• Psychedelic Mushrooms Are Closer to Medicinal Use (It’s Not Just Your Imagination) - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/03/science/magic-mushrooms-psilocybin-scheduleiv.html

    Researchers from Johns Hopkins University have recommended that psilocybin, the active compound in hallucinogenic mushrooms, be reclassified for medical use, potentially paving the way for the psychedelic drug to one day treat depression and anxiety and help people stop smoking.

    The suggestion to reclassify psilocybin from a Schedule I drug, with no known medical benefit, to a Schedule IV drug, which is akin to prescription sleeping pills, was part of a review to assess the safety and abuse of medically administered psilocybin.

    Before the Food and Drug Administration can be petitioned to reclassify the drug, though, it has to clear extensive study and trials, which can take more than five years, the researchers wrote.

    The analysis was published in the October print issue of Neuropharmacology, a medical journal focused on neuroscience.

    For decades, though, researchers have shunned the study of psychedelics. “In the 1960s, they were on the cutting edge of neuroscience research and understanding how the brain worked,” Dr. Johnson said. “But then it got out of the lab.”

    Research stopped, in part, because the use of mind-altering drugs like LSD and mushrooms became a hallmark of hippie counterculture.

    The researchers who conducted the new study included Roland R. Griffiths, a professor in the departments of psychiatry and neurosciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, who is one of the most prominent researchers on the behavioral and subjective effects of mood-altering drugs. The researchers reviewed data going back to the 1940s.

    Dr. Johnson said that the F.D.A. had approved a number of trials of psilocybin. If its use is approved for patients, he said, “I see this as a new era in medicine.”

    He added, “The data suggests that psychedelics are powerful behavioral agents.” In legal studies, he said, participants are given a capsule with synthetic psilocybin. (They are not given mushrooms to eat, which is how the drug is most often ingested.)

    He warned, though, that psilocybin is not a panacea for everyone. In their analysis, the researchers called for strict controls on its use. There are areas of risk, too, for patients with psychotic disorders and anyone who takes high doses of the drug.

    #Psychédéliques #Psylocybine #Champignons #Usage_médical #Pharmacie


  • «Marco si è sentito male domenica, mentre era con suo fratello e gli amici.
    Un ragazzo gentile di 24 anni che parlava cinque lingue, impegnato come volontario per tradurre le informazioni ai richiedenti asilo.
    Si lamentava per i forti dolori all’addome. I crampi che provoca l’appendicite quando si infiamma. È corso in ospedale, dove lo hanno trattato con superficialità e dimesso senza fargli alcuna analisi. «Ma io sto malissimo, mi fa male la pancia!», ripeteva. Non gli hanno creduto.
    Nelle ore successive i dolori aumentano. La sera, Marco non riesce più a stare in piedi. Suo fratello e i suoi amici lo portano alla farmacia di turno, quella di Piazza Garibaldi, a un passo dalla stazione centrale di Napoli. Il farmacista si rifiuta di aprire la porta. Vede il ragazzo contorcersi per il dolore. Lo pregano di chiamare un’ambulanza. Attendono per più di un’ora, mentre Marco è riverso a terra, ma l’ambulanza non arriva. I ragazzi corrono alla fermata dei taxi più vicina, quella di Piazza Mancini. Per accompagnare Marco in ospedale servono dieci euro per la corsa. «Eccoli!», dicono, ma il tassista si rifiuta di caricarli. «Per piacere, sta malissimo!». Niente da fare. I ragazzi sollevano Marco e lo scortano a un’altra farmacia. Il farmacista osserva il ragazzo e gli suggerisce di acquistare farmaci per quindici euro. Marco inghiotte i farmaci, torna a casa, vomita.
    Suo fratello e i suoi amici tentano di nuovo di chiamare un’ambulanza, invano. Si rivolgono a Mauro, che è medico. Telefona anche lui: «Non possiamo mandare un’ambulanza per un ragazzo che vomita». «Ma sta male - li supplica Mauro - è urgente!». Ricostruisce i fatti parlando al telefono con i colleghi, spiega i sintomi. Marco rantola, ha quasi perso conoscenza. «Niente ambulanza, dovete portarlo a farsi visitare alla guardia medica. Nel caso, poi, l’ambulanza la chiamano loro». Sui fratello e gli amici lo prendono in spalla, corrono disperati verso Piazza Nazionale. Fermano una volante dei Carabinieri ma nemmeno quelli vogliono caricare Marco in macchina. Si rimettono a correre.
    Quando arrivano a destinazione Marco non risponde più. I medici capiscono che bisogna chiamare un’ambulanza e operarlo al più presto, ma il più presto era prima.
    Poco dopo l’arrivo in ospedale, Marco è morto.
    È morto perché non si chiamava Marco ma #Ibrahim_Manneh e veniva dalla Costa D’Avorio, come l’abbiamo ribattezzata noi europei nel 1500, quando abbiamo razziato tutti gli elefanti della zona portandoli all’estinzione.»
    Francesca Fornario su Il Fatto Quotidiano, 11 luglio 2017

    In memoria di tutti gli Ibrahim contro il razzismo crescente di coloro che per squallidi ritorni elettorali giocano sulla pelle degli immigrati, di coloro che vogliono erigere muri o blocchi navali, di coloro che si scagliano contro chi cerca una vita migliore.
    IO SONO IBRAHIM! PER NON DIMENTICARE, MAI!

    –-> Lu sur la page Facebook de Lisa Bosia, qui elle-même a repris de la page FB de Roberto Cammarano :
    https://www.facebook.com/lisa.bosia/posts/10216678274053482

    #hôpital #racisme #xénophobie #Italie #non-assistance_à_personne_en_danger #secours #accès_aux_soins #décès #ambulance #pharmacie #Naples

    Ibrahim Manneh comme #Naomi_Musenga :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/693102
    https://seenthis.net/messages/693545


  • The Cost of Pushing Pills: A New Estimate of Pharmaceutical Promotion Expenditures in the United States
    http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050001
    http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article/figure/image?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050001.t001&size=inline

    Conclusion

    From this new estimate, it appears that pharmaceutical companies spend almost twice as much on promotion as they do on R&D. These numbers clearly show how promotion predominates over R&D in the pharmaceutical industry, contrary to the industry’s claim. While the amount spent on promotion is not in itself a confirmation of Kefauver’s depiction of the pharmaceutical industry, it confirms the public image of a marketing-driven industry and provides an important argument to petition in favor of transforming the workings of the industry in the direction of more research and less promotion.

    #Pharmacie #R&D


  • PACE - Resolution 2071 (2015) - Public health and the interests of the pharmaceutical industry: how to guarantee the primacy of public health interests?
    http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=22154&lang=en

    During the 20th century, humankind saw the most spectacular medical advances in its history. Scientific progress helped us to identify the origin of countless illnesses and to develop treatments which have significantly improved the population’s state of health. The pharmaceutical industry has played an indisputable role here by investing massively in research and development for new medicines. It continues to do so and is therefore one of the key players in the health field and at the same time a very important sector of activity in many countries.
    2. For a long time, questions have been raised about the possible negative effects of the interaction between the pharmaceutical industry and health sector stakeholders. This interaction may well give rise to conflicts of interest, have an influence on the knowledge and behaviour of the players involved and result in biased decisions. In its Resolution 1749 (2010) “Handling of the H1N1 pandemic: more transparency needed”, the Parliamentary Assembly had expressed its concern at the risk of conflicts of interest among experts involved in sensitive health-related decisions.
    3. Despite the considerable progress made in preventing and dealing with conflicts of interest, this is still today largely a matter of hit-and-miss. By means of a self-regulation policy, the pharmaceutical industry is now adopting a much more ethical approach and legislation lays down rules in this area. However, self-regulation is not binding and the implementation of legislation leaves much to be desired.
    4. Research and development for new therapeutic molecules is a costly and lengthy process. In return for this investment, pharmaceutical companies benefit from an intellectual property right on the molecules they develop, protected by a patent. This innovation model has led to the discovery of thousands of medicines. However, more and more voices are now being heard arguing that this is not the optimal approach in public health matters.
    5. In recent years, in spite of the increase in the number of new medicines placed on the market, there have been very few that present a real therapeutic benefit, satisfying real health needs. In addition, we have seen an upsurge in the price of medicines, allegedly justified by the cost of research and development, which nonetheless remains opaque and broadly disputed. The exorbitant price of cancer and hepatitis C treatments is of particular concern. Public health systems are faced with constant cost increases in this area, jeopardising their ability to fulfil their role.

    #Pharmacie


  • Pharmaceutical industry gets high on fat profits - BBC News
    https://www.bbc.com/news/business-28212223

    Last year, US giant Pfizer, the world’s largest drug company by pharmaceutical revenue, made an eye-watering 42% profit margin. As one industry veteran understandably says: “I wouldn’t be able to justify [those kinds of margins].”

    Stripping out the one-off $10bn (£6.2bn) the company made from spinning off its animal health business leaves a margin of 24%, still pretty spectacular by any standard.

    In the UK, for example, there was widespread anger when the industry regulator predicted energy companies’ profit margins would grow from 4% to 8% this year.

    Last year, five pharmaceutical companies made a profit margin of 20% or more - Pfizer, Hoffmann-La Roche, AbbVie, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Eli Lilly.

    Drug companies justify the high prices they charge by arguing that their research and development (R&D) costs are huge. On average, only three in 10 drugs launched are profitable, with one of those going on to be a blockbuster with $1bn-plus revenues a year. Many more do not even make it to market.

    But as the table below shows, drug companies spend far more on marketing drugs - in some cases twice as much - than on developing them. And besides, profit margins take into account R&D costs.

    The industry also argues that the wider value of the drug needs to be considered.

    “Drugs do save money over the longer term,” says Stephen Whitehead, chief executive of the Association of the British Pharmaceuticals Industry (ABPI).

    "Take hepatitis C, a shocking virus that kills people and used to require a liver transplant. At £35,000 [to £70,000] for a 12-week course, 90% of people are now cured, will never need surgery or looking after, and can continue to support their families.

    “The amount of money saved is huge.”

    Pour les opioides, c’est le contraire... les coûts sociaux sont largement plus importants que les revenus des entreprises pharmaceutiques concernées.

    Courting doctors

    But drug companies have been accused of, and admitted to, far worse.

    Until recently, paying bribes to doctors to prescribe their drugs was commonplace at big pharmas, although the practice is now generally frowned upon and illegal in many places. GSK was fined $490m in China in September for bribery and has been accused of similar practices in Poland and the Middle East.

    The rules on gifts, educational grants and sponsoring lectures, for example, are less clear cut, and these practices remain commonplace in the US.

    Indeed a recent study found that doctors in the US receiving payments from pharma companies were twice as likely to prescribe their drugs.

    ’Undue influence’

    No wonder, then, that the World Health Organisation (WHO) has talked of the “inherent conflict” between the legitimate business goals of the drug companies and the medical and social needs of the wider public.

    Indeed the Council of Europe is launching an investigation into “protecting patients and public health against the undue influence of the pharmaceutical industry”.

    It will look at “particular practices such as sponsoring health professionals by the industry... or recourse by public health institutions to the knowledge of highly specialised researchers on the pay-rolls of industry”.

    #Pharmacie #Marketing


  • Les compagnies pharmaceutiques dépensent deux fois plus en marketing qu’en recherche | Le Devoir
    https://www.ledevoir.com/societe/sante/170552/les-compagnies-pharmaceutiques-depensent-deux-fois-plus-en-marketing-qu-en

    Ottawa — Les manufacturiers de médicaments dépensent près de deux fois plus pour la promotion de leurs produits que pour la recherche et le développement, révèle une nouvelle étude.
    Dans leur analyse des données provenant de deux entreprises spécialisées dans les études de marché, Marc-André Gagnon et Joel Lexchin, de l’université York, de Toronto, ont constaté que les sociétés pharmaceutiques américaines ont consacré, en 2004, 57,5 milliards $ US à leurs activités de promotion.

    Par comparaison, les dépenses en recherche et en développement de l’industrie pharmaceutique aux Etats-Unis se chiffraient la même année à 31,5 milliards $, selon un rapport de la Fondation nationale des sciences, incluant les fonds publics dévolus à la recherche industrielle.

    Le type de dépenses incluses dans le montant de 57,5 milliards $, compilées par les firmes IMS et CAM, comprend les échantillons gratuits, la publicité s’adressant directement aux consommateurs, les réunions entre représentants d’entreprise et médecins pour promouvoir les produits, les promotions par courriel et par la poste, selon l’étude.

    Ces conclusions, qui paraissent cette semaine dans la publication Public Library of Science Medicine, confirment « l’image publique d’une industrie axée sur la commercialisation », disent les auteurs de l’étude.

    #Pharmacie #R&D #Marketing #Etats-Unis


  • Marketing pharmaceutique et innovation : interview C. Lajoux sur mercator.fr
    http://www.mercator-publicitor.fr/le-medicament-n-est-pas-un-produit-comme-les-autres

    Pour répondre à votre question, signalons qu’il n’y a pas une industrie pharmaceutique française mais une industrie pharmaceutique en France – ce qui est différent. Les groupes pharmaceutiques, quelle que soit leur taille, sont tous de dimension internationale . S’il peut avoir des centres de décision dans les pays – comme c’est le cas pour Sanofi ou pour Pierre Fabre – nous sommes toujours confrontés à une industrie de dimension internationale.
    En France, si les conditions d’exercice de l’industrie pharmaceutique sont très administrées, celle-ci dépend aussi énormément des directives européennes.

    Dans le contexte européen, quel modèle de vente en ligne des médicaments la pharmacie française peut-elle envisager ?
    Doit-on, ou pas, autoriser la vente des médicaments sur Internet ? Le débat est ouvert et va devoir évoluer dans son approche. En France, il n’y a pas de nécessité d’acheter des médicaments sur Internet car nous disposons de 23 000 officines, jusque dans les plus petites bourgades. On n’a donc pas besoin d’aller sur Internet pour acheter un médicament aujourd’hui, d’autant que le risque d’obtenir un médicament contrefait y est très important. Il s’agit donc, dans une stratégie de services, d’envisager des solutions permettant demain au patient d’utiliser Internet pour établir une connexion avec les pharmaciens d’officines.

    Mercator : Quels sont les principaux postes de la structure de coût d’un médicament ? (princeps et générique)

    Christian Lajoux : La R&D représente entre 15 et 20 % de la structure de coût d’un médicament mais va parfois jusqu’à 30 % pour certaines entreprises.
    Les postes de marketing, vente, communication, distribution se situent plutôt aux alentours de 10 % mais peuvent monter jusqu’à 13 %. Ils étaient beaucoup plus importants avant l’arrivée des génériques.
    Le coût de production est très variable mais se situe en moyenne autour de 30 %.
    Le reste correspond aux taxes et à la marge des acteurs de la distribution.

    Une fois que le médicament sort de notre usine, il va chez un grossiste-répartiteur qui commercialise le médicament à un pharmacien en prenant une marge de l’ordre de 10 %. Le pharmacien prend ensuite une marge de l’ordre de 30 %.

    Étrange, ces chiffres ne correspondent pas à la moyenne en France (9,8% en R&D en moyenne... si certains font 30%, que font les autres ?)

    #Pharmacie #R&D #Marketing


  • Bilan économique des Entreprises du Médicament - Edition 2018 / French pharmaceutical industry - Key data 2018 (synthèse en anglais) | Leem
    https://www.leem.org/publication/bilan-economique-des-entreprises-du-medicament-edition-2018-french-pharmaceuti

    Voici l’édition 2018 des chiffres-clés 2017 de l’industrie du médicament (Faits et chiffres et Contexte), ainsi que sa synthèse en version anglaise « French pharmaceutical industry - Key data 2018 ».

    Pas de quoi être fier. En 2015 :
    – 4,5 Milliards d’€ investis en R&D (9,8 % du CA)
    – 19 109 personnes en R&D (dont 50% de chercheurs) sur 96786 employés

    #Pharmacie #R&D


  • Le Marketing pharmaceutique, l’industrie pharmaceutique ‹ Blog collaboratif sur les marketing, lesmarketing.fr par Guy Couturier
    http://lesmarketing.fr/le-marketing-pharmaceutique-lindustrie-pharmaceutique

    « Le délégué médical ne doit pas utiliser d’incitation pour obtenir un droit de visite ni offrir à cette fin aucune rémunération ou dédommagement ».

    « Le discours des visiteurs médicaux a été constant durant ces quinze années : environ 25 à 30 % des indications thérapeutiques annoncées par les visiteurs diffèrent des données officielles et les risques liés au médicament ne sont que rarement exposés et dans moins de 30 % des cas sont diffusés, les contre-indications, tout comme les effets indésirables et les précautions d’emploi » (Revue « Mieux prescrire »)
    Exemples : Diane 35, médicament contre l’acné, et promu comme une pilule contraceptive, Médiator un antidiabétique conseillé comme « coupe-faim ».
    « La Visite médicale est considérée comme une source d’information indispensable pour 55% des praticiens ». (Rapport de l’Igas)
    La Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Maladie a ainsi embauché 700 délégués à l’assurance maladie pour faire du « contre marketing » des médicaments et inciter les médecins à faire moins de prescriptions.

    L’Afipa bataille pour que les autorités de santé lancent une campagne d’envergure en faveur de l’automédication, à l’image de ce qui a été réalisé pour promouvoir les génériques ou informer sur la prescription d’antibiotiques. Selon l’association, l’automédication, longtemps à la traîne en France, permettrait à la Sécurité sociale d’économiser 2,6 milliards d’euros par an.

    #Pharmacie #Marketing


  • Les dépenses faramineuses des labos pharmaceutiques en publicités TV
    https://www.latribune.fr/entreprises-finance/industrie/chimie-pharmacie/les-depenses-faramineuses-des-labos-pharmaceutiques-en-publicites-tv-60662

    Plusieurs laboratoires pharmaceutiques dépensent des dizaines de millions d’euros par an chacun pour vanter les mérites de traitements prescrits sur ordonnance aux Etats-Unis et en Nouvelle-Zélande, les seuls pays autorisant une telle pratique. Pour le seul mois de septembre, Abbvie a investi 32,3 millions de dollars pour vanter les mérites de l’Humira à la télévision, rien qu’au mois de septembre.

    Si Abbvie accélère significativement ses dépenses pour promouvoir le médicament plus vendu au monde (14 milliards de dollars de chiffre d’affaires par an), c’est parce que ses revenus sont menacés par l’arrivée des biosimilaires. Vendredi 23 septembre, la FDA (l’agence américaine des médicaments) a notamment approuvé l’entrée sur le marché de l’Amjevita fabriqué par Amgen.

    Globalement, l’industrie pharmaceutique a dépensé 5,2 milliards de dollars en publicité pour des médicaments prescrits, tous supports confondus en 2015. Pour rappel, les Etats-Unis et la Nouvelle-Zélande sont les seuls pays autorisant les laboratoires pharmaceutiques à faire de la publicité directement adressée aux consommateurs pour des médicaments prescrits sur ordonnance.

    #Pharmacie #Télévision #Publicité


  • Opioid Makers Sued for Premium Hikes in First-of-Kind Cases - Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-02/opioid-makers-sued-over-rising-premiums-in-first-of-kind-cases

    The companies are accused of conspiring, racketeering and creating a public nuisance. Opioid abuse has killed more than 350,000 people since 1999, while costing private businesses and American governments $500 billion annually.

    The drug manufacturers said they’ve tried to address the crisis.

    “Our actions in the marketing and promotion of these medicines were appropriate and responsible,” Janssen Pharmaceuticals said in an emailed statement. “The allegations made against our company are baseless and unsubstantiated.”

    Purdue Pharma is “deeply troubled by the prescription and illicit opioid abuse crisis, and we are dedicated to being part of the solution,” said Bob Josephson, a company spokesman.

    Kristin Hunter Chasen, a spokeswoman for McKesson Corp., said the company is “deeply concerned” about the impact the opioid epidemic is having across the country. “We’ve offered a number of impactful policy solutions and support programs and partnerships that we believe can have a meaningful impact on this challenging issue, including the formation of a foundation dedicated to combating the crisis.”

    #Opioides #Pharmacie #Marketing


  • Opioid Makers, Blamed for Overdose Epidemic, Cut Back on… — ProPublica
    https://www.propublica.org/article/opioid-makers-blamed-for-overdose-epidemic-cut-back-on-marketing-payment

    The past two years have been a time of reckoning for pharmaceutical manufacturers over their role in promoting opioid drugs that have fed a national epidemic.

    Lawsuits and media reports have accused Purdue Pharma, the maker of OxyContin, of aggressively marketing the powerful narcotic even after it knew the drug was being misused. Prosecutors have charged the founder of Insys Therapeutics and several of the company’s sales representatives and executives for their roles in an alleged conspiracy to bribe doctors to use its fentanyl spray for unapproved uses. State and local governments have sued a host of drugmakers, alleging they deceptively marketed opioids and seeking to recoup what it costs to treat people addicted to the drugs.

    But as public attention increases, the marketing tide may finally be retreating, a new ProPublica analysis shows. Pharmaceutical company payments to physicians related to opioid drugs decreased significantly in 2016 from the year before.

    In 2016, drug makers spent $15.8 million to pay doctors for speaking, consulting, meals and travel related to opioid drugs. That was down 33 percent from $23.7 million in 2015 and is 21 percent less than the $19.9 million in spent in 2014. Companies are required to report the payments publicly under the Physician Payment Sunshine Act, a part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act.

    A number of studies have shown a correlation between marketing of opioids and doctors’ prescribing of the drugs. Hadland and his colleagues reported in May that for every meal a physician received related to an opioid product in 2014, there was an increase in opioid claims by that doctor for Medicare patients the following year. And a report from the New York State Health Foundation published this month found that physicians who received payments from opioid makers prescribed more opioids to Medicare patients than doctors who didn’t receive the payments.

    The sharp drop in marketing is more pronounced than the much slower reduction in the use of prescription opioids. The number of opioid prescriptions in Medicare, the public health program for seniors and the disabled, peaked at 81.7 million in 2014, and then dropped to 80.2 million in 2015 and 79.5 million in 2016, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (Enrollment in Medicare’s prescription drug program continued to grow during that time, so the rate of opioid prescriptions per beneficiary dropped even more.)

    Still, the toll of opioid overdoses continues to grow. Some 42,000 people died of opioid overdoses in 2016, the most recent year available, and about 40 percent of those involved a prescription opioid. The epidemic has shifted somewhat away from prescription drugs as more people die of heroin and synthetic opioids like fentanyl.

    Purdue Pharma, which has received the most attention because of its one-time blockbuster OxyContin, has ratcheted back its spending on doctors, especially for programs in which doctors talk to their peers over lunch or dinner to help companies market their products. Purdue ended its speaker program for OxyContin at the end of 2016 and for Hysingla ER in November 2017. Earlier this year, it ended all direct promotion of its opioids to prescribers and last week, the company laid off its remaining sales representatives.

    Purdue spokesman Robert Josephson said in an email that payments to doctors related to opioids have decreased since 2016 and that there would be very little such spending in 2018.

    ”Pharmaceutical manufacturers are legally permitted in the U.S. to promote all FDA-approved products to physicians in accordance with the subject product’s label,” Endo said in a statement. “This includes opioid products, which are safely used by millions of Americans to improve their quality of life.”

    That said, Endo said it stopped promoting Opana ER in the United States in January 2017 before voluntarily withdrawing the drug in September. “Today, Endo does not promote any opioid products to U.S. physicians,” the company said in a statement.

    #Opioides #Marketing #Pharmacie


  • Amazon to Buy Online Pharmacy PillPack, Jumping Into the Drug Business - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/28/business/dealbook/amazon-buying-pillpack-as-it-moves-into-pharmacies.html?emc=edit_th_180629&

    In the world of health care, PillPack, an online pharmacy, is a pretty small player. Its work force of 1,000 or so people pales in comparison with the 235,000 who work for Walgreens.

    But when Amazon announced on Thursday that it was buying PillPack, the deal immediately shook the industry. Shares of Walgreens and Rite Aid tumbled more than 9 percent, while CVS Health dropped 6.6 percent.

    That’s because with one move, Amazon answered the question about when — and how — it would grab a piece of the $560 billion prescription drug industry.

    It was precisely the sort of deal that the health care industry had feared.

    Amazon has been hinting at its interest in selling drugs, but it faced the problem of securing pharmacy licenses in each state. PillPack will help overcome that hurdle, since the start-up is licensed to ship drugs in 50 states — clearing the way for the e-commerce giant to quickly become a major player in the business.

    “It’s a turnkey mail pharmacy operation,” Mr. Fein said.

    Even as Americans have shifted their buying habits online, prescription drugs have remained a stubbornly brick-and-mortar purchase. About 90 percent of all prescriptions are filled at a pharmacy counter, according to Iqvia, a research firm.

    Independent online pharmacies have had a tough time because consumers who do buy their prescriptions through mail order are often required to do so by their insurance plans. Pharmacy benefit managers have traditionally offered employers and insurers incentives requiring that long-term prescriptions be filled through the managers’ own mail-order pharmacies.

    And for short-term prescriptions, like antibiotics, many consumers prefer their corner drugstore, since they often need to fill those drugs right away. About 85 percent of prescriptions in the United States are for refills, according to Iqvia.

    The deal for PillPack could be just one piece in Amazon’s broader health ambitions.

    In January, Amazon, Berkshire Hathaway and JPMorgan Chase announced plans to form an independent health care company for their employees in the United States, in what could become an incubator for new ideas. Last week, the companies said Dr. Atul Gawande, a Harvard surgeon and staff writer for The New Yorker, would become chief executive of the business.

    Amazon has also pushed to expand its medical supplies business, seeking to become a major supplier for hospitals and outpatient clinics. It received wholesale pharmacy licenses from several states this year that permit it to start selling medical equipment to businesses. Its products could be used to supply operating and emergency rooms, along with outpatient locations.

    #Amazon #Pharmacie #Santé_publique


  • Common Drugs May Be Contributing to Depression - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/13/well/prescription-drugs-depression-suicide.html

    Could common prescription medications be contributing to depression and rising suicide rates?

    Over one-third of Americans take at least one prescription drug that lists depression as a potential side effect, a new study reports, and users of such drugs have higher rates of depression than those who don’t take such drugs.

    Many patients are taking more than one drug that has depression as a side effect, and the study found that the risk of depression increased with each additional such drug taken at the same time.

    About 200 prescription drugs can cause depression, and the list includes common medications like proton pump inhibitors (P.P.I.s) used to treat acid reflux, beta-blockers used to treat high blood pressure, birth control pills and emergency contraceptives, anticonvulsants like gabapentin, corticosteroids like prednisone and even prescription-strength ibuprofen. Some of these drugs are also sold over-the-counter in pharmacies.

    For some drugs, like beta-blockers and interferon, the side effect of depression is well known, but the authors of the study were surprised at how many drugs were on the list.

    “We didn’t prove that using these medications could cause someone who was otherwise healthy to develop depression or suicidal symptoms. But we see a worrisome dose-response pattern: The more of these medications that have these adverse effects that you’re taking concurrently, the higher the risk of depression,” Dr. Qato said.

    #Santé_publique #Dépression #Médicaments #Pharmacie


  • Novartis a versé 400’000 dollars à une société liée à l’avocat de Trump RTS - mre - 9 Mai 2018

    La défense de l’actrice porno Stormy Daniels a révélé mardi que Novartis avait versé de l’argent à une société liée à l’avocat de Donald Trump. Le géant suisse a été contacté par le procureur spécial Mueller à ce sujet.

    La société Essential Consultants, contrôlée par Michael Cohen, a reçu entre fin 2017 et début 2018 quatre versements de 100’000 dollars en provenance de Suisse, révèle un document rendu public par l’avocat de Stormy Daniels.


    L’avocat de Stormy Daniels souligne que les versements ont eu lieu juste avant une rencontre à Davos entre Donald Trump et le future CEO de Novartis

    "En février 2017, Novartis a conclu un contrat d’un an avec #Essentiel_Consultants peu de temps après l’élection du président Trump. L’accord s’est concentré sur les questions de politique de santé aux États-Unis, a expliqué à reuters mercredi Novartis, qui a précisé que l’accord « a expiré en février 2018 ».

    La même société qui a payé pour le silence de Stormy Daniels
    Le groupe bâlois a affirmé avoir été contacté par l’équipe du procureur spécial Robert Mueller, qui enquête sur une éventuelle collusion entre l’équipe de campagne de Trump et Moscou : « Novartis a coopéré et transmis toutes les informations demandées et considère cette affaire comme close ».

    Essential Consultants est la structure qui a payé 130’000 dollars à #Stormy_Daniels en échange de son silence sur une relation supposée avec Donald Trump.


    #novartis #big_pharma #industrie_pharmaceutique #corruption #lobbying #capitalisme #pharmacie #influence #trump #etats-unis #international #donald_trump #usa #états-unis #metoo #balancetonporc #moiaussi #me_too


  • The Opioid that Made a Fortune for Its Maker — and for Its Prescribers - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/05/02/magazine/100000005878055.app.html

    For Insys, Chun was just the right kind of doctor to pursue. In the late 1990s, sales of prescription opioids began a steep climb. But by the time Subsys came to market in 2012, mounting regulatory scrutiny and changing medical opinion were thinning the ranks of prolific opioid prescribers. Chun was one of the holdouts, a true believer in treating pain with narcotics. He operated a busy practice, and 95 percent of the Medicare patients he saw in 2015 had at least one opioid script filled. Chun was also a top prescriber of a small class of painkillers whose active ingredient is fentanyl, which is 50 to 100 times as powerful as morphine. Burlakoff’s product was a new entry to that class. On a “target list,” derived from industry data that circulated internally at Insys, Chun was placed at No. 3. The word inside the company for a doctor like Chun was a “whale.”

    In the few months since Subsys was introduced, demand was not meeting expectations. Some of the sales staff had already been fired. If Burlakoff and Krane could persuade Chun to become a Subsys loyalist, it would be a coup for them and for the entire company. The drug was so expensive that a single clinic, led by a motivated doctor, could generate millions of dollars in revenue.

    Speaker programs are a widely used marketing tool in the pharmaceutical business. Drug makers enlist doctors to give paid talks about the benefits of a product to other potential prescribers, at a clinic or over dinner in a private room at a restaurant. But Krane and some fellow rookie reps were already getting a clear message from Burlakoff, she said, that his idea of a speaker program was something else, and they were concerned: It sounded a lot like a bribery scheme.

    But the new reps were right to be worried. The Insys speaker program was central to Insys’ rapid rise as a Wall Street darling, and it was also central to the onslaught of legal troubles that now surround the company. Most notable, seven former top executives, including Burlakoff and the billionaire founder of Insys, John Kapoor, now await trial on racketeering charges in federal court in Boston. The company itself, remarkably, is still operating.

    The reporting for this article involved interviews with, among other sources, seven former Insys employees, among them sales managers, sales reps and an insurance-authorization employee, some of whom have testified before a grand jury about what they witnessed. This account also draws on filings from a galaxy of Insys-related litigation: civil suits filed by state attorneys general, whistle-blower and shareholder suits and federal criminal cases. Some are pending, while others have led to settlements, plea deals and guilty verdicts.

    The opioid crisis, now the deadliest drug epidemic in American history, has evolved significantly over the course of the last two decades. What began as a sharp rise in prescription-drug overdoses has been eclipsed by a terrifying spike in deaths driven primarily by illicitly manufactured synthetic opioids and heroin, with overall opioid deaths climbing to 42,249 in 2016 from 33,091 in 2015. But prescription drugs and the marketing programs that fuel their sales remain an important contributor to the larger crisis. Heroin accounted for roughly 15,000 of the opioid deaths in 2016, for instance, but as many as four out of five heroin users started out by misusing prescription opioids.

    By the time Subsys arrived in 2012, the pharmaceutical industry had been battling authorities for years over its role in promoting the spread of addictive painkillers. The authorities were trying to confine opioids to a select population of pain patients who desperately needed them, but manufacturers were pushing legal boundaries — sometimes to the breaking point — to get their products out to a wider market.

    Even as legal penalties accrued, the industry thrived. In 2007, three senior executives of Purdue Pharma pleaded guilty in connection with a marketing effort that relied on misrepresenting the dangers of OxyContin, and the company agreed to pay a $600 million settlement. But Purdue continued booking more than $1 billion in annual sales on the drug. In 2008, Cephalon likewise entered a criminal plea and agreed to pay $425 million for promoting an opioid called Actiq and two other drugs “off-label” — that is, for unapproved uses. That did not stop Cephalon from being acquired three years later, for $6.8 billion.

    Subsys and Actiq belong to a class of fentanyl products called TIRF drugs. They are approved exclusively for the treatment of “breakthrough” cancer pain — flares of pain that break through the effects of the longer-acting opioids the cancer patient is already taking around the clock. TIRFs are niche products, but the niche can be lucrative because the drugs command such a high price. A single patient can produce six figures of revenue.

    Fentanyl is extremely powerful — illicitly manufactured variations, often spiked into heroin or pressed into counterfeit pills, have become the leading killers in the opioid crisis — and regulators have made special efforts to restrict prescription fentanyl products. In 2008, for instance, the F.D.A. rebuffed Cephalon’s application to expand the approved use for a TIRF called Fentora; in the company’s clinical trials, the subjects who did not have cancer demonstrated much more addictive behavior and propensity to substance abuse, which are “rarely seen in clinical trials,” F.D.A. officials concluded. An F.D.A. advisory committee reported that, during the trials, some of the Fentora was stolen. The agency later developed a special protocol for all TIRF drugs that required practitioners to undergo online training and certify that they understood the narrow approved use and the risks.

    Despite these government efforts, TIRF drugs were being widely prescribed to patients without cancer. Pain doctors, not oncologists, were the dominant players. This was common knowledge in the industry. Although it is illegal for a manufacturer to promote drugs for off-label use, it is perfectly legal for doctors to prescribe any drug off-label, on their own judgment. This allows drug makers like Insys to use a narrow F.D.A. approval as a “crowbar,” as a former employee put it, to reach a much broader group of people.

    That points to a major vulnerability in policing the opioid crisis: Doctors have a great deal of power. The F.D.A. regulates drug makers but not practitioners, who enjoy a wide latitude in prescribing that pharmaceutical companies can easily exploit. A respected doctor who advocates eloquently for wider prescribing can quickly become a “key opinion leader”; invited out on the lucrative lecture circuit. And any doctor who exercises a free hand with opioids can attract a flood of pain patients and income. Fellow doctors rarely blow the whistle, and some state medical boards exercise timid oversight, allowing unethical doctors to continue to operate. An assistant district attorney coping with opioids in upstate New York told me that it’s easy to identify a pill-mill doctor, but “it can take five years to get to that guy.” In the meantime, drug manufacturers are still seeing revenue, and that doctor is still seeing patients, one after another, day after day.

    Kapoor believed that he had the best product in its class. All the TIRF drugs — for transmucosal immediate-release fentanyl — deliver fentanyl through the mucous membranes lining the mouth or nose, but the specific method differs from product to product. Actiq, the first TIRF drug, is a lozenge on a stick. Cephalon’s follow-up, Fentora — the branded market leader when Subsys arrived — is a tablet meant to be held in the cheek as it dissolves. Subsys is a spray that the patient applies under the tongue. Spraying a fine mist at the permeable mouth floor makes for a rapid onset of action, trials showed.

    Once the F.D.A. gave final approval to Subsys in early 2012, the fate of Insys Therapeutics rested on selling it in the field. The industry still relies heavily on the old-fashioned way of making sales; drug manufacturers blanket the country with representatives who call on prescribers face to face, often coming to develop personal relationships with them over time.

    The speaker events themselves were often a sham, as top prescribers and reps have admitted in court. Frequently, they consisted of a nice dinner with the sales rep and perhaps the doctor’s support staff and friends, but no other licensed prescriber in attendance to learn about the drug. One doctor did cocaine in the bathroom of a New York City restaurant at his own event, according to a federal indictment. Some prescribers were paid four figures to “speak” to an audience of zero.

    One star rep in Florida, later promoted to upper management, told another rep that when she went in search of potential speakers, she didn’t restrict herself to the top names, because, after all, any doctor can write scripts, and “the company does not give a [expletive] where they come from.” (Some dentists and podiatrists prescribed Subsys.) She looked for people, she said, “that are just going through divorce, or doctors opening up a new clinic, doctors who are procedure-heavy. All those guys are money hungry.” If you float the idea of becoming a paid speaker “and there is a light in their eyes that goes off, you know that’s your guy,” she said. (These remarks, recorded by the rep on the other end of the line, emerged in a later investigation.)

    As a result of Insys’s approach to targeting doctors, its potent opioid was prescribed to patients it was never approved to treat — not occasionally, but tens of thousands of times. It is impossible to determine how many Subsys patients, under Kapoor, actually suffered from breakthrough cancer pain, but most estimates in court filings have put the number at roughly 20 percent. According to Iqvia data through September 2016, only 4 percent of all Subsys prescriptions were written by oncologists.

    Insys became the year’s best-performing initial public offering, on a gain of over 400 percent. That December, the company disclosed that it had received a subpoena from the Office of the Inspector General at Health and Human Services, an ominous sign. But a CNBC interviewer made no mention of it when he interviewed Babich a few weeks later. Instead he said, “Tell us what it is about Insys that has investors so excited.”

    In 2014, the doctors each averaged one prescription for a controlled substance roughly every four minutes, figuring on a 40-hour week. A typical pill mill makes its money from patients paying in cash for their appointments, but Ruan and Couch had a different model: A majority of their scripts were filled at a pharmacy adjacent to their clinic called C&R — for Couch and Ruan — where they took home most of the profits. The pharmacy sold more than $570,000 of Subsys in a single month, according to Perhacs’s criminal plea. Together the two men amassed a collection of 23 luxury cars.

    Over dinner, according to the Boston indictment, Kapoor and Babich struck a remarkable agreement with the pharmacists and the doctors, who were operating a clinic rife with opioid addiction among the staff: Insys would ship Subsys directly to C&R Pharmacy. An arrangement like this is “highly unusual” and a “red flag,” according to testimony from a D.E.A. investigator in a related trial. As part of the terms of the deal, the pharmacy would make more money on selling the drug, with no distributor in the loop. And there would be another anticipated benefit for all involved: Everyone could sell more Subsys without triggering an alert to the D.E.A.

    The local medical community felt the impact of the raid. Because refills are generally not allowed on controlled substances, patients typically visited the clinic every month. For days, dozens of them lined up outside in the morning, fruitlessly trying to get prescriptions from the remaining staff or at least retrieve their medical records to take elsewhere. But other providers were either booked up or would not take these patients. “Nobody was willing to give the amount of drugs they were on,” a nurse in the city said. Melissa Costello, who heads the emergency room at Mobile Infirmary, said her staff saw a surge of patients from the clinic in the ensuing weeks, at least a hundred, who were going through agonizing withdrawal.

    Two months after the raid in Mobile, Insys’ stock reached an all-time high.

    Insys itself is still producing Subsys, though sales have fallen considerably. (Overall demand for TIRFs has declined industrywide.) The company is now marketing what it calls the “first and only F.D.A.-approved liquid dronabinol,” a synthetic cannabinoid, and is developing several other new drugs. Some analysts like the look of the company’s pipeline of new drugs and rate the stock a “buy.” In a statement, the company said its new management team consists of “responsible and ethical business leaders” committed to effective compliance. Most of its more than 300 employees are new to the company since 2015, and its sales force is focused on physicians “whose prescribing patterns support our products’ approved indications,” the company said. Insys has ended its speaker program for Subsys.

    #Opioides #Pharmacie #Bande_de_salopards


  • Consternation à Fribourg, forcé de renoncer à son mode facturation des médicaments en EMS hend avec ats - 1 Mai 2018 - RTS
    http://www.rts.ch/info/regions/fribourg/9535331-consternation-a-fribourg-force-de-renoncer-a-son-mode-facturation-des-me

    EMS : établissements médico-sociaux (pour personnes agées)

    A la suite d’un changement de la loi fédérale, le canton de Fribourg devra bel et bien renoncer à son système forfaitaire de facturation des #médicaments en EMS. Ses négociations avec les #assureurs ont échoué.
    http://www.rts.ch/2018/05/01/12/02/9535334.image?w=900&h=506
    Depuis le 1er janvier dernier, tous les EMS de Suisse sont tenus de ne plus facturer la consommation de médicaments de manière forfaitaire. Ils doivent facturer spécifiquement par patient individuel, et fournir ces données aux #assureurs-maladie.

    Les assureurs transmettent ensuite ces données à l’institution commune LAMal, de manière à ce que celle-ci puisse affiner le calcul de la compensation des risques.

    Consternés
    C’est la « consternation » du côté des acteurs fribourgeois concernés (Canton, institutions pour personnes âgées et #pharmaciens). Leur système, en vigueur depuis une quinzaine d’années, était selon eux efficace, adéquat et économique.

    En 2016, le coût en médicaments par journée et par résident s’élevait à 4,80 francs à Fribourg alors que la moyenne suisse était de 8,55 francs. Cette économicité s’expliquait notamment par des achats en gros.

    Les Fribourgeois ont proposé une adaptation de leur système permettant de livrer quand même des données. Mais les assureurs n’ont pas admis la solution proposée. Ils ont eux-mêmes formulé des alternatives, mais toutes se sont avérées « impraticables et plus onéreuses », selon les partenaires fribourgeois.

    Hausse des coûts
    Dès le 1er juillet 2018, les EMS fribourgeois s’approvisionneront donc en médicaments auprès des pharmacies publiques, au prix public et sans assistance pharmaceutique. L’abandon de la solution fribourgeoise provoquera une hausse annuelle de 3,6 millions de francs, qui se répercutera sur les primes des assurés, déplorent les partenaires fribourgeois.

    « Si (les assureurs maladie) avaient été un peu soucieux des coûts de la santé, ils auraient fait des efforts pour soutenir la solution fribourgeoise qui, à bien des égards, est novatrice et pratiquement la plus économique en Suisse », a regretté le pharmacien cantonal Laurent Medioni sur les ondes de la RTS mardi.

    Selon lui, celon démontre la difficulté à concilier les intérêts privés des assureurs et ceux des #assurés : « Cette situation imposée par les assureurs maladie est absolument inacceptable et va mener à des discussions politiques parce qu’elle ne peut pas se reproduire X fois. C’est un cas d’école. »

    #gaspillage


  • Des maux et des remèdes, une histoire de pharmaciens le Devoir - Jean-François Nadeau - 21 avril 2018
    https://www.ledevoir.com/lire/525797/une-histoire-des-pharmaciens-des-remedes-de-grands-meres-a-l-apothicaire

    Lorsque le chirurgien Michel Sarrazin procède, au printemps de 1700, à l’ablation à froid du sein cancéreux d’une religieuse montréalaise, la malheureuse risque d’y passer. Soeur Marie Barbier va pourtant survivre 39 ans à cette opération, première du genre en Amérique. Pour éviter l’infection de sa plaie, on utilisera l’« #onguent divin », alors très populaire, explique en entrevue Gilles Barbeau, ancien doyen de la Faculté de pharmacie de l’Université Laval, qui vient de faire paraître Curieuses histoires d’apothicaires.

    Cet « onguent divin », les religieuses souhaitent l’utiliser en toutes circonstances. Il s’agit en fait d’un mélange de mine de plomb rouge, d’huile d’olive et de cire jaune. « Les métaux comme le plomb ou le cuivre ont une certaine propriété antiseptique », précise le professeur émérite.

    L’« onguent divin » s’inspire d’un manuel de la bibliothèque des Jésuites intitulé Remèdes universels pour les pauvres gens. Le pharmacien réservera longtemps les produits locaux aux gens de peu de moyens. Ceux qui le peuvent s’offrent des remèdes venus de loin, forcément meilleurs puisqu’on les paye plus cher…

    Peu de médicaments en vente libre sont encore tirés directement de plantes. Mais c’est bien la nature, explique #Gilles_Barbeau, qui a inspiré plusieurs médicaments. « Se soigner par les plantes, chercher à se soulager et à guérir des blessures fut non seulement un geste naturel des premiers êtres humains, mais une activité presque instinctive. » La #centaurée et la #rose_trémière étaient déjà utilisées il y a 40 000 ans pour leurs propriétés. L’#ail, l’#aloès, les graines de #pavot, l’#aubépine, la #camomille, la #mandragore, pour ne nommer qu’eux, servent aussi. « Les Nord-Américains ont pris l’habitude de prendre tout ça en pilules, alors que les effets favorables de la plante sont sous cette forme à peu près nuls », dit M. Barbeau.

    Le vieux métier
    Depuis les profondeurs du temps existe ce métier qui consiste à préparer des #médicaments, auquel nous identifions aujourd’hui le #pharmacien. « L’histoire des pharmaciens est obscurcie par la place qu’a prise l’histoire de la médecine », regrette Gilles Barbeau.

    L’apothicaire est l’ancêtre du pharmacien. Il se trouve à cette jonction mal éclairée où se rencontrent le botaniste, l’alchimiste, l’épicier, le chimiste et le charlatan. Au Québec, le mot « #apothicaire », présent aussi en Angleterre, reste accolé à la pharmacie jusqu’au début du XXe siècle.
     
    Des plantes
    Gilles Barbeau se souvient d’une journée passée à marcher avec son grand-père. L’homme, né en 1875, amenait son petit-fils près de la rivière cueillir de la #savoyane, une plante qu’il utilisait pour contrer les ulcères de bouche. « Ma grand-mère ramassait aussi des #plantes_médicinales. Ce fut mon premier contact, sans le savoir, avec la #botanique médicale. » Parmi les plantes dont Barbeau parle pour traiter de l’histoire des pharmaciens, on trouve l’#achillée_millefeuille, très commune dans les campagnes québécoises, utilisée en infusion pour ses vertus gastriques.

    L’histoire a gardé dans ses replis des savoirs anciens que Gilles Barbeau révèle au hasard de sa volonté première, qui est de faire connaître l’histoire de pharmaciens, des savants à qui nous devons parfois beaucoup.

    Vin et cocaïne
    Au nombre des historiettes passionnantes que narre le professeur, on trouve celle d’Angelo #Mariani, médecin d’origine corse. Mariani développe un vin fait à base de coca. « Ce vin va être très populaire pour soigner les acteurs et les actrices. Zola, Massenet, même le pape Léon XIII, vont aussi chanter la gloire du vin Mariani. Aux États-Unis, plusieurs caisses de vin Mariani sont importées. Un pharmacien va les distiller pour produire un sirop. Et c’est avec de l’eau et ce sirop qu’on va produire les premières bouteilles de Coca-Cola. »

    Que doit-on à Louis Hébert, premier apothicaire sur les rives du Saint-Laurent ? « Il va envoyer une quarantaine de plantes nouvelles en France, sans doute grâce aux #Amérindiens. » Dans les biographies édifiantes de cet apothicaire, on retiendra souvent qu’il suggérait de manger une pomme par jour. Pas de pommes pourtant en Nouvelle-France… La confusion viendrait de sa découverte d’une plante surnommée « #pomme_de_mai », déjà connue chez les #Hurons. Le frère botaniste Marie-Victorin la nommera Podophyllumn peltatum. Cette plante possède des propriétés purgatives puissantes. C’est un de ses dérivés qui est utilisé dans les célèbres pilules Carter’s pour le foie, commercialisées jusqu’en 1992. Au XIXe siècle, observe Gilles Barbeau, cette plante se trouve à la base de presque tous les médicaments censés traiter les maladies inflammatoires. Les observations d’un pharmacien britannique, Robert Bentley, vont montrer qu’une résine fabriquée à partir de cette plante possède un effet favorable au traitement des #tumeurs cutanées. « Et cela a donné un #anticancéreux puissant, toujours utilisé pour les traitements du cancer du sein », raconte M. Barbeau.

    On trouve de tout chez les pharmaciens, mais par forcément des amis. Dans la Grèce antique, #pharmakon veut d’ailleurs tout aussi bien dire poison que remède. Ces commerces sont souvent des lieux où le marchand est vu comme un menteur, un voleur, un empoisonneur, un malhonnête, un charlatan.

    Mauvaise humeur
    La théorie antique dite des #humeurs va longtemps dominer les usages de la pharmacie. On trouve une formidable illustration de ces théories fantaisistes dans Le malade imaginaire de Molière, où un « clystère insinuatif, préparatif, et rémollient » est d’entrée de jeu présenté comme une nécessité « pour amollir, humecter, et rafraîchir les entrailles de Monsieur »… En fonction d’un principe d’équilibre des liquides du corps, tous les maux sont à soigner à partir de simagrées, de saignées ou de purgatifs injectés dans le corps par un instrument appelé clystère.

    Encore au XIXe siècle, l’un des inventeurs du cinéma, #Auguste_Lumière, trouve dans ses usines chimiques des #hyposulfites qui, croit-il, permettent de dissoudre les « floculations », des cellules mortes qui en viennent à se précipiter dans le système, ce qui selon lui serait à la base de tous les ennuis de santé. On nage encore dans la théorie des humeurs.

    L’irrationnel s’avale bien. « Au XIXe siècle, en médecine populaire, le traitement de maladies comme la #teigne s’envisage avec un sirop fait d’écorces de #tremble qu’on prendra soin de couper à la pleine lune », souligne M. Barbeau, le concours des astres étant apparemment aussi important que celui des dieux sur l’effet des médicaments…

    Ainsi le développement de la pharmacie a-t-il longtemps donné la main à une science de l’à-peu-près dont la puissance tenait beaucoup à des effets de langage. Des esprits sensibles à la rigueur de l’analyse vont lui imposer une autre direction. La maladie, selon les enseignements de #Paracelse, est éventuellement envisagée comme un phénomène biochimique.

    Dans son #histoire des pharmaciens, Gilles Barbeau estime tout particulièrement la découverte faite par Friedrich Sertüner, un jeune stagiaire. « C’est lui qui a pour ainsi dire découvert la #morphine. C’est universel aujourd’hui. Elle permet d’aller plus doucement vers la mort », dit-il. De toutes les découvertes faites par le passé, la morphine a encore beaucoup d’avenir, croit M. Barbeau.

    #herboristerie


  • Le Cameroun investit dans la pharmacie - SciDev.Net Afrique Sub-Saharienne
    https://scidev.net/afrique-sub-saharienne/sante/actualites/cameroun-pharmacie.html
    Une usine de médicaments va produire 500 millions de comprimés et presque autant de gélules par an
    Elle va contribuer à réduire la part des médicaments importés, estimée à 90%
    Ce faisant, elle peut entraîner une baisse des prix et un recul des faux médicaments

    sur un marché des médicaments qui vaut 100 milliards de FCFA par an, la production locale n’absorbe que 8 milliards de FCFA.

    #médicament #Cameroun #Douala #pharmacie #Faux_médicaments


  • Federal Agency Courted Alcohol Industry to Fund Study on Benefits of Moderate Drinking - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/17/health/nih-alcohol-study-liquor-industry.html

    It was going to be a study that could change the American diet, a huge clinical trial that might well deliver all the medical evidence needed to recommend a daily alcoholic drink as part of a healthy lifestyle.

    That was how two prominent scientists and a senior federal health official pitched the project during a presentation at the luxurious Breakers Hotel in Palm Beach, Fla., in 2014. And the audience members who were being asked to help pay for the $100 million study seemed receptive: They were all liquor company executives.

    They also made the industry privy to pertinent details, including a list of clinical sites and investigators who were “already on board,” the size and length of the trial, approximate number of participants, and the fact that they could choose any beverage. By design, no form of alcohol — wine, liquor or beer — would be called out as better than another in the trial.

    Dr. Michael Siegel, a professor of community health sciences at Boston University School of Public Health who was shown slides from the scientists’ presentation at The Breakers by The Times, said the study “is not public health research — it’s marketing.”

    “This must have seemed like a dream come true for industry. Of course they would pay for it,” he said. “They’re admitting the trial is designed to provide a justification for moderate drinking. That’s not objective science.”

    Whether scientists studying alcohol should accept money from the industry has long been controversial. Many scientists and policymakers have publicly said that any engagement with the alcohol industry undermines the credibility of the research.

    In 2016, a group representing hundreds of scientists and policymakers published a statement saying researchers should never accept direct or indirect industry funding, and that “any form of engagement with the alcohol industry may influence the independence, objectivity, integrity and credibility” of the research.

    “We know that industry funding not only affects the results of studies but affects the questions that are asked, how the results are analyzed and what the answers are,” said Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman, a professor of pharmacology at Georgetown University and director of Pharmed Out, a group that researches drug marketing.

    If the health effects of moderate drinking are a priority for the N.I.H., she added, “they should fund it themselves.”

    #Pharmacie #Alcool #Addiction #Conflits_intérêt


  • #Interpol, une #police sous influence ? (ARTE)
    https://www.wereport.fr/articles/interpol-une-police-sous-influence

    Pour pallier un budget insuffisant, Interpol, la police mondiale, noue d’étranges partenariats avec des multinationales et des pays controversés. Une enquête sidérante de Mathieu Martiniere et Robert Schmidt au cœur de la collusion public/privé. #documentaire de Samuel Lajus (France, 2018, 1h27mn) - Auteurs : Mathieu Martiniere, Robert Schmidt et Samuel Lajus - Coproduction : #Arte France, Cocottesminute [...]

    #Enquêtes_et_reportages #Emirats_Arabes_Unis #FIFA #Pharmacie #Qatar #Tabac


  • Il n’y a plus d’herboriste diplômé en France - La Croix
    https://www.la-croix.com/Sciences-et-ethique/Sante/Il-dherboriste-diplome-France-2018-01-29-1200909621

    En dépit des promesses des gouvernements successifs, la France reste le seul pays de l’Union européenne à ne pas reconnaître la profession d’herboriste. « L’herboristerie se meurt », regrette Michel Pierre, auteur de nombreux livres sur les bienfaits des plantes (1) et patron de la célèbre Herboristerie du Palais-Royal (à Paris). Car depuis une quinzaine d’années, explique le spécialiste, 143 plantes bénéfiques pour la santé sont en vente libre dans les grandes surfaces. Quant aux autres plantes médicinales, elles ne peuvent être vendues qu’en pharmacie. Un marché qui n’intéresse pas forcément les officines, si bien qu’on a du mal à les trouver.
    Une industrialisation de la phytothérapie

    Les pharmaciens préfèrent commercialiser des produits confectionnés à partir de molécules de plantes qui occupent moins de place et coûtent plus cher que des sachets de thym ou d’ortie. « On assiste clairement à une industrialisation de la phytothérapie. Environ 500 plantes – et bientôt près d’un millier – peuvent ainsi être utilisées comme compléments alimentaires sous forme de gélules, ampoules ou concentrés. Mais on n’a pas pour autant le droit de les vendre comme plantes pour tisane », déplore Michel Pierre, qui persiste à vendre de la bruyère en tisane, quitte à se mettre hors-la-loi.


  • Grèce : Fermeture des « Pharmacies Sociales » !!! Que se passe t il ? LGS - Dispensaire Social d’Elliniko (Traduction Palili) - 5 Novembre 2017

    50% de la population vit ainsi... 500.000 enfants vivent en dessous du seuil de pauvreté 500.000 travailleurs ont un salaire moyen de 350 euros 700.000 personnes ont quitté le pays 1.000.000 travailleurs non payés dans le secteur privé 1.100.000 retraites de moins de 500 euros 1.200.000 sans emploi sans aide de chômage A part cela … tout va très bien...

    Communiqué de presse


    L’Ordre National des Pharmaciens grecs demande au ministère de la Santé la fermeture des « Pharmacies Sociales », considérant qu’elles n’ont plus aucun rôle à jouer dans la réalité actuelle, tout en en mentionnant combien utile et nécessaire a été leur rôle pendant la durée de la crise.

    Beaucoup de questions évidentes se posent :

    1 L’Ordre des Pharmaciens considère que la crise est terminée ?

    Même si :

    les retraites continuent à être amputées et que les retraités s’appauvrissent continuellement ?
    Le chômage continue à atteindre des taux à deux chiffres (les statistiques officielles d’ELSTAT sont de 21,7% pour le mois de mai avec plus d’un million de chômeurs) ?
    On parle maintenant de « salaires » de 200 à 300 euros avec le slogan qui va de soi : à demi travail, demi-salaire ! ?
    Le nombre de mendiants et de SDF continue d’augmenter à un rythme rapide (se promener, même dans le centre de Glyfada, fait mal au cœur) ?
    Les citoyens suppriment des biens de consommation de base dans leur alimentation (selon de nombreuses recherches sur le sujet) ?
    Les dettes impayées aux banques ou à l’Etat enflent ?
    L’augmentation des taxes directes ou indirectes affecte les plus faibles ?
    Maintenant ils ne peuvent même plus s’assurer de leur maison avec de plus en plus comme résultat ces images dramatiques de ventes aux enchères ?

    2 En août 2014 l’accès aux médicaments des malades non assurés avait initialement fait l’objet de la loi (Κ.Υ.Α. Γ.Π/ΟΙΚ. 56432/28.6.14) qui leur accordait le même reste à charge qu’aux malades assurés, alors que nos concitoyens « sans ressources » 1-détenteurs du livret de prévoyance continuaient à se procurer leurs médicaments entièrement gratuits dans les hôpitaux publics

    Pourquoi cela est il caché ?

    . . . . .
    La suite : https://www.legrandsoir.info/grece-fermeture-des-pharmacies-sociales-que-se-passe-t-il.html

    Article original : http://www.mkiellinikou.org/blog/2017/10/24/pfs

    #Grèce #pharmaciens #médicaments


  • Fraude fiscale dans des pharmacies : deux millions d’euros d’amende requis contre le fabricant de logiciel
    http://www.lemonde.fr/police-justice/article/2017/10/21/fraude-fiscale-dans-des-pharmacies-deux-millions-d-euros-d-amende-requis-con

    L’affaire avait émergé en 2008 dans une pharmacie du Gard dont les exploitants étaient suspectés de frauder la Caisse primaire d’assurance-maladie (CPAM) en falsifiant des ordonnances et en surfacturant certaines prestations. L’enquête des gendarmes et du fisc avait permis de révéler un système de fraude fiscale. La pharmacienne et son mari avaient reconnu qu’ils dissimulaient environ 9 000 euros chaque mois grâce à un logiciel informatique de la société Alliadis permettant automatiquement de minimiser les recettes de l’officine.

    Le parquet a requis une amende de deux millions d’euros contre Alliadis estimant que la complicité de fraude était constituée, avec pour toile de fond « un système quasi mafieux, du plus haut au plus bas ». Il a également réclamé trois ans de prison avec sursis et une amende de 30 000 euros pour le couple de pharmaciens. Ce dernier a par ailleurs payé ses dettes fiscales après un redressement de 137 000 euros.

    Vendredi 20 octobre, ils ont réitéré avec une certaine franchise leurs aveux et indiqué que la fraude était grandement facilitée par ce logiciel puisqu’il suffisait de quelques manipulations informatiques pour effacer les opérations en liquide. La société Alliadis comparaissait aux côtés du couple. « On a été trop naïfs, a reconnu le mari. Mais quand on a la possibilité d’effacer… » (...)

    Les débats ont également mis en exergue l’importance de l’argent occulte dans certaines officines. Ce qui constituerait, selon le couple de pharmaciens, un argument de vente dans les transactions des établissements.
    (...) dans le prolongement de cette affaire, des poursuites pénales pour fraude fiscale ont été engagées contre 150 pharmaciens en France. (...)
    Alliadis appartient à un groupe présent sur cinq continents, emploie 8 000 personnes et affiche un chiffre d’affaires de plus de 900 millions d’euros.

    #pharmaciens #surfacturation #falsfication #fraude_fiscale #Fraude_contre_la_CPAM