lobbies qui se sont multipliés ces dernières années, et qui cherchent à influencer nos perceptions.

    L’Allemagne vient de décider, en janvier 2015, de financer un nouvel institut d’étude entièrement dédié à la Russie et l’espace eurasiatique, doté d’un budget de 2,5 millions d’euros. La France aurait avantage à suivre cet exemple. Il ne s’agit pas de mettre en place une nouvelle institution qui viendrait s’ajouter aux autres mais de créer des synergies nouvelles dépassant les traditionnels blocages franco-français et les concurrences institutionnelles, ainsi que de générer des analyses collectives libérées de concepts trop chargés idéologiquement.

    Il serait dommageable que Paris reste silencieux sur des enjeux qui touchent à l’avenir de l’Europe. De plus, une nouvelle école de pensée stratégique sur la Russie servira également de relais de la politique française d’influence globale au sein de l’Union européenne et dans le dialogue avec les États-Unis.
    Une certitude demeure : la Russie sera encore là dans les prochaines décennies. Mieux la comprendre doit nous permettre d’anticiper les trajectoires stratégiques pour affirmer les intérêts de la France et de l’Europe dans cette aire géopolitique essentielle.

    Mathieu Boulègue, associé pour le cabinet de conseil AESMA, Pôle Eurasie
    Isabelle Facon, chercheur, Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique (FRS)
    Kevin Limonier, chercheur, Institut Français de Géopolitique, Université Paris VIII
    Marlène Laruelle, professeur, Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University
    Jérôme Pasinetti, président du cabinet de conseil AESMA
    Anaïs Marin, Marie Curie Fellow, Collegium Civitas, Varsovie
    Jean Radvanyi, professeur des universités, INALCO
    Jean-Robert Raviot, professeur, études russes et post-soviétiques, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre
    David Teurtrie, chercheur associé au Centre de recherches Europe-Eurasie (CREE), INALCO
    Julien Vercueil, maître de conférences de sciences économiques, INALCO
    Henry Zipper de Fabiani, ancien ambassadeur de France

    #ex-urss #soviétisme

  • « Nous devons nous défendre contre les bêtes sauvages » (Netanyahou) | i24news -
    Par Tal Shalev
    Publié : 09/02/2016

    Benyamin Netanyahou a visité mardi la frontière sud d’Israël avec la Jordanie pour examiner l’avancée de la construction de la barrière de sécurité dans le sud du pays.

    « J’envisage que l’Etat d’Israël soit entouré de clôtures de ce genre », a déclaré Netanyahou.

    « Nous allons entourer l’ensemble du pays. Nous devons nous défendre contre les bêtes sauvages qui nous entourent », a-t-il poursuivi.


  • Mapping the Sexism of Street Names in Major Cities - CityLab

    A lot of things are named after people: food, theories, diseases, and among the most common, streets. Martin Luther King Jr. alone has more than 900 streets named after him throughout the U.S. Then there are several streets named after presidents like George Washington, scientists like Isaac Newton, and other historical figures.

    But there’s a glaring problem with how streets get named: few memorialize women. A new interactive map from Mapbox developer Aruna Sankaranarayanan and her colleagues shows just how scarce female streets are in major cities around the world.

    #sexisme #villes

  • Israël, Afrique du Sud : les liaisons dangereuses
    Abdourahman Waberi (né en 1965 dans l’actuelle République de Djibouti, il vit entre Paris et les Etats-Unis où il a enseigné les littératures francophones aux Claremont Colleges (Californie). Il est aujourd’hui professeur à George Washington University. Auteur entre autres de « Aux États-Unis d’Afrique » (JC Lattès, 2006), il vient de publier « La Divine Chanson » (Zulma, 2015))
    Le, le 22 juillet 2015

    #Palestine #Afrique_du_sud #Apartheid

  • La Cour suprême américaine rejette une proposition d’obliger le président à reconnaître Jérusalem comme capitale d’Israël

    U.S. Supreme Court decision : Small step for presidency, big blow for Jerusalem - West of Eden
    The massive effort to use Zivotofsky’s passport petition for recognition of Israel’s capital only made things worse.
    By Chemi Shalev | Jun. 9, 2015
    Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News

    The U.S. Constitution gave the president the authority “to receive ambassadors and other public ministers.” Ever since the Founding Fathers first thrashed it out in 1793 over George Washington’s wish to muzzle an irksome envoy of revolutionary France, the so-called “reception clause” has been interpreted as giving the President wide powers in making foreign policy. Monday’s Supreme Court decision further cemented his (or her) exclusive authority over recognition of foreign countries and their sovereignty over geographical areas, or, in this case, lack thereof.

    By a 6-3 majority, the Court decided, that this presidential prerogative encompasses American-issued passports and their contents. Therefore, the judges noted, a clause in a 2002 Congressional bill that sought to compel the administration to allow Jerusalem-born Americans to have “Israel” registered in their passports as their country of birth was unconstitutional. The court rejected the petition brought by Benjamin Zivotofsky, born shortly after the law was enacted, ruling that his passport would continue to list a country-less Jerusalem as his place of birth.

    The decision had nothing to do with the specific legal status of Jerusalem or with the consistent refusal of successive U.S. administrations – from Harry Truman through Ronald Reagan and George Bush all the way to Barack Obama – to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city. Rather, the judges dealt with the eternal dilemmas of the American constitutional regime, including separation of powers and the conduct of foreign affairs: Where the constitution doesn’t grant it a foothold, the judges ruled, Congress cannot barge in.

    It was not a victory for Barack Obama, but for the office of the presidency, and a limited one at that: The Court did not rule, as administration lawyers had suggested, that the president has exclusive control of the country’s entire foreign policy. Thus, for example, the decision has little legal bearing on the upcoming battle over the Iran nuclear deal: First, because the Constitution gives Congress considerable say about foreign treaties and second, because that issue was dealt with in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act legislated last month.

    Legalities and technicalities aside, however, the decision was nonetheless a considerable public relations blow for Israel and for perceptions of its status in Jerusalem. Together with myriad Jewish organizations fighting for the cause, Israel had sought to exploit Zivotofsky’s understandable request to have his country of birth registered in his passport, conducting a legal battle that lasted over a decade, consumed millions of dollars, raised hopes sky high and ended in a thundering crash. The world’s media are bound to dwell less on the debates between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton over the conduct of America’s foreign policy and more on the ruling’s bottom line. If you hadn’t known until now that Israel’s greatest ally refuses to recognize its sovereignty over its capital in either East or West Jerusalem, you’re certainly aware of it now.

    Israel and the Jewish groups who turned the Zivotofsky case into a cause celebre turned out to be too clever by half. They thought that by combining strong Congressional support, persuasive amicus briefs submitted by well-respected Jewish groups and a personal story bound to spark sympathy they might circumvent long standing U.S. policy and get in through the back door. A clear majority of the judges – including all the liberal ones, whose positions may have been colored, for all we know, by their attitude towards current Israeli policies – decided to slam the door on their toes. 

    Most observers believe that Israel has already lost the battle over a nuclear agreement with Iran as well, if and when one is signed – it just doesn’t know it yet, or at least is unwilling to concede. It’s been a recurring theme in recent years, especially in the government’s ties with America: Why try to cut your losses when you can emerge from the fight not only bloodied and beaten, but tarred and feathered as well?

  • Et la CIA créa le label Théoriciens du complot …

    « > »>Par George Washington – L « > »>e 23 Février 2015 – Source

    En 1967, la CIA a créé le label Théoriciens du complot… pour attaquer quiconque mettait en doute la version officielle.

    Les théories du complot devraient être acceptées comme normales

    La démocratie et le capitalisme de libre marché ont été fondées sur des théories du complot.

    La Magna Carta, la Constitution et la Déclaration d’Indépendance ainsi que d’autres documents occidentaux fondateurs étaient fondés sur des théories du complot. La démocratie grecque et le capitalisme de marché libre ont également été basés sur les théories du complot.

    Mais c’était le bon vieux temps… Les choses ont maintenant changé.

    La CIA a inventé le terme théoricien de la conspiration en 1967

    Tout cela a changé dans les années 1960.

    Plus précisément, (...)

  • - #Microbiote fécal : recommandations de l’Académie de pharmacie

    Paris, le mardi 24 février 2015 - Le succès du transfert de microbiote fécal (TMF) dans les infections à #Clostridium_difficile multirécidivantes est largement confirmé par la littérature internationale et d’autres pathologies sont potentiellement concernées, telles que les maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l’intestin, les troubles fonctionnels intestinaux, l’obésité, les maladies métaboliques et auto-immunes ou encore certains désordres neuropsychiatriques (1). Le microbiote fécal répond à la définition d’un médicament, dont la préparation relève de la responsabilité de la pharmacie à usage intérieur (PUI) d’un établissement de santé, indique l’Agence nationale de Sécurité du Médicament (ANSM) dans un rapport de mars 2014 qui a encadré cette pratique afin de garantir la sécurité des patients concernés. Ni caractérisable, ni évaluable, de composition complexe et variable selon les dons, ce médicament bien particulier relève de la qualification transitoire de médicament biologique « sui generis » soulignent le Pr Francis Mégerlin et ses confrères de l’Académie nationale de pharmacie et de la George Washington University (2).

    Une préparation réglementée

    L’Académie nationale de pharmacie vient de rendre publiques les recommandations préparées par son groupe de travail « Transfert de flore » du groupe « Projet Santé-environnement » concernant le TMF des infections récidivantes à C difficile. Concernant la préparation du TMF par les pharmaciens exerçant au sein d’une PUI, elle précise que, sous réserve d’une autorisation par l’Agence régionale de santé, elle doit être effectuée « dans des locaux adaptés et en conformité avec des bonnes pratiques nécessitant d’être complétées par des dispositions spécifiques ». Selon les circonstances, souligne l’Académie, « cette préparation peut faire appel à une sous-traitance formalisée des recueil, contrôle et traitement de la matière première par une autre PUI autorisée ou par des biologistes médicaux ». Et dans les deux cas, « le lot est libéré sous l’autorité du pharmacien ».

    Objectif : traçabilité

    En ce qui concerne la qualification du don en vue du TMF, l’Académie recommande « la pratique d’un questionnaire et, le cas échéant, d’un examen clinique » pour contribuer à la sécurisation du don, ainsi que la standardisation de cette procédure sur le plan national. Elle souhaite d’autre part que « les contrôles macroscopique, microscopique, biochimique et microbiologique soient déterminés et hiérarchisés en vue de l’élimination des risques pathogènes connus ».

    L’académie prône l’élaboration d’ « un guide des bonnes pratiques de préparation spécifiques » pour la préparation à administrer, prenant en compte en particulier « le recueil, le traitement et la formulation de la matière première, ainsi que le contrôle microbiologique du don ». Les cas de sous-traitance sont à formaliser « par un service de pharmacie hospitalière ou de biologie médicale » selon l’organisation de l’établissement. Les académiciens insistent sur la nécessité de la traçabilité du don pour les cas d’éventuels effets secondaires. Ils conseillent des fichiers pour assurer « la mémoire des prélèvements et des dons effectués dans le cadre du TMF (pendant dix ans) », des échantillothèques pour conserver 3 ans à - 80°C des fèces et les préparations utilisées pour le TMF ; la mise en place d’un registre national ou européen des différents TMF réalisés « tant dans les cas d’infections récidivantes à C. difficile que pour d’autres applications en recherche biomédicale » ; et la structuration pour « évaluer les bénéfices et les risques du TMF » d’un réseau de retour d’expériences et de surveillance, « national, européen et international ».

  • Untold History: More Than a Quarter of U.S. Presidents Were Involved in Slavery, Human Trafficking | Democracy Now!

    AMY GOODMAN: So, give us a black history of U.S. presidents, as you call it.

    CLARENCE LUSANE: Well, in looking at the White House—and I use that as the prism to try to look at this longer history that basically led up to President Obama—one of the things that we find that’s missing in that history is the voices of people, particularly African Americans, who were enslaved during that long, long, long history. And that was critical because when you think about George Washington, Madison, Monroe, all of the early presidents, who wrote the Declaration of Independence, they wrote the Constitution, they wrote the Articles of Confederation, all of these documents, these founding documents that extol the principles of democracy, liberty, equality, they were living a contradiction. And that contradiction is that every single day of their life, every moment in their life, they were surrounded by people who were enslaved.

    Now, fortunately, because of some of the historic records that have been kept, we now know who some of those people were. George Washington, for example, when he was president and his presidency was in Philadelphia, had at least nine individuals with him who were enslaved—Oney Maria Judge, for example, who was a young woman of about 22 who escaped from George Washington. She escaped—this was in 1796, when she found out that Martha Washington was planning to give her away as a wedding gift. And she made contact with the free black population in Philadelphia, was able to escape. Now, this is remarkable because we’re talking about a young woman who basically traveled nowhere by herself, who escapes from the most powerful person on the planet, pretty much, certainly most powerful person in the United States. Her story is important because she lived—she outlived Washington. She lived to be, I believe, in her eighties and lived a life where she learned to read, became active in her community. You also had Hercules, who was Washington’s cook, who also escaped from Washington.

    So there are people who we were in and around the White House who had stories to tell that are part of that history that we literally were never taught about for all of the years that, you know, we took schooling and we took classes in history. And so, I thought it was important, and there are others who have written to re-enter into the historic narrative the stories of these individuals, because they really are critical if you really want to understand the politics of George Washington or the politics of Thomas Jefferson or any of the other presidents who held slaves.



    While conceding that many Americans in that era viewed Islam with suspicion, classifying Muslims as dangerous and unworthy of inclusion within the American experiment, [Denise Spellberg] also shows that such leading figures as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington spurned exclusionary arguments, arguing that America should be open to Muslim citizens, office-holders, and even presidents.

    L’intro du livre :

    Jefferson possédait donc un Coran dans sa bibliothèque et n’était pas particulièrement hostile aux musulmans ; il se battait au contraire, notamment avec Washington et Madison, pour la liberté religieuse et la séparation de l’Eglise et de l’Etat, soutenant l’inclusion de toutes les minorités religieuses (juifs, catholiques et musulmans), contre la domination d’une religion majoritaire. Une position courageuse qui rompt à l’époque avec les idées européennes traditionnelles, et qui révèle que les musulmans n’ont pas toujours été vus comme l’incarnation de l’antithèse des valeurs américaines. Les débats sur la place des musulmans dans la société américaine ne sont pas nouveaux.

    Recent anti-Islamic slurs used to deny the legitimacy of a presidential candidacy contained eerie echoes of founding precedents. The legal possibility of a Muslim president was first discussed with vitriol during debates involving America’s Founders. Thomas Jefferson would be the first in the history of American politics to suffer the false charge of being a Muslim, an accusation considered the ultimate Protestant slur in the eighteenth century.

    Cela dit, les droits des musulmans pour lesquels certains se battaient étaient purement théoriques, vu qu’ils ignoraient qu’il se trouvait à l’époque plusieurs milliers (ou dizaines de milliers) de musulmans en Amérique parmi les esclaves venus d’Afrique. Ils se battaient donc ironiquement (et tragiquement) pour les droits de personnes qui étaient par ailleurs leurs esclaves...

    Indeed, when the Founders imagined future Muslim citizens, they presumably imagined them as white, because by the 1790s “full American citizenship could be claimed by any free, white immigrant, regardless of ethnicity or religious beliefs.”...

  • Manœuvres militaires des forces états-uniennes, japonaises et sud-coréennes en Corée du Sud. Heureusement, elles sont exclusivement à caractère humanitaire.

    Pyongyang met en garde Washington avant des manœuvres tripartites

    Les manœuvres navales tripartites doivent démarrer mardi autour de la péninsule coréenne, si la menace d’un typhon est écartée. Les troupes comprennent notamment le sous-marin américain à propulsion nucléaire USS George Washington. Ces manœuvres sont « un exercice annuel de recherches et de sauvetage, de nature humanitaire », a indiqué un porte-parole des forces sud-coréennes et américaines. La semaine dernière, un haut responsable de la défense américaine les avait décrites comme « de plus en plus habituelles ».

    Accessoirement, le USS George Washington n’est pas un sous-marin à propulsion nucléaire — dont on se demande ce qu’il viendrait faire dans l’humanitaire… — mais un porte-avions à propulsion nucléaire.

    • Mais, finalement, les manœuvres sont reportées du fait du typhon Danas.
      S. Korea, U.S., Japan delay joint naval drills due to Typhoon Danas —

      With gusty winds of up to 45 meters per second,
      Typhoon Danas is making its way through the Korea Strait, a sea passage between Korea and Japan, moving at a speed of at least 30 kilometers per hour.
      The drills were to involve the nuclear-powered American aircraft carrier, the USS George Washington, a guided-missile cruiser and a guided-missile destroyer from the U.S., as well as Aegis destroyers from South Korea and Japan.
      A South Korean senior Navy official, speaking on the condition of anonymity, said Tuesday that consultations are underway on whether to postpone the drills a few days or cancel them.
      The official added the George Washington has been moved to a safer place and is currently on standby.

      Ah ! et puis peut-être qu’on ira les faire ailleurs. Ou même qu’on les annulera.

      Mais alors, comment on va faire pour l’humanitaire ?

  • Australian warship to join US fleet off Korean peninsula - World Socialist Web Site

    Australian warship to join US fleet off Korean peninsula
    By Mark Church and James Cogan

    3 May 2013

    The Australian guided-missile frigate HMAS Sydney has been dispatched to join the American Seventh Fleet in Japan. For three months it will be “embedded” with the naval battle group escorting the aircraft carrier USS George Washington. The warship will take part in exercises and operations near the tense Korean Peninsula and the Senkaku Islands, which are the subject of a bitter territorial dispute between China and Japan.

    #géostratégie #états-unis #pacifique #australie

  • Internet Entreprise Digital Index

    The Digital 100 Power Index - The Daily Beast

    Jun 25, 2012

    To paraphrase Gandhi: First they ignore you. Then they laugh at you. Then they fight you. And then—when you black out the sixth-largest website on the planet for an entire day—you win.

    This is what Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales learned about power on Jan. 18, 2012. The online encyclopedia had once been a novelty: written by everyone, it could contain errors from anyone, as when Stephen Colbert doctored the entry for George Washington in 2006, asserting falsely that he had not owned slaves. But the idea behind Wikipedia was powerful enough to survive pranks, as the service grew to become an essential reference tool for hundreds of millions of users. And late last year, when two bills working their way through the U.S. Congress threatened the site’s ability to function, Wales knew it was time to flex his digital muscles. In coordination with other web giants, Wikipedia went dark in protest, a blunt demonstration to lawmakers of just how dependent the wired world had become on its model. Less than 48 hours later, the legislation was dead.