position:study author

  • Would You Return This Lost Wallet? - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/20/science/lost-wallet-what-to-do.html

    In all but two countries, more people emailed to return wallets containing money than cashless wallets. Only Peru and Mexico bucked that pattern, but those results were too slight to be statistically significant, the researchers said. On average, 40 percent of people given cashless wallets reported them, compared with 51 percent of people given wallets with money.

    Researchers were surprised. But then they ran the experiment again in three countries (Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States), adding “big money” wallets containing $94.15. The difference was even starker. Way more people emailed to return the wallets with the larger amount: 72 percent compared with 61 percent of people given wallets containing $13.45 and 46 percent of people given cashless wallets.

    Why?

    “The evidence suggests that people tend to care about the welfare of others and they have an aversion to seeing themselves as a thief,” said Alain Cohn, a study author and assistant professor of information at the University of Michigan. People given wallets with more money have more to gain from dishonesty, but that also increases “the psychological cost of the dishonest act.”

    Christian Zünd, a doctoral student and co-author, said a survey they conducted found that “without money, not reporting a wallet doesn’t feel like stealing. With money, however, it suddenly feels like stealing and it feels even more like stealing when the money in the wallet increases.”

    Research assistants recorded the gender, age and friendliness of each recipient, how busy they were, whether they had computers handy to send email, and whether co-workers, security guards or cameras could have observed the wallet handoff (possibly making the person feel more compelled to return it). None of these factors mattered, they found.

    People reporting lost wallets received an email thanking them and saying the owner had left town and they could keep the money or donate it to charity. But, the researchers wondered, if the wallets were actually collected, would people turn them in but keep the money?

    So they tested that in Switzerland, which has relatively little corruption, and the Czech Republic, which ranks at the opposite extreme, Dr. Cohn said. In both countries, nearly all the money was returned with the wallets, except for some change, which they think accidentally fell out.

    Dr. Mazar, who’s studied people’s honesty in laboratory experiments, said that altruistic result underscores people’s concerns about self-image. “Taking the money and returning the wallet would make you equally bad, or actually even more bad,” she said. “There’s no way you can convince yourself that you are a moral person.”

    The researchers surveyed people to see if they expected bigger rewards for returning more money; they didn’t. They also tested for altruism by planting wallets containing money but no key, the one item specifically valuable for the wallet’s owner. People reported those too, although less than wallets with keys.

    #Altruisme #Comportement_moral #Pshychologie #Economie

    • Only Peru and Mexico bucked that pattern, but those results were too slight to be statistically significant, the researchers said.

      c’est pas significatif mais on cite quand même ces pays… #clickbait

  • Cosmonaut brains show space travel causes lasting changes
    https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/10/news-space-travel-brain-astronauts-body

    “We were designed for standing in gravity on Earth, and once that force is released, all the bodily fluids move upward,” says study author Peter zu Eulenburg of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. The latest study suggests that the excess cerebrospinal fluid seems to compress the brain’s grey matter—the dark-colored neural tissue that contains nerve fibers and nerve-cell bodies. Though the brain largely bounced back after seven months on Earth, some effects seemed to linger.

    The brain’s white matter, which is primarily made of nerve fibers, initially appeared unchanged. Yet in the months after the cosmonauts’ return to Earth, the volume seemed to shrink. The researchers speculate that the culprit is again cerebrospinal fluid. For the white matter, the increased pressure from the fluid may have forced some of the free water normally in the brain into the delicate white matter structure. Once the cosmonauts returned to Earth, the pressure lessened, water escaped, and white matter appeared to shrink.

    Additional research is needed to determine what, if anything, these physical changes mean for cognition or psychological health. But the latest study adds to mounting evidence that life among the stars can have enduring consequences on Earth-born adventurers. Here are some of the other biological changes people headed to orbit—and maybe one day deeper into space—will need to prepare for.

    #astronautes #cerveau #gravité #liquide_cephalo_rachidien

    Deuxième étude du genre (https://fr.sputniknews.com/sci_tech/201702011029893902-structure-du-cerveau-des-astronautes-change-dans-)

  • Calls to poison centers about supplements up 50%, especially among kids - CNN.com
    http://edition.cnn.com/2017/07/24/health/dietary-supplements-poison-control-study/index.html

    From 2005 to 2012, the rate of calls to poison control centers about dietary supplements increased by almost 50%, and most of the exposures were in children younger than 6 years old, according to a study published Monday in the Journal of Medical Toxicology.

    The study defines dietary supplements as any product that supplements the diet, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, botanicals, homeopathic agents and amino acids, and concentrates, metabolites, constituents and extracts of these ingredients.

    The researchers used data from the National Poison Data System, to which poison control centers submit their call information. From 2000 to 2012, there were 274,998 dietary supplement exposures reported to poison control centers across the US: one call every 24 minutes, on average.

    The symptoms most associated with supplement ingestion included tachycardia, or rapid heart rate; vomiting; nausea; irritability; drowsiness and dizziness.

    Seventy percent of the dietary supplement exposures were in children younger than age 6; 99% of those were unintentional. Overall, only 4.5% of all supplement exposures resulted in serious medical outcomes, mostly in children under age 6.

    Henry Spiller, study author and director of Central Ohio Poison Control, said parents still need to be extremely cautious about leaving these products within access of children.

    Sometimes, parents don’t think of keeping dietary supplements away from their kids, because they’re not medicines prescribed by the doctor. People think of them as natural,” Spiller said. “But they need to be treated as if they were a medicine. Don’t leave them out on the counter. Keep them out of reach.

  • One Third of Physician Faculty Members Report Sexual Harassment
    http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/863373

    “This is a sobering reminder that our society has a long way to go before we achieve gender equity,” study author Reshma Jagsi, MD, DPhil, associate professor and deputy chair of radiation oncology at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, said in a university news release. Findings were presented in a research letter published online May 17 in JAMA.

    #harcèlement_sexuel #Etats_Unis #Universités #facultés_de_médecine

  • 5-decade study reveals fallout from spanking kids - CBS News
    http://www.cbsnews.com/news/5-decade-study-reveals-fallout-from-spanking-kids

    Spanking a child leads to bad behaviors, not the better manners some parents may think a smack on the bottom will elicit, a new study suggests.

    Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Michigan analyzed 75 studies involving more than 150,000 children that spanned 50 years.

    This is a wide swath of children and the findings are incredibly consistent,” study author Dr. Elizabeth Gershoff told CBS News. “This shows there is a correlation between spanking and negative outcomes and absolutely no correlation between spanking and positive outcomes.

    Spanking doesn’t make kids behave better right away and it leads to worse behavior in the long run, said Gershoff, an associate professor of human development and family sciences at the University of Texas at Austin. And spanked kids are more likely to be aggressive and antisocial.

    #fessée #méta-analyse

    • résumé de l’article original (payant)

      Spanking and Child Outcomes: Old Controversies and New Meta-Analyses.
      Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew
      Journal of Family Psychology, Apr 7 , 2016, No Pagination Specified.
      http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord

      Abstract
      Whether spanking is helpful or harmful to children continues to be the source of considerable debate among both researchers and the public. This article addresses 2 persistent issues, namely whether effect sizes for spanking are distinct from those for physical abuse, and whether effect sizes for spanking are robust to study design differences. Meta-analyses focused specifically on spanking were conducted on a total of 111 unique effect sizes representing 160,927 children. Thirteen of 17 mean effect sizes were significantly different from zero and all indicated a link between spanking and increased risk for detrimental child outcomes. Effect sizes did not substantially differ between spanking and physical abuse or by study design characteristics.
      (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

  • Registered clinical trials make positive findings vanish
    http://www.nature.com/news/registered-clinical-trials-make-positive-findings-vanish-1.18181

    A 1997 US law mandated the registry’s creation, requiring researchers from 2000 to record their trial methods and outcome measures before collecting data. The study found that in a sample of 55 large trials testing heart-disease treatments, 57% of those published before 2000 reported positive effects from the treatments. But that figure plunged to just 8% in studies that were conducted after 2000. Study author Veronica Irvin, a health scientist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, says this suggests that registering clinical studies is leading to more rigorous research. Writing on his NeuroLogica Blog, neurologist Steven Novella of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, called the study “encouraging” but also “a bit frightening” because it casts doubt on previous positive results.

    #fraude #santé #médecine #big_pharma

  • Poverty, not the ’teenage brain’ account for high rates of teen #crime
    http://phys.org/news/2015-03-poverty-teenage-brain-account-high.html

    This graph shows the age-homicide rate curve by age group at six standard poverty brackets, with crude (light dashed) and polynomial regression(solid) trendlines, California, 1991 to 2012. Credit: SAGE Open

    “Within every race and community, adolescents suffer poverty rates two to three times higher than older adults do,” stated study author Mike Males, Senior Research Fellow at the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice, San Francisco. “It is astonishing that researchers have compiled decades of theories and claims about teenagers’ supposed risk-taking, impulsiveness, brain deficiencies, and crime-proneness without examining whether these are due to young people’s low socioeconomic status, not young age.”

    #pauvreté #adolescence #biais

  • Tracking Malaria With Cell Phones - ABC News
    http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/health/2012/10/11/tracking-malaria-with-cell-phones

    Harvard researchers found they could track the spread of malaria in Kenya using phone calls and text messages from 15 million mobile phones.
    “Before mobile phones, we had proxies for human travel, like road networks, census data and small-scale GPS studies,” said study author Caroline Buckee, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. “But now that mobile phones have spread throughout the world, we can start using these massive amounts of data to quantify human movements on a larger scale and couple this data with knowledge of infection risk.” (...) By studying networks of human and parasite movement, the team could then determine primary sources of #malaria and who was most likely to become infected.

    #téléphonie #mobile #santé #épidémiologie #kenya #paludisme via @confluences