provinceorstate:arizona

  • Les astéroïdes Bénou et Ryugu, deux amas de gravats sombres dans l’espace
    https://www.lemonde.fr/sciences/article/2019/03/19/les-asteroides-benou-et-ryugu-deux-amas-de-gravats-sombres-dans-l-espace_543


    L’ombre de la sonde Hayabusa-2 à la surface de l’astéroïde Ryugu.
    HANDOUT / AFP

    Les sondes japonaise Hayabusa-2 et américaine Osiris-Rex ont permis de collecter des données qui font l’objet de dix publications simultanées, mardi 19 mars, dans les revues scientifiques « Science » et « Nature ».

    Cela s’appelle une rafale éditoriale. Mardi 19 mars, les équipes de deux missions spatiales – la japonaise #Hayabusa-2, qui ausculte l’astéroïde #Ryugu depuis juin 2018, et l’américaine #Osiris-Rex, qui en fait autant avec l’astéroïde #Bénou (#Bennu) depuis décembre 2018 – ont publié les premiers résultats sur ces deux petits corps dans un total de dix études. Trois sont consacrées à Ryugu et paraissent dans Science et les sept autres décrivent Bénou dans Nature et trois de ses revues filles, Nature Astronomy, Nature Geoscience et Nature Communications.

    Indices sur la naissance et l’évolution du Système solaire
    Dix études simultanées dans quelques-uns des plus grands journaux scientifiques mondiaux, l’affaire n’est pas si courante. Pour Patrick Michel, directeur de recherches CNRS à l’Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, et qui a le privilège d’appartenir aux équipes des deux missions, cette rafale se justifie : « Ce sont les premiers résultats jamais obtenus in situ sur des astéroïdes carbonés », explique-t-il. Les astronomes font la cour à ces objets parce qu’ils sont les restants des matériaux qui ont composé les planètes il y a un peu plus de 4,5 milliards d’années. Les auteurs de l’étude de Science consacrée à la surface de Bénou soulignent par ailleurs que ces astéroïdes sont représentatifs des objets qui ont pu apporter à la Terre primitive de l’eau et des molécules favorables à l’apparition de la vie. Les informations que l’on peut en tirer constituent donc autant d’indices sur la naissance et l’évolution du Système solaire.


    Bennu, OSIRIS-REx, source : NASA
    la (vraie) légende est derrière le #paywall


  • Boeing 737Max, l’enchaînement des modifications marginales aboutit à une catastrophe (deux catastrophes ?) Sous la pression de la réduction des coûts, un bricolo dans le logiciel de contrôle de vol a été introduit et de ne pas en informer les pilotes (il aurait fallu les faire repasser au simulateur de vol pour les habiliter au nouveau système…)

    After a Lion Air 737 Max Crashed in October, Questions About the Plane Arose - The New York Times
    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/03/world/asia/lion-air-plane-crash-pilots.html


    Boeing’s 737 Max is the latest version of a plane that first went into service half a century ago.
    Credit : Matt Mcknight/Reuters

    But Boeing’s engineers had a problem. Because the new engines for the Max were larger than those on the older version, they needed to be mounted higher and farther forward on the wings to provide adequate ground clearance.

    Early analysis revealed that the bigger engines, mounted differently than on the previous version of the 737, would have a destabilizing effect on the airplane, especially at lower speeds during high-banked, tight-turn maneuvers, Mr. Ludtke said.

    The concern was that an increased risk of the nose being pushed up at low airspeeds could cause the plane to get closer to the angle at which it stalls, or loses lift, Mr. Ludtke said.

    After weighing many possibilities, Mr. Ludtke said, Boeing decided to add a new program — what engineers described as essentially some lines of code — to the aircraft’s existing flight control system to counter the destabilizing pitching forces from the new engines.

    That program was M.C.A.S.
    […]
    The F.A.A. would also determine what kind of training would be required for pilots on specific design changes to the Max compared with the previous version. Some changes would require training short of simulator time, such as computer-based instruction.

    I would think this is one of those systems that the pilots should know it’s onboard and when it’s activated,” said Chuck Horning, the department chairman for aviation maintenance science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.

    That was not the choice that Boeing — or regulators — would make.

    The F.A.A. Sides With Boeing
    Ultimately, the F.A.A. determined that there were not enough differences between the 737 Max and the prior iteration to require pilots to go through simulator training.

    While the agency did require pilots to be given less onerous training or information on a variety of other changes between the two versions of the plane, M.C.A.S. was not among those items either.
    […]
    At least as far as pilots knew, M.C.A.S. did not exist, even though it would play a key role in controlling the plane under certain circumstances.

    Boeing did not hide the modified system. It was documented in maintenance manuals for the plane, and airlines were informed about it during detailed briefings on differences between the Max and earlier versions of the 737.

    But the F.A.A.’s determination that the system did not have to be flagged for pilots gave pause to some other regulators.

    Across the Atlantic, the European Aviation Safety Agency, the European Union’s equivalent of the F.A.A., had qualms, according to a pilot familiar with the European regulator’s certification process.

    At first, the agency was inclined to rule that M.C.A.S. needed to be included in the flight operations manual for the Max, which in turn would have required that pilots be made aware of the new system through a classroom or computer course, the pilot said. But ultimately, he said, the agency did not consider the issue important enough to hold its ground, and eventually it went along with Boeing and the F.A.A.

    • Après avoir tergiversé devant l’énormité de l’enjeu, la FAA a suspendu les vols et Boeing annonce cesser les livraisons. Deux par jour ! comme le dit l’article, il va falloir pousser les murs à Renton…

      Boeing gèle les livraisons des B 737 MAX : près de 2 avions par jour sont concernés !
      https://www.latribune.fr/entreprises-finance/industrie/aeronautique-defense/boeing-gele-les-livraisons-des-b-737-max-pres-de-2-avions-par-jour-sont-co


      Crédits : © POOL New / Reuters

      Boeing annoncé la suspension des livraisons de ses avions moyen-courriers 737 MAX, qui ont été interdits provisoirement de vol dans le monde après deux accidents récents d’appareils de ce type, l’un d’Ethiopian Airlines, l’autre de Lion Air. Mais l’avionneur continue la production en espérant implémenter la solution à ses problèmes une fois qu’elle sera validée.

      Ce jeudi, en début de soirée en France, au lendemain de l’immobilisation totale de la flotte de B 737 MAX qui a suivi l’accident d’Ethiopian Airlines le 10 mars dernier dans des circonstances similaires à celles observées lors du crash de Lion Air en octobre, Boeing a annoncé la suspension des livraisons de ses appareils moyen-courriers.

      « Nous suspendons la livraison des 737 MAX jusqu’à ce que nous trouvions une solution », a déclaré à l’AFP un porte-parole, ajoutant que l’avionneur américain poursuivait en revanche leur production en écartant l’éventualité de réduire les cadences.

      Il va falloir trouver de la place. Boeing construit 52 B737 MAX par mois, quasiment deux par jour.

      « Nous sommes en train d’évaluer nos capacités », c’est-à-dire de savoir où les avions sortis des chaînes d’assemblage vont être stockés, a-t-il admis.

      Boeing entend donc continuer à assembler les avions et introduire la solution à ses problèmes une fois que ces derniers auront été clairement identifiés et que la façon de les résoudre validée.

    • Ça ne s’arrange pas pour Boeing et la FAA qui a délégué une grande partie de la certification de la nouvelle version à …Boeing.

      Flawed analysis, failed oversight: How Boeing, FAA certified the suspect 737 MAX flight control system | The Seattle Times
      https://www.seattletimes.com/business/boeing-aerospace/failed-certification-faa-missed-safety-issues-in-the-737-max-system-im


      A worker is seen inside a Boeing 737 MAX 9 at the Renton plant. The circular sensor seen at bottom right measures the plane’s angle of attack, the angle between the airflow and the wing. This sensor on 737 MAX planes is under scrutiny as a possible cause of two recent fatal crashes.
      Mike Siegel / The Seattle Times

      Federal Aviation Administration managers pushed its engineers to delegate wide responsibility for assessing the safety of the 737 MAX to Boeing itself. But safety engineers familiar with the documents shared details that show the analysis included crucial flaws.

      As Boeing hustled in 2015 to catch up to Airbus and certify its new 737 MAX, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) managers pushed the agency’s safety engineers to delegate safety assessments to Boeing itself, and to speedily approve the resulting analysis.

      But the original safety analysis that Boeing delivered to the FAA for a new flight control system on the MAX — a report used to certify the plane as safe to fly — had several crucial flaws.

      That flight control system, called MCAS (Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System), is now under scrutiny after two crashes of the jet in less than five months resulted in Wednesday’s FAA order to ground the plane.

      Current and former engineers directly involved with the evaluations or familiar with the document shared details of Boeing’s “System Safety Analysis” of MCAS, which The Seattle Times confirmed.

      The safety analysis:
      • Understated the power of the new flight control system, which was designed to swivel the horizontal tail to push the nose of the plane down to avert a stall. When the planes later entered service, MCAS was capable of moving the tail more than four times farther than was stated in the initial safety analysis document.
      • Failed to account for how the system could reset itself each time a pilot responded, thereby missing the potential impact of the system repeatedly pushing the airplane’s nose downward.
      • Assessed a failure of the system as one level below “catastrophic.” But even that “hazardous” danger level should have precluded activation of the system based on input from a single sensor — and yet that’s how it was designed.

      The people who spoke to The Seattle Times and shared details of the safety analysis all spoke on condition of anonymity to protect their jobs at the FAA and other aviation organizations.

      Both Boeing and the FAA were informed of the specifics of this story and were asked for responses 11 days ago, before the second crash of a 737 MAX last Sunday.
      […]
      Delegated to Boeing
      The FAA, citing lack of funding and resources, has over the years delegated increasing authority to Boeing to take on more of the work of certifying the safety of its own airplanes.

      Early on in certification of the 737 MAX, the FAA safety engineering team divided up the technical assessments that would be delegated to Boeing versus those they considered more critical and would be retained within the FAA.

      But several FAA technical experts said in interviews that as certification proceeded, managers prodded them to speed the process. Development of the MAX was lagging nine months behind the rival Airbus A320neo. Time was of the essence for Boeing.

      A former FAA safety engineer who was directly involved in certifying the MAX said that halfway through the certification process, “we were asked by management to re-evaluate what would be delegated. Management thought we had retained too much at the FAA.

      There was constant pressure to re-evaluate our initial decisions,” the former engineer said. “And even after we had reassessed it … there was continued discussion by management about delegating even more items down to the Boeing Company.

      Even the work that was retained, such as reviewing technical documents provided by Boeing, was sometimes curtailed.
      […]
      Inaccurate limit
      In this atmosphere, the System Safety Analysis on MCAS, just one piece of the mountain of documents needed for certification, was delegated to Boeing.

      The original Boeing document provided to the FAA included a description specifying a limit to how much the system could move the horizontal tail — a limit of 0.6 degrees, out of a physical maximum of just less than 5 degrees of nose-down movement.

      That limit was later increased after flight tests showed that a more powerful movement of the tail was required to avert a high-speed stall, when the plane is in danger of losing lift and spiraling down.
      […]
      After the Lion Air Flight 610 crash, Boeing for the first time provided to airlines details about MCAS. Boeing’s bulletin to the airlines stated that the limit of MCAS’s command was 2.5 degrees.

      That number was new to FAA engineers who had seen 0.6 degrees in the safety assessment.
      […]
      System failed on a single sensor
      The bottom line of Boeing’s System Safety Analysis with regard to MCAS was that, in normal flight, an activation of MCAS to the maximum assumed authority of 0.6 degrees was classified as only a “major failure,” meaning that it could cause physical distress to people on the plane, but not death.

      In the case of an extreme maneuver, specifically when the plane is in a banked descending spiral, an activation of MCAS was classified as a “hazardous failure,” meaning that it could cause serious or fatal injuries to a small number of passengers. That’s still one level below a “catastrophic failure,” which represents the loss of the plane with multiple fatalities.
      […]
      Boeing’s System Safety Analysis assessment that the MCAS failure would be “hazardous” troubles former flight controls engineer Lemme because the system is triggered by the reading from a single angle-of-attack sensor.

      A hazardous failure mode depending on a single sensor, I don’t think passes muster,” said Lemme.

      Like all 737s, the MAX actually has two of the sensors, one on each side of the fuselage near the cockpit. But the MCAS was designed to take a reading from only one of them.

      Lemme said Boeing could have designed the system to compare the readings from the two vanes, which would have indicated if one of them was way off.

      Alternatively, the system could have been designed to check that the angle-of-attack reading was accurate while the plane was taxiing on the ground before takeoff, when the angle of attack should read zero.

      They could have designed a two-channel system. Or they could have tested the value of angle of attack on the ground,” said Lemme. “I don’t know why they didn’t.

      The black box data provided in the preliminary investigation report shows that readings from the two sensors differed by some 20 degrees not only throughout the flight but also while the airplane taxied on the ground before takeoff.

      No training, no information
      After the Lion Air crash, 737 MAX pilots around the world were notified about the existence of MCAS and what to do if the system is triggered inappropriately.

    • VF

      Crashs de 737 MAX : la justice américaine se saisit du dossier
      https://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2019/03/19/crashs-de-737-max-la-justice-americaine-s-en-mele_5438002_3210.html


      Les Boeing 737 Max sont collés au sol à Phoenix, dans l’Arizona (Etats-Unis).
      Matt York / AP

      La justice américaine a décidé de faire la lumière sur les relations entre Boeing et les autorités fédérales chargées de certifier ses appareils 737 MAX, à la suite de deux accidents qui ont fait 346 morts à moins de cinq mois d’intervalle.
      Le 11 mars, soit au lendemain de la tragédie du vol d’Ethiopian Airlines, la justice a assigné au moins une personne impliquée dans le développement du programme 737 MAX à fournir des documents, incluant des lettres, des courriels ou d’autres messages, révèle le Wall Street Journal lundi 18 mars, qui cite des sources proches du dossier.
      […]
      L’affaire « prend un tour entièrement nouveau avec l’enquête criminelle », a réagi Scott Hamilton, expert aéronautique chez Leeham Company. « Contrairement à la France, où les enquêtes criminelles sont habituelles quand il y a un accident d’avion, c’est très, très rare aux Etats-Unis », souligne-t-il, se souvenant d’un seul précédent, celui de ValuJet. Le 11 mai 1996, l’accident d’un DC-9 de cette compagnie en Floride avait fait 110 morts.

      Parallèlement, le département américain des transports mène une enquête sur le processus d’approbation par le régulateur du transport aérien (FAA) des 737 MAX, a également dévoilé le WSJ dimanche. Il se penche en particulier sur le système de stabilisation de l’avion destiné à éviter le décrochage, dit « MCAS » (Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System).
      […]
      Des documents disponibles sur le site de la FAA montrent que le 737 MAX a été certifié comme une variante du 737 NG, son prédécesseur. Autrement dit, il n’a pas été inspecté dans son intégralité, la FAA estimant qu’il n’était pas nécessaire d’examiner certains systèmes. Cela n’est pas inhabituel dans l’aéronautique s’agissant d’un avion qui n’est pas entièrement nouveau.

      Plus gênant, selon des sources concordantes, le régulateur, confronté à des coupes budgétaires et manquant d’expertise, a délégué à des employés de Boeing la certification du MCAS. Or ce système a, lui, été spécialement conçu pour le 737 MAX, afin de compenser le fait que ce nouvel aéronef dispose de moteurs plus lourds que ceux équipant le 737 NG et qu’il présentait, de ce fait, un risque plus élevé de décrochage.

      Note que l’explication fournie est au minimum rapide, voire carrément fausse (cf. supra, la modification des moteurs (plus gros) a surtout entrainé un changement de leur position – surélévation et déplacement vers l’avant - ce qui modifie fortement le centrage de l’avion)

      Et la Chambre s’y mettrait aussi…

      Peter DeFazio, le président de la commission parlementaire des transports à la Chambre des représentants, envisage, lui, de lancer une enquête sur la certification du 737 MAX, selon des sources parlementaires, ajoutant que des auditions publiques de responsables de la FAA ne sont pas exclues.

    • Washington lance un audit sur la certification du Boeing 737 MAX
      https://www.latribune.fr/entreprises-finance/industrie/aeronautique-defense/washington-lance-un-audit-sur-la-certification-du-boeing-737-max-811302.ht

      [La] secrétaire américaine aux Transports, Elaine Chao, a annoncé mardi qu’elle avait demandé à ses services de vérifier la procédure de certification du Boeing 737 MAX par l’aviation civile américaine. Par ailleurs, un nouveau patron a été nommé à la tête de la FAA, la direction de l’aviation civile américaine. Boeing a également [re]manié l’équipe dirigeante de l’ingénierie.

      Confirmant des informations de presse, le ministère américain des Transports (DoT) a indiqué mardi avoir lancé un audit sur le processus de certification du Boeing 737 MAX 8 par la Federal Administration Agency (FAA), la direction générale de l’aviation civile américaine, après les accidents de Lion Air fin octobre 2018 et d’Ethiopian Airlines le 10 mars denier, faisant au total 346 morts. Dans les deux cas, le 737MAX, un avion mis en service en mai 2017, était flambant neuf. Dans les deux cas, ils se sont écrasés peu après le décollage après avoir connu des montées et des descentes irrégulières lors de la phase de montée.
      […]
      Par ailleurs, Donald Trump a annoncé mardi son intention de nommer Steve Dickson, un ancien pilote de chasse et pilote de ligne, à la tête de la FAA. Steve Dickson doit être nommé comme administrateur de la FAA pour une période de cinq ans et comme président du Comité des services du trafic aérien au département du Transport. Steve Dickson, qui a pris récemment sa retraite, a une longue expérience du transport aérien puisqu’il était responsable de la sécurité et des services opérationnels au sein de la compagnie américaine Delta Airlines. Il était en outre instructeur. En tant que pilote de ligne, il a l’expérience des avions moyen-courriers : Airbus A320, Boeing 727, 737, 757. Steve Dickson était également, au début de sa carrière, pilote sur l’avion de combat F-15.

      La division d’aviation commerciale de Boeing a selon Reuters remanié l’équipe dirigeante de l’ingénierie. John Hamilton, qui occupait les fonctions de vice-président et d’ingénieur en chef, va se concentrer uniquement sur le rôle d’ingénieur en chef, a déclaré le PDG de la division d’aviation commerciale, Kevin McAllister, dans un email envoyé aux employés. Lynne Hopper, jusque-là en charge de l’unité test et évaluation, est nommée vice-présidente de l’ingénierie, a-t-il ajouté.

      La réorganisation va permettre à Hamilton de « focaliser toute son attention sur les enquêtes en cours sur l’accident », écrit McAllister, soulignant que des changements étaient nécessaires alors que l’avionneur américain « dédie des ressources supplémentaires » à ces enquêtes.

    • Boeing a le droit de faire voler ses 737 MAX (pour les stocker ailleurs qu’à Seattle)
      https://www.latribune.fr/entreprises-finance/industrie/aeronautique-defense/boeing-a-le-droit-de-faire-voler-ses-737-max-pour-les-stocker-ailleurs-qu-

      Malgré l’interdiction des vols des 737 MAX la direction de l’aviation civile américaine a autorisé à Boeing à les faire [voler] pour parquer quelque part les avions assemblés qui ne pourront plus être stockés sur le site de production de Seattle, faute de place.

      Les Boeing 737 MAX peuvent reprendre les airs sans attendre les conclusions de l’enquête de l’accident d’un appareil de ce type d’Ethiopian Airlines, faisant 157 victimes à bord le 10 mars. Mais sans passagers à bord. Si les vols reprennent effectivement, ce sera uniquement pour aller parquer quelque part les appareils qui sortent de la chaîne d’assemblage et qui ne pourront plus être stockés sur le site de production de Renton, près de Seattle. Si Boeing a interrompu les livraisons, l’avionneur a maintenu la production dans le but d’introduite la solution à ses problèmes sur tous les avions stockés et livrer rapidement ces derniers.

      Selon les autorités américaines, de telles dispositions ont été accordées à Boeing par la Federal Administration Agency (FAA), la direction générale de l’aviation civile, lorsque cette dernière a interdit les vols des 737 MAX la semaine dernière. « La FAA a décidé d’interdire les opérations, mais n’a pas retiré le certificat de navigabilité de l’avion qui aurait décrété que l’avion n’était pas en mesure de voler », a expliqué surpris à La Tribune, un expert européen des questions de sécurité. En attendant, si Boeing décidait de faire voler ses avions pour aller les parquer ailleurs qu’à Renton, la décision pourrait en surprendre plus d’un. Comment pourrait-on autoriser un avion cloué au sol pour des raisons de sécurité reprendre les airs avec des pilotes à bord ?

      Avec une cadence de production de 52 appareils par mois, l’avionneur est confronté au défi du stockage de ces avions qu’il ne peut pas livrer aux compagnies aériennes. Selon nos informations, Boeing a des solutions pour absorber deux mois de production, soit plus de 100 appareils.

      (note, les chapeaux des articles sont rédigés au lance-pierre, il y manque des mots ou des bouts de mots…)


  • Mosaïques foncières en #Arizona : paradoxe et complexités de la domination des #terres publiques au pays de la #propriété_privée

    La structure foncière des États de l’Ouest américain, en particulier les plus récents, est fortement marquée par les processus pionniers qui ont pris place après l’annexion du Nord du Mexique par les États-Unis en 1848. Elle se caractérise notamment par une très forte proportion de #terres_publiques (fédérales ou d’État) et par une configuration dans laquelle les héritages du #homesteading et des #cessions_de_terres au profit des compagnies de #chemin_de_fer sont encore très visibles. Mais un autre aspect des #héritages de cette #histoire est la complexité des #droits_de_propriété et d’usage, l’empilement des agences responsables du #patrimoine public et la multiplicité des échelles impliquées dans la gestion. L’État d’Arizona est un bon exemple de ces dynamiques. L’article s’attache donc à décrire l’émergence et l’emprise du foncier privé, l’histoire et les catégories de #foncier public avant de pointer les difficultés posées par la configuration actuelle et les impasses qu’elle représente pour l’action au niveau local.


    https://journals.openedition.org/cybergeo/31934
    #USA #Etats-Unis
    #cartographie #visualisation


  • La sénatrice américaine McSally, première femme pilote de chasse, raconte son viol par un supérieur
    https://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2019/03/07/aux-etats-unis-la-senatrice-martha-mcsally-premiere-femme-pilote-de-chasse-r


    Martha McSally, mercredi 6 mars à Washington.
    JOSHUA ROBERTS / REUTERS

    Martha McSally n’a pas révélé le nom de son agresseur, ni la date à laquelle les faits se seraient déroulés. Elle a expliqué qu’à l’époque les scandales d’abus sexuels s’accumulaient dans les forces armées, qui, selon la sénatrice, y apportaient « une réponse vraiment inadéquate ». L’ancienne pilote de chasse affirme avoir finalement parlé de ce traumatisme des années après l’agression, mais a été « horrifiée » par la façon dont l’armée a réagi à son témoignage. Elle assure d’ailleurs avoir failli démissionner « par désespoir ».

    « Comme d’autres victimes, je pensais que le système me violait une nouvelle fois », a expliqué Martha McSally, visiblement très émue. Elle a finalement choisi de ne « pas abandonner » et de devenir « une voix pour les femmes » dans l’armée, puis en politique.

    Devant les sénateurs, l’élue de l’Arizona a souligné la responsabilité de la hiérarchie militaire, demandant un changement de culture dans l’institution. A son entrée à l’école de l’armée de l’Air, en 1984, « les agressions et le harcèlement sexuel étaient courants et les victimes souffraient le plus souvent en silence », a-t-elle raconté. Pendant sa carrière, elle a vu de nombreuses « faiblesses dans les processus de prévention des agressions sexuelles, d’enquête et de jugement ».

    Selon un rapport publié par le Pentagone en mai 2018, le nombre d’agressions sexuelles signalées a augmenté de 10 % entre octobre 2016 et septembre 2017. L’armée américaine compte 1,3 million de personnes en service actif.

    Ce n’est pas la première fois que Martha McSally prend la parole pour parler des agressions sexuelles envers les femmes. Très sportive dans sa jeunesse, la sénatrice avait déjà raconté, en avril 2018, comment, alors qu’elle était âgée de 17 ans, son entraîneur d’athlétisme de 37 ans l’avait attirée dans une relation sexuelle. En plein mouvement #metoo, elle racontait dans une interview au Wall Street Journal la « manipulation émotionnelle » mise en place par son agresseur. « Il m’a fallu beaucoup de temps pour arriver au point de comprendre ce que j’avais vécu. Il y a beaucoup de peur, de manipulation et de honte. »

    Dans cet entretien, elle expliquait déjà n’avoir jamais sérieusement envisagé de confronter son agresseur du lycée. Qui l’aurait crue ? « C’est déjà difficile à prouver le lendemain matin, ne parlons pas de dix ans plus tard. »

    En octobre 2016, quand la vidéo Access Hollywood montrant Donald Trump se flatter de pouvoir embrasser impunément qui bon lui semble, Martha McSally avait tweeté son « dégoût ». « Plaisanter à propos des agressions sexuelles est inacceptable. Je suis scandalisée », écrivait-elle à propos du président américain. Reste que depuis, elle a soutenu bec et ongles le locataire de la Maison Blanche dans tous ses choix politiques. Elle avait également soutenu la candidature du juge conservateur Brett Kavanaugh à la Cour suprême, malgré les accusations d’agression sexuelle qui pesait sur lui.


  • Changement d’heure
    Raisonnement par l’absurde


    Si j’ai bien compris, le prochain changement d’heure sera le dernier : décision européenne suite à un référendum.
    Donc on restera en heure d’été tout le temps.
    Donc on aura 2 heures de décalage par rapport au Soleil (à 14h de l’après midi, il sera midi solaire).
    Donc on sera dans le même fuseau horaire que l’Ukraine.
    Donc il sera la même heure en Corogne (Espagne) et au Donbass (Ukraine).
    Ce qui correspond à la même distance que de la côte est à la côte ouest des USA.
    Donc c’est comme si les USA normalisaient une heure unique sur tout leur territoire.

    Donc on sera quand même obligé de compenser le temps de présence du soleil dans nos vies.
    Donc on décalera sûrement un peu nos horaires de travail.
    Donc à l’échelle européenne certains commenceront à 7h et d’autres à 10h.
    Donc c’est comme si on ne changeait rien.

    Précédente discussion :
    https://seenthis.net/messages/719501

    PS : certains éléments sont de rapides raccourcis pour permettre de faire avancer le délire

    • Différences de longitude entre les points extrêmes de…
      • la Chine : 61°, heure unique
      • l’Union européenne : (hors Açores, Canaries et outre-mer) 48°, 3 fuseaux horaires
      • les États-Unis : (continentaux hors Alaska) 58°, 4 fuseaux horaires
      • les États-Unis : (Alaska inclus, hors Hawaï, 5 fuseaux (qui devraient être 6, l’Alaska étant décalé de pratiquement 1 fuseau,…)
      • les États-Unis (50 états) :6 fuseaux
      sans compter les territoires extrêmes, Îles Mariannes du Nord et Îles Vierges états-uniennes,…

      (pour mémoire, un fuseau horaire fait, théoriquement, 15°)

      Les Échos donne un point assez complet (09/18)
      https://www.lesechos.fr/26/09/2018/lesechos.fr/0302287681702_changement-d-heure---le-casse-tete-europeen.htm

    • Je n’ai pas d’opposition à l’arrêt des changement d’heure. Je trouve juste bête de mettre toute l’europe en Gmt+2 au lieu de Gmt+1 qui est la moyenne européenne. Et alors qu’à 60km d’ici, en Angleterre, ils restent en gmt. On travaillera aux meme horaires, sauf que ca s’appelera 8h chez eux et 10h chez moi. Simple convention. J’ai un peu entendu dire que le referendum européen c’était : vous préférez l’été ou l’hiver... Façon vous voulez une boule vanille ou chocolat ?

    • Il me semble qu’il s’agit de la fin du changement d’heure, pas de la fusion des fuseaux horaires. Cette uniformisation de l’heure de l’UE a été proposée début janvier par Szymon Dolecki, mathématicien polonais en retraite de l’Université de Bourgogne.

      Pour un fuseau horaire unique dans l’Union européenne
      https://www.courrierinternational.com/article/pour-un-fuseau-horaire-unique-dans-lunion-europeenne

      Pour ce mathématicien polonais, professeur émérite de l’université de Bourgogne, il ne devrait y avoir qu’un seul fuseau horaire en Europe, au lieu des trois actuels. Aux pays et aux régions de fixer les rythmes sociaux.

      #paywall

    • @aude_v Non. Mais c’est une idée simple qui marcherait. Un reproche cependant, ça pourrait amener à un libéralisation des décalages d’horaire par entreprise. Car je suis persuadé qu’avec l’heure fixe, on va tendre vers 2 à 3 horaires de travail par an dans chaque entreprise.

      @simplicissimus Ce n’est pas l’uniformisation d’un mono fuseau européen. (C’est une décision obligatoire mais individuelle de chaque état). Toutefois si en France il est choisi de rester à la prochaine heure d’été, on sera à la même heure que l’Ukraine. Il va peut être se produire des enclaves. Tu pourras aller en ligne droite et avoir GMT+2 GMT+1 GMT+2. J’appelle ça marcher sur la tête.

    • dans la série #enclaves, l’Arizona qui ne pratique pas l’heure d’été #daylight_saving_time à laquelle passent les États-Unis dimanche 10 mars, à l’exception de la nation Navajo qui la pratique, sauf la nation Hopi qui suit le choix de l’état, sachant qu’il y a une enclave navajo dans le territoire hopi…

      Most of Arizona Has No Daylight Saving Time
      https://www.timeanddate.com/time/us/arizona-no-dst.html

      Most of the US state of Arizona does not use Daylight Saving Time (DST). The exception is the Navajo Nation.
      ©timeanddate.com

      With the exception of the Navajo Nation, Arizona does not set the clocks forward 1 hour in spring for DST with the rest of the United States.

      Mountain Standard Time
      Almost all of Arizona is on the same time zone, Mountain Standard Time (MST), all year. The time zone has a UTC offset of minus 7 hours (UTC-7).
      It is also known as Mountain Time, but that term refers both to standard time and the time zone which is elsewhere used during DST: Mountain Daylight Time (MDT).

      Navajo Nation Uses DST
      The Navajo Nation, a semi-autonomous Native American territory, follows the United States DST schedule. It lies in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah.

      During DST the Navajo Nation, which includes the towns of Tuba City, Chinle, and Window Rock, sets the clocks forward 1 hour to Mountain Daylight Time (MDT), which is 6 hours behind UTC (UTC-6).

      No DST in Hopi Nation
      A part of the Hopi Nation, which lies within the Navajo Nation, follows Arizona’s no-DST rule. To confuse matters more, there is also an even smaller Navajo Nation territory within the Hopi Nation within the Navajo Nation. In addition to this, there is another Hopi area adjacent to the main Hopi Nation territory.

      As a result, if driving the correct route from the Arizona state border through both Navajo and Hopi areas to the other side one can end up changing one’s clock 7 times! For example: Tuba City (Navajo) and Moenkopi (Hopi) are only a couple of miles apart, but they have a 1-hour time difference during the summer. Jeddito (Navajo), in the middle of Hopi Nation territory, is 1 hour ahead of the surrounding areas during summer.

      Opted out of DST
      Arizona is exempt from DST according to the US Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Act gives every state or territory the right to decide if it wants to use DST. If DST is observed, the state has to schedule DST in sync with the rest of the US: From the second Sunday in March until the first Sunday in November.
      Because of Arizona’s hot climate, DST is largely considered unnecessary. The argument against extending the daylight hours into the evening is that people prefer to do their activities in the cooler evening temperatures.

      Note qu’avant la standardisation de 1977, c’était la même chose à l’échelle du pays tout entier, chaque état voire chaque comté se déterminait indépendamment des autres…
      (histoire compliquée, détaillée dans l’article WP ci-dessous.

      Sinon, la Californie est en train de passer à l’heure d’été toute l’année…
      Daylight saving time in the United States - Wikipedia
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daylight_saving_time_in_the_United_States

      California
      California voters passed Proposition 12 in 1949, approving DST in the state.
      In 2018, voters ratified a legislative plan for year-round daylight saving time, subject to congressional approval.


  • States Are Introducing Bills That Could Prevent Teachers From Advocating for Climate Change - Pacific Standard
    https://psmag.com/news/state-bills-could-prevent-teachers-from-advocating-for-climate-change

    Several states have recently introduced bills that could interfere with the teaching of scientifically founded theories on climate change in public school science curricula.

    A bill in South Dakota would require each school board to adopt a code of ethics that prevents public school elementary and secondary school teachers from advocating “for any issue that is part of a political party platform at the national, state, or local level.” The Arizona legislature introduced a nearly identical bill.

    Virginia legislators proposed a bill with similar language, arguing that some teachers are abusing taxpayer dollars to “speak to captive audiences of students in an attempt to indoctrinate or influence students to adopt specific political and ideological positions on issues of social and political controversy ... under the guise of ’teaching for social justice’ and other sectarian doctrines.”

    In Maine, a comparable bill states that “the rules must require a teacher to provide students with materials supporting both sides of a controversial issue being addressed and to present both sides in a fair-minded, nonpartisan manner.”

    Science education groups are concerned that these bills, if enacted, would limit instruction on anthropogenic climate change, which is a key tenet of state and federal Democratic Party platforms. In the case of Maine, the bill could require teachers to discuss climate change as a disputed theory and present disproven theories for the global rise in temperatures as valid.

    Other states have introduced legislation that singles out the teaching of climate change directly. A bill in Montana takes a public stance on climate change that “reasonable amounts of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere have no verifiable impacts on the environment; science shows human emissions do not change atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions enough to cause climate change; claims that carbon associated with human activities causes climate change are invalid; and nature, not human activity, causes climate change.” Any educational and informational materials on climate change would be required to include this information.

    Climate change has become an increasingly politicized topic under the Trump administration. The president has publicly denounced its existence, and some federal agencies have removed the phrase “climate change” from webpages and other documents. Yet as global temperatures continue to rise (2018 was the fourth hottest year on record), at least 97 percent of climate experts maintain that “[c]limate-warming trends over the past century are extremely likely due to human activities.”

    #Education #Climat #Politique_scientifique #Folie


  • No More Deaths volunteers prosecuted for providing humanitarian aid to migrants - World Socialist Web Site

    https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2019/02/16/nmde-f16.html

    On January 18, a federal judge rendered a guilty verdict against four volunteers from the humanitarian organization No More Deaths (NMD) for their actions in the Cabeza Prieta Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Arizona along the US-Mexico border a year and a half ago. Judge Bernardo Velasco’s ruling marks the first conviction of humanitarian aid volunteers in the US in a decade.

    The volunteers—Natalie Hoffman, Oona Holcomb, Madeline Huse and Zaachila Orozco-McCormick—were found guilty of misdemeanors related to entering a wildlife refuge without a permit and leaving behind “personal property.” The latter was a reference to basic lifesaving necessities such as food, water and other small items left behind by the volunteers in order to ensure migrants survive the dangerous desert crossing.

    #états-unis #migrations #asile #mexique #humanitaire


  • Democrats’ ‘smart border’ technology is not a ‘humane’ alternative to Trump’s wall

    In response to President Trump’s demand for $5.7 billion for a physical barrier along the U.S.-Mexico border, and his threat to shut down the government again on Feb. 15 if Congress doesn’t provide it, Democratic Congressional leaders are promoting an alternative they refer to as a “smart border.” This is essentially an expansion of existing technologies like remote sensors, integrated fixed-towers, #drones and other #surveillance assets.

    On Jan. 29, Rep. James Clyburn (D-S.C.), the third-ranking Democrat in the House, wrote an op-ed in The Hill arguing that this kind of “smart border” is preferable to a physical wall because it will “create a technological barrier too high to climb over, too wide to go around, and too deep to burrow under,” resulting in an “effective, efficient and humane” alternative to Trump’s border wall. Meanwhile, the “opening offer” announced on Jan. 31 by the Democrats in bipartisan budget negotiations included $400 million for this “smart border” surveillance package.

    In a recent peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Borderlands Studies, we raised fundamental questions about these kinds of “smart border” technologies, including their humanitarian implications. Using geospatial modeling and statistical analysis, we show how previous “high-tech” border solutions failed to deliver on their operational objectives; instead of preventing unauthorized crossing, the surveillance network simply shifted migration routes into much more difficult and remote terrain, with a measurable impact on the geography of migrant deaths in the southern Arizona desert.

    From 2006 to 2011 the United States appropriated $3.7 billion for the SBInet system, intended as a high-tech network of ground sensors connected to integrated fixed towers mounted with infrared, high-resolution cameras and motion-detecting ground radar. Experimentally deployed southwest of Tucson, Arizona, the surveillance network aimed to provide the Border Patrol “complete situational awareness” through the real-time, automated integration of multiple sources of surveillance data.

    The outcomes delivered by the SBInet program fell well short of these aspirations, however. In 2010 the Government Accountability Office concluded that the Department of Homeland Security had “yet to identify expected benefits from the [program], whether quantitative or qualitative.” After continuous operational shortcomings and delays, in 2011 the Obama administration quietly canceled the program.

    Simultaneously, the area where SBInet was deployed has become a “land of open graves,” according to anthropologist and 2017 MacArthur “genius grant” recipient Jason De León. From 2006 to 2011, at least 1,267 people died in southern Arizona attempting to cross the border. A significant majority of these deaths were the outcome of exposure to the elements: dehydration, hyperthermia and exhaustion. Meanwhile, during this same period the rate of death (the number of deaths / 100,000 Border Patrol apprehensions) skyrocketed, nearly tripling between 2008 and 2011 alone.

    These deaths are the result of many factors. But our research shows that significant among these has been the expansion of border surveillance technology. Using Geographic Information Science, we analyzed the mapped location of human remains pre- and post-SBInet. We then plotted the visual range of the SBInet system using publicly-available information on the location of the towers and the operational reach of their various components.

    Next, we created a model using variables like vegetation, slope and terrain to measure the physiological difficulty associated with pedestrian transit along different routes of travel. We found a meaningful and measurable shift in the location of human remains toward routes of travel outside the visual range of the SBInet system, routes that simultaneously required much greater physical exertion, thus increasing peoples’ vulnerability to injury, isolation, dehydration, hyperthermia and exhaustion.

    Our research findings show that in addition to its monetary cost and its questionable operational efficacy, the “smart border” technology presently being promoted by the Democratic congressional leadership contributes to deadly outcomes.

    Based on these findings there is a need to reconsider the premise that surveillance technology and infrastructure can provide a “humane” alternative to Trump’s border wall (a proposal we also consider to be wasteful and destructive). Instead, we’d like to see a shift in U.S. border policy that genuinely prioritizes the protection of human life, regardless of a person’s citizenship or immigration status.

    This kind of shift, of course, would require reforms not just to the Border Patrol and its enforcement strategy, but to U.S. immigration policy overall, allowing people to seek safety or reunite with family and loved ones without risking their lives crossing through the desert.

    https://thehill.com/opinion/immigration/429454-democrats-smart-border-technology-is-not-a-humane-alternative-to-tru

    #frontière_intelligente #alternative (?) #murs #barrières_frontalières #frontières #smart_border #smart_borders #technologie #mourir_aux_frontières #morts #décès

    En gros:

    Our research findings show that in addition to its monetary cost and its questionable operational efficacy, the “smart border” technology presently being promoted by the Democratic congressional leadership contributes to deadly outcomes.


  • Anti-BDS bill passed Senate, but trouble awaits in House
    Some Democrats are convinced the decision to tie the controversial bill together with motions on aid to Israel and Jordan and sanctions on Syria was designed to spark intra-Democratic fighting
    Amir Tibon Washington
    Feb 10, 2019 11:52 PM
    https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/.premium-anti-bds-bill-passed-senate-but-trouble-awaits-in-house-1.6920012

    WASHINGTON – The Senate passed a bill last week that encourages state governments across the U.S. not to sign contracts with supporters of boycotts against Israel and its settlements in the occupied West Bank. The bill has since been introduced in the House of Representatives, but Congressional sources from both parties told Haaretz in recent days they doubt it will pass the House any time soon.

    The bill in question is called the Combating BDS Act. It passed the Senate as part of a “package” of Middle East-related bills after being introduced by Republican Senator Marco Rubio. The other bills in the package deal with non-controversial, consensus issues such as military aid to Israel and Jordan, and sanctions on the Assad regime in Syria.

    Rubio and Senate Republicans added the anti-BDS bill into the package, setting the stage for an intense fight about it on Capitol Hill. The reason is that civil rights organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union are concerned that the Combating BDS Act is unconstitutional and harms American citizens’ freedom of speech.

    The bill encourages the implementation of local legislation passed in recent years by half of the states in the U.S., putting limits on state governments’ abilities to sign contracts with supporters of boycotts against Israel or the settlements. Two such laws have been frozen by federal courts in Arizona and Kansas, following lawsuits by state contractors who said the laws harmed their freedom of speech. Similar lawsuits have recently been filed in Texas and Arkansas.

    When the package bill came up for a vote last week, 23 senators voted against it, including one Republican, Rand Paul of Kentucky. Many of those who voted against it clarified that if every aspect of the bill had been voted on separately, they probably would have supported the bills on assistance to Israel and Jordan and on sanctioning Assad, and would have only objected to the BDS bill, mainly because of concerns surrounding freedom of speech.

    Such a vote could take place in the Senate, where Republicans hold the majority, but not in the House, according to the Congressional sources who spoke with Haaretz. Democrats are convinced that the entire purpose of the Republican decision to add the anti-BDS bill into the broader Middle East package was to orchestrate an intra-Democratic fight over the issue, and force many Democrats to choose between their position on the free speech criticism of the bill, and their general opposition to BDS.

    The Democratic leadership in the House, which has a majority ever since the midterm elections, will most likely break up the package into a number of separate bills. That will allow the House to approve the non-controversial bills on security aid to Israel and sanctions on Syria, without immediately setting the stage for a new round of internal party tensions on the “constitutional right to boycott” question.

    While the other bills are probably going to see quick and easy approval, the anti-BDS bill could be up for a lengthy period of debate in the relevant House committees. There could also be an amendment process. In the Senate, for example, one Democratic senator, Gary Peters of Michigan, offered an amendment that would make it absolutely clear that the bill only refers to large companies, not to small businesses or sole proprietors. Another amendment offered to distinguish in the bill’s language between Israel proper and the settlements in the occupied West Bank.

    Lara Friedman of the Foundation for Middle East Peace, one of the most vocal opponents of the legislation, told Haaretz last week that Democrats in the House “can see what happened in the Senate and take a good guess that it will be even more controversial” in their chamber. “The only ones who benefit from seeing Democrats fight amongst themselves on this issue are the GOP and folks in the U.S. and Israel who want to see Israel turned into a weapon for partisan gain,” she added.

    AIPAC, the powerful lobby that supports the Israeli government, is urging Congress to pass the legislation. The organization wrote in its monthly publication, the Near East Report, that “Congress should take up and pass the Combating BDS Act as quickly as possible. This important bipartisan bill seeks both to protect states against claims they are preempting federal authority, and to demonstrate Congress’ strong support for state measures consistent with Congress’ historic commitment to oppose boycotts of Israel.”

    #BDS

    • En complément : attaquer Omar, Tlaib et Ocasio-Cortez, par imputation d’antisémitisme, pour explicitement diviser les Démocrates : McCarthy pressures Democrats to rebuke two Muslim lawmakers over alleged anti-Semitism
      https://www.washingtonpost.com/powerpost/mccarthy-gop-challenge-house-democrats-to-denounce-alleged-anti-semitism/2019/02/08/aef28514-2bae-11e9-b2fc-721718903bfc_story.html

      Republicans are focusing their ire at the two Muslim women in Congress, accusing them of anti-Semitism and pressuring Democratic leaders to rebuke the lawmakers as attitudes in the party toward Israel shift from unquestioned support.

      The pressure on Reps. Ilhan Omar (D-Minn.) and Rashida Tlaib (D-Mich.) is part of a larger GOP effort to drive a partisan wedge into the traditionally nonpartisan relationship between the United States and Israel. Republicans are casting themselves as the more resolute defender of Israel, heightening the party’s appeal to traditionally Democratic Jewish voters.

      […]

      Ralph Reed, the head of the Faith and Freedom Coalition and an ally of the Trump White House, said Republicans are working to “change the center of gravity in the American electorate on the issue of Israel.”

      “The leftward drift of the grass roots of the Democrat Party, away from wholehearted and robust support of Israel, means you have people in that party who see Israel through the prism of apartheid and occupation,” he said. “That’s an opportunity for Republicans to say, ‘That’s not how we see Israel.’ ”

      Some Republicans have pointed to a recent phone call between Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.), the high-profile young leader of her party’s hard-left wing, to British lawmaker Jeremy Corbyn, the head of the Labour Party who has come under intense criticism for tolerating anti-Semitism in his ranks.

      (Accessoirement donc : internationalisation de la manipulation anti-Corbyn…)


  • #ACME - numéro spécial sur « Border Imperialism »

    Situating Border Imperialism
    Levi Gahman, Elise Hjalmarson, Amy Cohen, Sutapa Chattopadhyay, Enrica Rigo, Sarah Launius, Geoffrey Boyce, Adam Aguirre, Elsa Noterman, Eli Meyerhoff, Amílcar Sanatan

    Border Imperialism, Racial Capitalism, and Geographies of Deracination
    Levi Gahman, Elise Hjalmarson

    “Slavery hasn’t ended, it has just become modernized”: Border Imperialism and the Lived Realities of Migrant Farmworkers in #British_Columbia, #Canada
    Amy Cohen

    Borders re/make Bodies and Bodies are Made to Make Borders: Storying Migrant Trajectories
    Sutapa Chattopadhyay

    Re-gendering the Border: Chronicles of Women’s Resistance and Unexpected Alliances from the Mediterranean Border
    Enrica Rigo

    Drawing the Line: Spatial Strategies of Community and Resistance in Post-SB1070 #Arizona
    Geoffrey A Boyce, Sarah Launius, Adam O Aguirre

    Revolutionary Scholarship by Any Speed Necessary: Slow or Fast but for the End of This World
    Eli Meyerhoff, Elsa Noterman

    Borders and Marxist Politics in the Caribbean: An Interview with #Earl_Bousquet on the Workers Revolutionary Movement in St. Lucia
    Earl Bousquet, Interviewed by: Amílcar Sanatan

    #revue #frontières #impérialisme #déracinement #esclavagisme #capitalisme_racial #déracinement #Caraïbes #femmes #genre #résistance_féminine #USA #Etats-Unis #corps #agriculture #exploitation


  • Under Western Skies (1945) [WEBRip] [720p] [YTS.AM]
    https://yts.am/movie/under-western-skies-1945#720p

    IMDB Rating: 6.1/10Genre: Action / Adventure / Music / WesternSize: 474.38 MBRuntime: 12hr 57 minIn a film that was closer to being a “sanitized” version of and contained more elements akin to Mae West’s and W.C. Fields’ “My Little Chickadee” than it did from anything John Ford had done, or was to do, a traveling show arrives in a small Arizona town and finds much opposition from local townspeople. They plan to stage the show in the saloon and the leading lady, Katie (Martha O’Driscoll), gets involved with the local school teacher, Tod (Noah Beery, Jr). and a mysterious masked bandit, King Randall (Leo (...)

    https://yts.am/torrent/download/91F0898A7E82E67DC02ACE02B35E9FA0C2CE3F91


  • As Trial Starts for Border Humanitarian Volunteers, New Documents Reveal Federal Bureaucrats’ Obsession With Stopping Activists
    https://theintercept.com/2019/01/17/no-more-deaths-border-documents-trial

    Trump administration prosecutors argued this week that members of the borderland faith-based organization No More Deaths broke the law by leaving jugs of water and cans of beans for migrants trekking through a remote wilderness refuge in the Sonoran Desert. The arguments came in the first of a series of high-profile federal trials in Tucson, Arizona, where humanitarian aid volunteers are facing prosecution under a litany of charges. Assistant U.S. Attorney Anna Wright, who is currently (...)

    #activisme #migration #surveillance


  • Bienvenue à bord des taxis autonomes de Google...
    https://www.crashdebug.fr/high-teck/15504-bienvenue-a-bord-des-taxis-autonomes-de-google

    USA : ... Taxi-robots envahissent l’Arizona

    1 ... Peu de gens comprennent ce qui va se passe, le taxi robot signale la mort des taxis + UBER/VTC

    2 ... On passe du CDI/Travail aux mini-jobs/esclavagisme puis à la banqueroute mondiale et à la misère, que croyez-vous qu’ils feront de leur temps libre ? évidemment ils penseront à la Révolution, souhaitée par le plan des sociétés secrètes

    Contributeur anonyme

    Depuis décembre 2018, Waymo propose un service de transport à la demande opéré par des voitures autonomes à

    Chandler (Arizona). CAITLIN O’HARA / NYT-REDUX-REA

    Un monospace blanc – Chrysler Pacifica hybride – s’approche lentement. Il est un peu bizarre avec son espèce de gros gyrophare noir et ses appendices qui le déforment au niveau du toit et sur les côtés. Il s’arrête, vous montez, vous (...)


  • Maryland: Former legislator sues state over anti-BDS law | Middle East Eye
    https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/maryland-former-legislator-sues-state-over-anti-bds-law-1453433549

    A software engineer and former state legislator is suing the US state of Maryland over its anti-boycott law.

    Saqib Ali, who became the first Muslim member of the Maryland House of Delegates in 2006, said he refused to sign a “loyalty oath” pledging that he does not boycott Israel, in order to win a contract to build a computer programme for the state.

    “I do boycott Israel and the illegally occupied territories because Palestinians are not free; they live under a brutal military occupation,” Ali said at a news conference announcing the lawsuit on Wednesday.

    “And until that occupation is ended, I decided I will boycott Israel. It is my First Amendment right. It is guaranteed by the US Constitution.”

    Maryland is one of the dozens of states that have passed measures banning government entities from hiring companies that boycott Israel.

    The push is part of a nationwide effort to counter the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movement, which seeks to pressure Israel economically and politically to end its abuses against Palestinians.

    Critics of such measures say they restrict freedom of speech, protect a foreign nation from criticism and censor meaningful debate about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Last year, US courts in Kansas and Arizona ruled that it is unconstitutional to force government contractors to refrain from boycotting Israel, blocking the anti-BDS laws in both states.

    In the case of Maryland, the anti-boycott measure was enacted through an executive order by Republican Governor Larry Hogan in 2017, after it failed to pass through the legislature.

    Hogan has defended the executive order, saying that it aims to protect Israel from BDS.

    “They’re asking people to discriminate against Israel,” he said of the movement after signing the order in 2017, as reported by the Baltimore Sun at the time. “There’s no argument to the contrary that makes any sense.”

    #bds #usa #israel #palestine


  • Troops To Be Deployed To Border To Build And Upgrade 160 Miles Of Fencing

    More troops are expected to be deployed to the Southern border to construct or upgrade 160 miles of fencing and provide medical care to a steady stream of migrant families arriving from Central America, according to military sources.

    The deployment and fence construction along the California and Arizona borders would be paid for by the Pentagon, from the Department of Defense’s discretionary funding.

    The move comes as President Trump continues to demand more than $5 billion from Congress for border security and a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border. Congressional Democrats oppose the move, and parts of the federal government have been shut down because of the impasse.

    The Department of Defense has not been affected by the shutdown.

    Last month Trump tweeted that “the Military will build the remaining sections of the Wall” after he said that much of it already has been built. The president was referring to several hundred miles of existing fencing along the Southern border.

    A few days later, Trump repeated his intention to have the Defense Department do the job, saying in another tweet that because of crime and drugs flowing through the border “the United States Military will build the Wall!”

    The Department of Homeland Security — which has had to cease some operations, although not border security — made the request for more troops to shore up the border with Mexico.

    The request will very likely mean the deployment of more forces, including combat engineers and aviation units. There are now some 2,300 active troops on the border and an additional 2,100 National Guard troops.

    The active-duty deployment was scheduled to be completed at the end of January, while the Guard troops are scheduled to remain until September.

    A senior military official said the new request could include thousands more troops and that installing the fencing could take months. The Pentagon is now considering which units to send.

    With the partial government shutdown now in its second week, Trump made a short and unannounced appearance in the White House briefing room Thursday to press for border wall funding.

    “The wall — you can call it a barrier, you can call it whatever you want — but essentially we need protection in our country,” he said.

    https://www.npr.org/2019/01/03/681971323/troops-to-be-deployed-to-border-to-build-160-miles-of-fencing

    #Trump #frontières #armée #militarisation_des_frontières #USA #Etats-Unis


  • January 10 strike date set for 33,000 Los Angeles teachers - World Socialist Web Site
    https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2018/12/24/laus-d24.html

    Le gouvernement des États Unis est en train de remplacer l’école publique par des charter schools privées. Les enseignants et parents d’élèves mènent un mouvement de résistance contre le démantèlement de l’institution publique.

    Last week, the United Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) announced that it had set a strike date of January 10 for 33,000 teachers after failing to reach an agreement with the district after more than 18 months of negotiations.

    The announcement came a few days after as many as 50,000 educators and their supporters marched in the nation’s second largest school district to demand increased wages, a reduction in class sizes and the hiring of nurses and other critical staff. Teachers in Oakland, Fremont and other California cities are also pressing for strike action as part of the resumption of teachers’ strikes, which saw statewide walkouts earlier this year in West Virginia, Oklahoma, Arizona and other states.

    Virginia teachers plan statewide protest to demand school funding - World Socialist Web Site
    https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2018/12/24/virg-d24.html

    The teachers’ movement that began last February in West Virginia—spreading to Kentucky, Oklahoma, Arizona, Colorado, North and South Carolina and Washington state—is clearly expanding in the face of the continued assault on public education. Charter school teachers have joined the growing number of walkouts as well, with a recent strike against Acero in Chicago.

    Meeting on Oakland school closure expresses hostility to attacks on public education - World Socialist Web Site
    https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2018/12/24/oakl-d24.html

    Last Tuesday, over 150 parents, students, educators and community members attended a public meeting to protest the planned closure of Roots International Academy, a middle school that serves low-income youth in East Oakland, California. After listening to district representatives attempt to justify the closure, numerous attendees spoke out forcefully against it and in favor of expanding public education funding and resources.

    Roots is one of 24 public schools in Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) that are slated to be closed or merged with other public schools over the next five years as part of the district’s and state’s savage assault on public education, which includes district budget cuts of $60 million over the next two years. All 24 schools slated for closure or merger are located in the “flatlands” regions of East and West Oakland, where poverty and crime are far more prevalent than in the rest of the city.

    In response to this unprecedented attack on education in Oakland, the city’s working class residents are beginning to mobilize. Among Oakland teachers, who have been working without a contract since July 2017, there is growing sentiment for a statewide teachers strike to unite with Los Angeles teachers, who last week announced that they will begin striking on January 10.

    Two weeks ago, roughly 100 Oakland teachers engaged in a wildcat “sickout” strike, largely out of frustration over the stalled negotiations and lack of initiative from the Oakland Education Association (OEA) teachers union.

    #USA #éducation #privatisation


  • Algorithmes partout, intelligence nulle part. A propos de Gillian Brockell.
    https://www.affordance.info/mon_weblog/2018/12/algorithmes-partout-intelligence-nulle-part-.html

    L’histoire est de celles qui font monter les larmes. En tout cas moi j’ai eu les yeux qui piquent en la lisant. C’est celle d’une femme qui à perdu son enfant à la naissance. Un enfant mort-né. Une femme qui écrit aux patrons des GAFA, aux patrons des « Tech Companies », pour leur demander d’arrêter de lui proposer des liens publicitaires sur une maternité dont elle doit faire le deuil.

    Cette femme s’appelle Gillian Brockell. Et voici la lettre qu’elle a publié sur Twitter (ma traduction)

    « Chères entreprises technologiques,

    Je sais que vous avez su que j’étais enceinte. C’est ma faute, je n’ai pas pu résister aux Hashtags #30weekspregnant et #Babybump sur Instagram. Et j’ai été tellement stupide que j’ai même cliqué une fois ou deux sur des publicités que me proposait Facebook pour des vêtements de maternité.

    Vous avez certainement vu ma lettre de remerciement à toutes mes amies qui sont venues pour la fête prénatale et à mes soeurs qui ont pris un vol depuis l’Arizona et qui m’ont tagué dans leurs photos. Vous m’avez certainement vu taper sur Google “robe de vacances maternité” et même “barrière de sécurité pour lit bébé”. Et je parie qu’Amazon vous a même donné ma date de terme, le 24 Janvier, lorsque j’y ai créé ma liste de voeux de cadeaux de naissance.

    Mais ne m’avez vous pas vu également taper “est-ce que c’est une contraction de Braxton Hicks ?” et “bébé qui ne bouge pas” ? N’avez vous pas remarqué les trois jours de silence, très inhabituels pour une utilisatrice très connectée comme moi ? Et puis n’avez-vous pas vu non plus l’annonce avec les mots-clés “coeur brisé” et “problème” et “mort-né” et les 200 émoticônes larmes de mes amis ? Cela ne fait-il pas partie des choses que vous pouvez surveiller ?

    Et lorsque des millions de gens avec le coeur brisé cliquent sur “je ne veux pas voir cette publicité”, et que là encore votre réponse est “pourquoi ?” avec le cruel mais vrai “ce n’est pas pertinent pour moi”, vous savez, vous, les entreprises technologiques, ce que votre algorithme décide ? Il décide que vous avez accouchée, il suppose que tout s’est bien passé, et il vous inonde de publicités pour les meilleurs soutien-gorge d’allaitement (j’ai des feuilles de chou sur mes seins parce que c’est que la médecine offre de mieux pour stopper la montée de lait), il vous inonde de trucs et astuces pour endormir bébé (je donnerai n’importe quoi pour pouvoir l’entendre crier la nuit), et d’annonces pour les meilleures poussettes pour ses premières années de croissance (le mien pèsera pour toujours 1 kilo et 800 grammes)

    S’il vous plaît, entreprises technologiques, je vous en supplie : si vous êtes assez intelligentes pour comprendre que je suis enceinte, que j’ai accouchée, alors vous êtes également suffisamment intelligentes pour comprendre que mon bébé est mort et pour me diffuser des publicités appropriées, ou peut-être, peut-être, pour ne pas me diffuser de publicités.

    Sincèrement

    Gillian. »


  • Moment détente(?) : Un Américain déclenche un incendie géant en annonçant le sexe de son futur bébé
    https://www.crashdebug.fr/diversifion/15313-moment-detente-un-americain-declenche-un-incendie-geant-en-annoncan

    Idiocratie en live...,

    En 2017, l’homme avait déclenché un incendie en Arizona, brûlant 20 000 hectares. Il a été condamné à une très lourde amende

    C’est un garçon  ! Un futur papa américain a voulu faire original pour annoncer le sexe de son bébé à naître, mais sa petite sauterie a tourné au cauchemar : il a déclenché par bêtise un incendie géant en Arizona.

    Les Américains appellent cela des "gender reveal parties". Ces fêtes destinées à dévoiler le sexe de son futur enfant, partagées tous azimuts sur les réseaux sociaux, sont de plus en plus populaires aux Etats-Unis.

    Les futurs parents se servent généralement d’un gâteau au glaçage neutre dont la coloration intérieure met fin, à la découpe, à l’intenable suspense : bleu pour un garçon, rose pour une fille.

    Beaucoup trop convenu pour Dennis Dickey. Ce (...)

    #En_vedette #Divers


    • Intéressant !
      Bon, cet inconscient à allumé un feu, soit.
      Il aurait pu aussi allumer son barbecue.

      La foret californienne n’est pas entretenue, gérée, elle a cramé.
      Les villas des milliardaires ont brulé.
      Malibu partiellement en cendre ! Quelle tristesse dans les chaumières à écran plat.

      C’est pas trés beau, mais en France, on gère la foret des Landes.
      Une immense foret de pins.
      Pommes de pins, aiguilles de pins, résine, une immensité d’allumettes.
      C’est pas joli, mais ça ne flambe pas (pour l’instant) dans de telles proportions.

      Ne faut il pas que les californien.e.s demandent à google, uber, facebook de gérer leur environnement ?

      Ah oui, c’est ce qui se passe actuellement.

      Bon, alors, tout est de la responsabilité d’un seul inconscient, qui a voulu faire une photo pour son facebook.


  • L’Europe utilisera-t-elle les drones israéliens contre les réfugiés ?

    En matière de sécurité, #Israël en connait un rayon. Ses entreprises sont particulièrement actives sur ce marché lucratif et peuvent démontrer l’efficacité de leurs produits en prenant les Palestiniens comme cobayes. Pour contrôler l’arrivée de réfugiés, l’agence européenne #Frontex s’intéresse ainsi de près au drone #Heron. L’engin a fait ses “preuves au combat” durant l’#opération_Plomb durci. (IGA)

    En septembre, l’Agence de surveillance des frontières de l’Union européenne Frontex a annoncé le démarrage de vols d’essais de drones en #Italie, en #Grèce et au #Portugal. Il y avait une omission majeure dans la déclaration de Frontex : le type de drones testé avait été utilisé auparavant pour attaquer Gaza.

    Certains détails sur les compagnies impliquées dans ces essais ont été publiés plus tôt cette année. Un « avis d’attribution de marché » a révélé qu’#Israel_Aerospace_Industries était l’un des deux fournisseurs sélectionnés.

    Israel Aerospace Industries a reçu 5.,5 millions de dollars pour jusqu’à 600 heures de vols d’essais.

    Le drone qu’Israel Aerospace Industries offre pour la #surveillance maritime s’appelle le #Heron.

    Selon le propre site web de la compagnie, le Heron a « fait ses preuves au combat ». C’est une expression codée signifiant qu’il a été employé pendant trois attaques majeures d’Israël contre Gaza pendant la dernière décennie.

    Après l’opération Plomb durci, l’attaque israélienne sur Gaza de fin 2008 et début 2009, une enquête de Human Rights Watch a conclu que des dizaines de civils avaient été tués par des missiles lancés à partir de drones. Le Heron a été identifié comme l’un des principaux drones déployés dans cette offensive.

    Frontex – qui expulse fréquemment des réfugiés d’Europe – a étudié les #drones depuis un certain temps. Déjà en 2012, Israel Aerospace Industries avait présenté le Heron à un événement organisé par Frontex.

    Par ses vols d’essais, Frontex permet à l’industrie de guerre israélienne d’adapter la technologie testée sur les Palestiniens à des fins de surveillance. Alors que les dirigeants de l’Union européenne professent couramment leur souci des droits humains, l’implication de fabricants d’armes pour surveiller les frontières partage plus que quelques similitudes avec les politiques belliqueuses poursuivies par le gouvernement de Donald Trump aux USA.

    Des opportunités commerciales

    Les entreprises israéliennes bénéficient des décisions prises des deux côtés de l’Atlantique.

    L’année dernière, #Elta – une filiale d’Israel Aerospace Industries – a été engagée pour dessiner un prototype pour le mur controversé que Trump a proposé d’établir le long de la frontière USA- Mexique. Elbit, un autre fabricant israélien de drones, a gagné en 2014 un contrat pour construire des tours de surveillance entre l’Arizona et le Mexique.

    Les mêmes compagnies poursuivent les opportunités commerciales en Europe.

    Elta a été en contact avec divers gouvernements à propos de leur système « de #patrouille_virtuelle des #frontières » – qui est basé sur l’interception des communications téléphoniques des mobiles et l’#espionnage des usagers d’internet. Pour fournir un prétexte à une telle intrusion, la compagnie joue sur la politique de la #peur. Amnon Sofrin, un dirigeant d’Elta qui occupait auparavant une position de premier plan dans l’agence israélienne d’espionnage et d’assassinat du Mossad, a recommandé que l’Europe choisisse en priorité la « #sécurité » plutôt que les libertés civiles.

    L’entreprise israélienne #Magal_Systems cherche aussi des contrats en Europe. Magal a installé ce qu’elle appelle une barrière « intelligente » — livrée avec des capteurs et un équipement avancé de caméras – le long de la frontière d’Israël avec Gaza.

    Saar Koush, jusqu’à récemment le PDG de Magal, a argué que le rôle de l’entreprise dans la mise en place d’un siège des deux millions d’habitants de Gaza leur donnait un argument commercial unique – ou au moins rare. « Tout le monde peut vous donner un très joli Powerpoint, mais peu de gens peuvent vous montrer un projet aussi complexe que Gaza, qui est constamment testé en combat », a dit Koush.

    Apprendre d’Israël ?

    Frontex est en contact avec d’autres entreprises israéliennes.

    En juin de cette année, l’Union européenne a publié une notice montrant que la compagnie israélienne #Windward avait gagné un contrat de près d’ 1 million de dollars pour travailler à un projet d’« analyse maritime » organisé par Frontex. #Gabi_Ashkenazi, un ancien chef de l’armée israélienne, est conseiller à Windward ; #David_Petraeus, qui a commandé les troupes US occupant l’Irak et l’Afghanistan, est l’un de ses investisseurs.

    Dans son rapport annuel 2016, Frontex déclarait que « les premiers pas avaient été faits afin de développer des relations « stratégiques » avec Israël. Frontex a ultérieurement exprimé son intention d’accroître cette coopération d’ici 2020.

    Un point clé est « l’apprentissage mutuel ». Il est plus que probable qu’il s’agisse d’un euphémisme pour échanger des notes sur les tactiques qui devraient être utilisées contre les gens fuyant la pauvreté ou la persécution.

    Israël a une réputation effroyable en ce qui concerne le traitement des réfugiés. Des Africains vivant en Israël ont été sujets à des mauvais traitements racistes de la part des plus hauts niveaux du gouvernement. Benjamin Netanyahou, le Premier ministre, les a étiquetés comme des « infiltrés ».

    Un autre ministre du gouvernement a soutenu que les Africains ne peuvent être considérés comme des humains.

    Selon l’institut de sondage Gallup, Israël est l’un des pays les moins hospitaliers du monde pour les demandeurs d’asile. Malgré sa proximité géographique avec la Syrie, Israël a refusé l’entrée aux victimes de la guerre en cours.

    L’an dernier, Netanyahou a été entendu disant aux dirigeants du groupe de Visegrad (ou Visegrad 4) – la Hongrie, la Pologne, la République tchèque et la Slovaquie – qu’ils devraient fermer leurs frontières aux réfugiés. Il a aussi déclaré qu’Israël joue un rôle important dans la réduction de la migration vers l’Europe et suggéré qu’Israël devrait être récompensé pour cela.

    L’identification d’Israël comme partenaire pour une « coopération stratégique » avec Frontex est inquiétante en soi. Les préparatifs pour utiliser les outils de répression d’Israël contre les réfugiés faisant route vers l’Europe le sont encore plus.

    https://www.investigaction.net/fr/leurope-utilisera-t-elle-les-drones-israeliens-contre-les-refugies

    #surveillance_frontalière #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #asile #migrations #réfugiés #sécurité #Méditerranée #Heron #Israeli_Aerospace_Industries #Gaza #business

    • #Leonardo deploys its #Falco_EVO_RPAS for drone-based maritime surveillance as part of the Frontex test programme

      Leonardo’s Falco EVO Remotely-Piloted Air System (RPAS), in a maritime patrol configuration, has been deployed from Lampedusa airport (Lampedusa Island) as part of the Frontex surveillance research programme to test its ability to monitor the European Union’s external borders.

      Frontex is exploring the surveillance capability of medium-altitude, long-endurance RPAS as well as evaluating cost efficiency and endurance. Leonardo was selected by the European agency under a service contract tender for drone operations for maritime surveillance across the Italian and Maltese civil airspace. The current agreement provides for 300 flight hours and may be extended into a longer-term agreement.

      Under the deployment, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities are organised by Guardia di Finanza under coordination of the Ministry of Interior and are undertaken by Leonardo from Lampedusa also thanks to the decisive support and collaboration of ENAC and ENAV. Leonardo’s flight crews and maintenance teams are present to support the operations with the Falco EVO, which is equipped with a complete on-board sensor suite including the Company’s Gabbiano TS Ultra Light radar. This configuration allows it to carry out extended-range day and night-time missions.

      “We are proud to be able to demonstrate the capabilities of our Falco EVO to Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, which is facing the on-going and evolving surveillance challenges posed by maritime borders. We are ready to leverage our years of experience in drone-based surveillance operations, working with the United Nations and many other international customers,” said Alessandro Profumo, CEO of Leonardo. “I wish to thank all the Italian stakeholders who contributed to this important achievement and I am convinced that this fruitful partnering approach will allow Frontex to define the best possible use for drone-based technologies.”

      The Falco EVO will operate under a “Permit to Fly” issued by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC), which authorizes flights in the Italian and Maltese Flight Information Region (FIR)’s civil airspace. The innovative agreement reached with ENAC guarantees compliance with national and international regulations and coordination with relevant authorities. The agreement also provides for close involvement from the Guardia di Finanza as subject matter experts with operational experience in defining mission profiles and ensuring the best operational conditions in which to undertake the 300- hours test programme.

      The Falco EVO configuration being deployed includes a high-definition InfraRed (IR) electro-optical system, a Beyond-Line-Of-Sight (BLOS) satellite data-link system, a new propulsion system based on a heavy-fuel engine, an Automatic Identification System (AIS) and a complete communications relay suite.

      Leonardo is the only European company providing a comprehensive RPAS ISR capability, from the design of each system element all the way through to operations. Today the Company is an international pioneer in the operation of unmanned flights on behalf of civil organizations in “non-segregated”, transnational airspace.

      Under an innovative business model, Leonardo owns and operates its Falco family of RPAS and provides surveillance information and data directly to its customers. This ‘managed service’ model is expected to be an area of growth for Leonardo which is expanding its ‘drones as a service’ offering to customers such as the police and emergency responders in line with the growth path outlined in the Company’s industrial plan.


      https://www.edrmagazine.eu/leonardo-deploys-its-falco-evo-rpas-for-drone-based-maritime-surveillanc

    • Leonardo: il #Falco_Evo inizia i voli per il programma Frontex

      Il Falco Evo, il velivolo a pilotaggio remoto di Leonardo, ha iniziato la campagna di voli in una configurazione specifica per il monitoraggio marittimo, nell’ambito del programma Frontex, finalizzato alla sperimentazione di droni per il controllo delle frontiere esterne dell’Unione europea. Frontex, l’agenzia europea della guardia di frontiera e costiera, sta infatti analizzando la capacità di sorveglianza a media altitudine e lunga persistenza offerta dai velivoli pilotati a distanza, valutando efficienza economica ed efficacia operativa di tali sistemi. Leonardo è stata selezionata a seguito di una gara per un contratto di servizio per fornire attività di sorveglianza marittima attraverso l’uso di droni nello spazio aereo civile italiano e maltese. L’accordo attuale prevede un totale di 300 ore di volo con possibili ulteriori estensioni contrattuali. Le operazioni di sorveglianza e ricognizione effettuate da Leonardo con il Falco Evo vengono pianificate dalla Guardia di Finanza sotto il coordinamento del ministero dell’Interno, con il supporto di Enac, Enav e AST Aeroservizi Società di Gestione dell’aeroporto di Lampedusa, dove si svolgono i voli.
      “Siamo orgogliosi di dimostrare le capacità del Falco EVO all’agenzia europea Frontex e alle Forze di Sicurezza, che affrontano quotidianamente la sfida del controllo e della protezione dei confini marittimi – ha commentato Alessandro Profumo, amministratore delegato di Leonardo -. Leonardo mette a disposizione di questo programma la lunga esperienza acquisita anche grazie alle attività svolte per le Nazioni Unite e molti altri clienti internazionali con i propri sistemi pilotati da remoto”.
      Il Falco Evo opera grazie ad un “Permit to Fly” rilasciato dall’Enac, che autorizza i voli nello spazio aereo civile italiano e maltese. L’accordo innovativo raggiunto con Enac garantisce quindi la conformità alle normative nazionali e internazionali e il coordinamento con le relative autorità. L’attività prevede, inoltre, un forte coinvolgimento della Guardia di Finanza in virtù della significativa esperienza del Corpo nella definizione dei profili di missione, assicurando le migliori condizioni operative per lo svolgimento delle 300 ore di volo programmate. La configurazione del Falco Evo impiegato nel programma include un sistema ottico all’infrarosso ad alta definizione, un collegamento dati satellitari oltre la linea di vista (Beyond-Line-Data-Of-Sight - BLOS), un nuovo sistema di propulsione basato su un motore a combustibile pesante, un sistema di identificazione automatico (Automatic Identification System - AIS) e una suite completa per le comunicazioni. Leonardo è l’unica azienda europea in grado di fornire capacità complete RPAS e ISR, progettando e sviluppando tutti gli elementi che compongono un sistema pilotato da remoto, anche nell’ambito di contratti di servizio per operazioni “unmanned” e tra i pochi player al mondo a poter operare per conto di enti civili in spazi aerei non segregati trasnazionali.

      https://www.trasporti-italia.com/focus/leonardo-il-falco-evo-inizia-i-voli-per-il-programma-frontex/36521

    • Frontex Director meets with Portugal’s Minister of Internal Administration

      The Executive Director of Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, met with Portugal’s Minister of Internal Administration and with the National Director of Portuguese Immigration and Border Service (SEF) on Friday to introduce the agency’s liaison officer for Portugal and Spain.

      Frontex is deploying 11 liaison officers to enhance the cooperation between the agency and national authorities responsible for border management, returns and coast guard functions in 30 EU Member States and Schengen Associated Countries.

      In Lisbon, Frontex Director Fabrice Leggeri met with Eduardo Cabrita, Portugal’s Minister of Internal Administration and Cristina Gatões, the National Director of Portuguese Immigration and Border Service (#SEF).

      During his visit to Portugal, Fabrice Leggeri also visited the headquarters of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) and met with its new Executive Director, Maja Markovčić Kostelac. Frontex and EMSA, along with the European Fisheries Control Agency (EFCA), work together in in the maritime domain to support EU Member States and develop European coast guard functions.

      https://frontex.europa.eu/media-centre/news-release/frontex-director-meets-with-portugal-s-minister-of-internal-administr


  • Arizona border residents speak out against Donald Trump’s deployment of troops

    Residents from Arizona borderland towns gathered Thursday outside the Arizona State Capitol to denounce President Donald Trump’s deployment of at least 5,200 U.S. troops to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    The group of about a dozen traveled to Phoenix to hold the event on the Arizona State Capitol lawn. The press conference took place as a caravan of migrants seeking asylum continues to move north through Mexico toward the United States.

    “The U.S. government response to asylum seekers has turned to military confrontation,” said Amy Juan, a member of the Tohono O’odham Nation, who spoke at the event on the Arizona State Capitol lawn.

    “We demand an end to the rhetoric of dehumanization and the full protection of human rights for all migrants and refugees in our borderlands.”

    Juan and her group said many refugees confronted by military at the border will circumvent them by way of “dangerous foot crossings through remote areas.”

    “Already this year, hundreds of remains of migrants and refugees have been recovered in U.S. deserts,” Juan said. “As front-line border communities, we witness and respond to this tragedy firsthand.”

    While she spoke at a lectern, others held a sign saying, “Troops out now. Our communities are not war zones.”

    As the press conference unfolded, the Trump administration announced a plan to cut back immigrants’ ability to request asylum in the United States.

    Those from Arizona borderland towns are also concerned that border communities, such as Ajo, the Tohono O’odham Nation, Arivaca and others, may see an increased military presence.

    “I didn’t spend two years in Vietnam to be stopped every time I come and go in my own community,” said Dan Kelly, who lives in Arivaca, an unincorporated community in Pima County, 11 miles north of the U.S.-Mexico border.

    A major daily hiccup

    Many border-community residents complain the current law enforcement presence, absent the new U.S. troops, creates a major hiccup in everyday life.

    “Residents of Arivaca, Ajo, the Tohono O’odham Nation, they are surrounded on all sides by checkpoints. They are surrounded on all sides by border patrol stations. Every time they go to the grocery store, they pass a border patrol vehicle,” said Billy Peard, an attorney for ACLU Arizona.

    Juan says she gets anxiety from these checkpoints because she has been stopped and forced to get out of her car while federal agents and a dog search for signs of drugs or human smuggling.

    Juan calls the fear of these type of situations “checkpoint trauma.”

    “It’s really based upon their suspicions,” she said of authorities at checkpoints. “Even though we are not doing anything wrong, there’s still that fear.”

    Many of those speaking at Thursday’s event accused the federal government of racial profiling, targeting Latino and tribal members. They said they are often subjected to prolonged questioning, searches, and at times, harassment.

    “A lot of people can sway this as a political thing,” Juan said. “But, ultimately, it’s about our quality of life.”


    https://eu.azcentral.com/story/news/politics/border-issues/2018/11/08/arizona-border-residents-speak-out-against-trumps-troop-deployment/1934976002
    #murs #barrières_frontalières #résistance #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières #USA #Etats-Unis

    • In South Texas, the Catholic Church vs. Trump’s Border Wall

      A charismatic priest and the local diocese hope to save a 120-year-old chapel near the Rio Grande.

      Around the Texas border town of Mission, Father Roy Snipes is known for his love of Lone Star beer, a propensity to swear freely and the menagerie of rescue dogs he’s rarely seen without. At 73, Father Roy, as he’s universally known, stays busy. He says around five masses a week at Our Lady of Guadalupe Church in downtown Mission, and fields endless requests to preside over weddings and funerals. Lately, he’s taken on a side gig: a face of the resistance to Trump’s “big, beautiful” border wall.

      “It’ll be ugly as hell,” said Snipes. “And besides that, it’s a sick symbol, a countervalue. We don’t believe in hiding behind Neanderthal walls.”

      For Snipes, Trump’s wall is no abstraction. It’s set to steal something dear from him. Snipes is the priest in charge of the La Lomita chapel, a humble sandstone church that has stood for 120 years just a few hundred yards from the Rio Grande, at the southern outskirts of Mission. Inside its walls, votive candles burn, and guestbooks fill up with Spanish and English messages left by worshippers.

      Snipes belongs to the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, the congregation of priests that built the chapel in 1899. Nearly 40 years ago, he took his final vows at La Lomita, which was named for a nearby hillock. At sunset, he said, he often piles a couple canines into his van and drives the gravel levee road that leads to the chapel, where he prays and walks the dogs. Local residents worship at La Lomita every day, and as a state historical landmark, it draws tourists from around Texas. For Snipes, the diminutive sanctuary serves as a call to humility. “We come from a long line of hospitable, humble and kind people, and La Lomita is a reminder of that,” he said. “It’s the chapel of the people.”

      If Trump has his way, the people’s chapel will soon languish on the wrong side of a 30-foot border wall, or be destroyed entirely. Already, Border Patrol agents hover day and night at the entrance to the 8-acre La Lomita property, but Snipes thinks a wall would be another matter. Even if the chapel survives, and even if it remains accessible via an electronic gate in the wall, he thinks almost all use of the chapel would end. To prevent that, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville, which owns La Lomita, is fighting in court to keep federal agents off the land — but it’s a Hail Mary effort. Border residents have tried, and failed, to halt the wall before.

      Here’s what the La Lomita stretch of wall would look like: As in other parts of Hidalgo County, the structure would be built on an existing earthen river levee. First, federal contractors working for Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers would cut away the levee’s sloped south half and replace it with a sheer concrete wall, about 15 feet high, then top the wall with 18-foot steel bollards. In total, the levee wall and metal fencing would reach more than three stories high. Longtime border activist Scott Nicol has called the proposed structure a “concrete and steel monstrosity.”

      And it doesn’t end there. The contractors would also clear a 150-foot “enforcement zone” to the south, a barren strip of land for patrol roads, sensors, camera towers and flood lights. Because La Lomita stands well within 150 feet of the existing levee, activists fear the historic structure could be razed. In an October online question-and-answer session, CBP responded vaguely: “It has not yet been decided how the La Lomita chapel will be accommodated.” The agency declined to answer questions for this story.

      This month, Congressional Democrats and Trump are feuding over further funding for the wall, but the administration already has the money it needs to build through La Lomita: $641 million was appropriated in March for 33 miles of wall in the Rio Grande Valley. In October, the Department of Homeland security also invoked its anti-terrorism authority to waive a raft of pesky environmental and historic preservation regulations for a portion of that mileage, including La Lomita’s segment. No contract has been awarded for the stretch that would endanger the chapel yet, so there’s no certain start date, but CBP plans to start construction elsewhere in Hidalgo County as soon as February.

      Unlike in Arizona and California, the land along the Rio Grande — Texas’ riverine border — is almost entirely owned by a collection of farmers, hobbyist ranchers, entrepreneurs and deeply rooted Hispanic families who can truly say the border crossed them. Ninety-five percent of Texas borderland is private. That includes #La_Lomita, whose owner, the diocese in #Brownsville, has decided to fight back.

      Multiple times this year, court filings show, federal agents pressed the diocese to let them access the property so they could survey it, a necessary step before using eminent domain to take land for the wall. But the diocese has repeatedly said “no,” forcing the government to file a lawsuit in October seeking access to the property. The diocese shot back with a public statement, declaring that “church property should not be used for the purposes of building a border wall” and calling the wall “a sign contrary to the Church’s mission.”

      The diocese is also challenging the government in court. In a pair of recent court filings responding to the lawsuit, the diocese argues that federal agents should not be allowed to enter its property, much less construct the border wall, because doing so would violate both federal law and the First Amendment. It’s a legalistic version of Snipes’ claim that the wall would deter worshippers.

      “The wall would have a chilling effect on people going there and using the chapel, so in fact, it’s infringing or denying them their right to freedom of religion,” said David Garza, the Brownsville attorney representing the diocese. “We also don’t believe the government has a compelling interest to put the wall there; if they wanted to put technology or sensors, that might be a different story.”

      It’s a long-shot challenge, to be sure. Bush and Obama already built 110 miles of wall in Texas between 2008 and 2010, over the protests of numerous landowners. But this may be the first time anyone’s challenged the border wall on freedom-of-religion grounds. “I’ve been looking for the needle in the haystack, but a case of this nature, I’m not aware of,” Garza said. A hearing in the case is set for early January.

      When I visited the Mission area in November, Father Snipes insisted that we conduct our interview out on the Rio Grande at sunset. Two of his dogs joined us in the motorboat.

      As we dawdled upriver, watching the sky bleed from to red to purple, Snipes told me the story behind something I’d seen earlier that day: a trio of wooden crosses protruding from the ground between La Lomita and the levee. There, he said, he’d buried a llama and a pair of donkeys, animals who’d participated in Palm Sunday processions from his downtown church to La Lomita, reenactments of Christ’s entry into Jerusalem. The animals had carried Jesus. So close to the levee, the gravesites would likely be destroyed during wall construction.

      As the day’s last light faded, Snipes turned wistful. “I thought the government was supposed to protect our freedom to promote goodness and truth and beauty,” he lamented. “Even if they won’t promote it themselves.”

      https://www.texasobserver.org/in-south-texas-the-catholic-church-vs-trumps-border-wall
      #Eglise #Eglise_catholique


  • Sélection d’archives en accès libre à l’heure des élections de mi-mandat 2018 aux États-Unis.

    LES LEÇONS DE L’ÉLECTION DE TRUMP

    Pourquoi Donald Trump a séduit l’électorat populaire, par Arlie Hochschild (août 2018)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/08/HOCHSCHILD/58963

    Dans un État américain très pauvre comme la Louisiane, souillée par les marées noires, une majorité de la population vote pour des candidats républicains hostiles aux allocations sociales et à la protection de l’environnement. Sociologue, femme de gauche, Arlie Hochschild a enquêté sur ce paradoxe. Quelques mois plus tard, Donald Trump l’emportait très largement en Louisiane.

    Stratagème de la droite américaine, mobiliser le peuple contre les intellectuels, par Serge Halimi (mai 2006)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2006/05/HALIMI/13441

    « Bureaucrate », « psychiatre », « éducateur » : l’élite stigmatisée n’est pas forcément riche, mais elle est cultivée. Pour la droite américaine, l’essentiel est en effet qu’appartenir au « peuple » – travailleurs, entrepreneurs et prêtres mêlés – ne soit plus une question de revenus, mais de goûts. Erudition et cosmopolitisme contre simplicité et tradition en somme.

    Toutes les Américaines ne s’appellent pas Hillary Clinton, par Florence Beaugé (novembre 2016)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2016/11/BEAUGE/56756

    Aux États-Unis, le taux de mortalité maternelle est le plus élevé du monde développé. Loin de diminuer, il a plus que doublé depuis la fin des années 1980. Selon l’organisation Black Women’s Roundtable, le nombre d’Afro-Américaines décédées des suites de leur grossesse ou de leur accouchement est aujourd’hui de 42,8 pour 100 000 naissances vivantes. Pour les femmes blanches, le taux est moindre, mais élevé lui aussi : 12,5, contre 9,6 en France et 4 en Suède.

    Élections américaines : la déroute de l’intelligentsia, par Serge Halimi (décembre 2016)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2016/12/HALIMI/56930

    Les Américains n’ont pas seulement élu un président sans expérience politique : ils ont également ignoré l’avis de l’écrasante majorité des journalistes, des artistes, des experts, des universitaires. Le choix en faveur de Donald Trump étant souvent lié au niveau d’instruction des électeurs, certains démocrates reprochent à leurs concitoyens de ne pas être assez cultivés.

    Les progressistes américains cèdent à la misanthropie, par Angela Nagle (avril 2017)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2017/04/NAGLE/57397

    Alors que le populisme de droite qu’incarne Donald Trump a pris le pouvoir aux États-Unis, une vague de mépris des classes populaires, qui auraient mal voté, monte chez les démocrates. Des militants démoralisés par leur débâcle à l’élection présidentielle de 2016 pansent leurs plaies en se berçant de l’illusion de leur supériorité. Sans toujours le savoir, ils ravivent ainsi une vieille idée.

    Comment le « Russiagate » aveugle les démocrates, par Aaron Maté (mai 2018)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/05/MATE/58650

    Pour justifier leur défaite à la présidentielle de 2016, les démocrates américains ont avancé toutes sortes de raisons : l’iniquité du système électoral, les « fausses nouvelles », ou encore les Russes, accusés de collusion avec Donald Trump. Cette focalisation sur Moscou occulte les véritables causes de la déroute, notamment un programme économique entièrement tourné vers l’« innovation ».

    DES REPORTAGES

    Dans les cabines des routiers américains, icônes en voie de disparition, par Julien Brygo (août 2018)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/08/BRYGO/58949

    En 2016, pour la première fois, un camion sans chauffeur a effectué une livraison commerciale aux États-Unis. Depuis, les essais se sont multipliés, ouvrant la voie à un monde où les marchandises se déplaceraient sans intervention humaine. Face à cette révolution technologique qui menace l’existence même de leur métier, les routiers américains oscillent entre panique, déni et incrédulité.

    Dans une société gangrénée par le crédit, par Maxime Robin (septembre 2015)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2015/09/ROBIN/53713

    Impossible, ou presque, de vivre aux Etats-Unis sans contracter un emprunt. Devant les difficultés de leurs clients à rembourser, les banques augmentent les pénalités et... leurs profits. En revanche, dans certains quartiers défavorisés, elles refusent d’ouvrir des agences. Les habitants doivent alors avoir recours aux échoppes de « prêteurs rapaces ».

    Vingt millions d’Américains au ban de la ville, par Benoît Bréville (février 2016)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2016/02/BREVILLE/54742

    Aux Etats-Unis, même les pauvres peuvent devenir propriétaires : il leur suffit d’acheter un mobile home, pour un prix qui dépasse à peine celui d’une voiture, puis de lui trouver un terrain. C’est alors que les difficultés commencent…

    En Arizona, le mur de Donald Trump existe déjà, par Maxime Robin (août 2017)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2017/08/ROBIN/57766

    À en croire Donald Trump, la frontière américano-mexicaine serait une passoire que seule la construction d’un « grand et beau mur », long de 3 200 kilomètres, pourrait obstruer. Les États-Unis n’ont pourtant pas attendu leur nouveau président pour traquer les migrants clandestins. En Arizona, le désert, les patrouilles de police et les milices citoyennes les tiennent en échec.

    Ma maison, ma voiture, mon puits de pétrole, par Christelle Gérand (juillet 2015)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2015/07/GERAND/53194

    La chute du prix du baril de brut, quasiment divisé par deux en un an, n’affecte pas seulement les multinationales de l’or noir et les pays producteurs. Aux Etats-Unis, elle touche également des millions de particuliers qui possèdent des puits de pétrole sur leur terrain et les louent à des compagnies privées. Lesquelles entendent profiter de cette période de vaches maigres pour obtenir des contrats plus avantageux.

    Dans les quartiers ravagés par les opiacés, par Maxime Robin (février 2018)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/02/ROBIN/58390

    Ils tuent davantage que les accidents de la route ou les armes à feu. Après avoir ravagé les ghettos noirs dans les années 1990, les opiacés déciment désormais les banlieues pavillonnaires et la petite classe moyenne américaines. Inédite par son ampleur et par ses victimes, cette épidémie d’overdoses l’est aussi par son origine : les consommateurs sont devenus dépendants en avalant des antidouleurs prescrits par leur médecin.


  • From New York to Michigan, is a wave of ’anti-Israel’ Democrats about to reshape U.S. politics - U.S. News - Haaretz.com

    https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/.premium-from-new-york-to-michigan-is-a-wave-of-anti-israel-democrats-about

    In a three-part video series, Haaretz’s Allison Kaplan Sommer explains how Israel, anti-Semitism and the Jewish vote are affecting the Midterms – and what the results could mean for all three.
    Allison looks at the various key races and the likelihood of Democrats taking the House of Representatives, while Republicans will keep the U.S. Senate – unless of course a synagogue president in Nevada can take down the Republican incumbent as part of a blue wave across states like Arizona and Florida.
    Part 1: Allison discusses some of the key races involving Jewish candidates and voters. It used to be that the American Jewish community could really unite around and rally together in order to keep their communities strong and safe. The mantra, the key word, for successfully supporting Israel and fighting anti-Semitism in America used to be bipartisan – but anyone paying attention now knows times have changed.


  • The Abandoned Mine Problem: Who Should Bear the Burden?

    Thousands of abandoned and orphaned mines dot the American West. They pose a danger to both public and environmental health, and responsible parties are difficult to find, differentiate, or hold accountable. Why do inactive mines continue to pose safety hazards and pollute our waterways? The laws in place simply don’t have teeth. The Gold King Mine wastewater spill in southwestern Colorado in 2015 was a good reminder of the scope of the problem of abandoned and orphaned mines and how our current regulatory framework falls short.

    There are three laws that generally govern mining law in the United States: the 1872 Mining Law, the Clean Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). These laws lack concrete measures to prevent mine spills from occurring as well as reliable methods to ensure that all mines receive the necessary attention in the case of a spill (or better yet, to prevent one). In addition, these laws can create liabilities and disincentives on parties who might otherwise be willing to come in and remediate the mine on their own. However, some states are turning towards a non-traditional form of legislation: Good Samaritan laws, in which citizens, companies, and organizations would be not liable in the case they decide to take on the task of cleaning up acid mine drainage.

    The abandoned mine problem in the United States is striking. Specifically, hard rock mines (including metals like gold, silver, iron, copper, and zinc) are predominant in the West as a result of the discovery of gold and silver during the era of western expansion. Up until the 1970s, the federal government engaged in little oversight on mining across much of the West. During the mining era, there were few expectations about environmental safeguards, and as a result, historic mining operations often went largely unregulated. Before the 1970s, it was common for mining companies to abandon mine sites after mineral extraction was completed or no longer profitable. The land was often left exposed, with waste materials in piles or dumped into mine cavities and pits. At the time, mining companies had no requirement to restore mine lands to their original condition. Today, it is almost impossible to hold these mine owners financially responsible because records of original ownership have been lost and accountable individuals have long passed away. There are over 500,000 abandoned hardrock mine sites across the nation, and the cost for cleaning up these inactive mines is estimated to be between $33 and 72 billion dollars. Today, these abandoned mines are capable of polluting adjacent streams, lakes, and groundwater with high volumes of toxic waste. In doing so, contamination from spills has the potential to—and often does—harm marine ecosystems, poison local drinking water, and pose serious health risks to local communities.

    What Laws Are in Place?

    The Mining Law of 1872, or the General Mining Law, governs the transfer of rights to mine gold, silver, copper, uranium and other hardrock minerals from federal lands. Under the law, citizens may enter and explore the public domain, and if they find valuable mineral deposits, they may obtain title to the land through the Department of the Interior. The law has jurisdictional coverage over 270 million acres of publicly owned land, which is almost one-fourth of all land in the United States. In essence, mining companies are able to search for minerals without any authorization from any government agency. The law contains little to no environmental protections for using use of the land and it does not include any royalty or bonding provisions (to help fund cleanup in case of an accident). As a result, many have criticized the law for giving away public land to private companies practically for free, leaving the public to bear the burden for cleaning up the spills. Since there is no requirement to pay royalties or report extraction volume, the government does not keep track of the volume of hardrock minerals being extracted from federal public lands each year. Consequently, this aspect of mines is largely unchecked and has disparate effects.

    But the issue of abandoned mines has not entirely been overlooked. In September 2017, Senator Tom Udall (Arizona) introduced legislation to reform the General Mining Law and address many of the above-mention criticisms. If passed, the legislation would help fund clean-up activities through fees and royalties. In March 2018, the House Committee on Natural Resources held a hearing on the issue of abandoned mines.

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) is aimed at restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. The Act splits the responsibility to state agencies and some responsibility to the EPA to carry out the regulatory purposes. The Act requires would-be polluters to obtain a permit for any kind of discharge of a pollutant from a point source (such as mine waste) into the navigable waters of the United States. While the structure of the Act enforces a basic foundation for protecting water resources, one consequence of the permitting system is that parties who own or attempt to clean up mines will likely become subject to its extensive permitting requirements and face liability. This being said, when parties do attempt to clean up mines, their actions could still constitute a violation of the CWA. Under the Act, a party seeking to engage in cleanup activity would need a permit regardless of whether their actions aggravate or improve the water quality.

    CERCLA allows for the cleanup of sites that are already contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants. It is also referred to as the “Superfund,” due to the large fund that it created for cleanup of contaminated sites. CERCLA is intended to spread the cost of cleanup among responsible parties, and allows the government to undertake cleanup of contaminated property or compel private parties to undertake the cleanup themselves. Like the CWA, CERCLA creates potential liability for parties that might attempt to clean up abandoned mines, which usually takes form of lawsuits. Under 107(a)(4)(B), private parties can recover from a potential responsible party (PRP) for the cleanup costs they “directly incur.” Under this broad liability scheme, people who own property containing hazardous substances can be held liable for enormous cleanup costs even though they were not involved in any hazardous waste disposal activities. Even with some liability defense for certain types of innocent landowners and bonafide prospective purchaser, CERCLA has in effect discouraged the purchase and reuse of properties that may be contaminated. As a result, the overwhelming costs of cleanups (and potential liability) have been the primary restraining factors for people otherwise interested in reusing and restoring contaminated properties.

    Good Samaritan Legislation

    There has been no shortage of offered fixes to the problem of abandoned and orphaned mines, but one solution that has seemed to be getting more traction recently is the idea of Good Samaritan legislation. While potential liability under the CWA and CERCLA has discouraged parties from cleaning up abandoned mines or reusing and restoring contaminated properties, Good Samaritan legislation may provide new hope for parties who want to attempt to clean up mines but do not have the resources to take on the liability that might accompany cleanup efforts. These parties may include citizens, government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and mining companies.

    Pennsylvania implemented the Environmental Good Samaritan Act in 1999 and has completed fifty projects since. Those protected by this legislation include individuals, corporations, nonprofit organizations, and government entities. The Act protects them if they meet several requirements, including they that did not cause/create the abandoned mineral extraction land or water pollution, and that they provide equipment and/or materials for the project. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) administers and reviews project proposals to determine project eligibility. While the Act has been used for mine reclamation in the past, DEP has also applied it to other environmental remediation projects, achieving success so far. In 2017, the Act has been applied to two oil and gas well projects, which are estimated to have saved DEP $60,000 to $85,000, in addition to administrative cost savings related to contract development and management. Three more projects are currently under review.

    Recently, members of Congress have made efforts to enact something similar at the federal level. In 2016, three members of the Colorado delegation to Congress proposed the Good Samaritan Cleanup of Orphan Mines Act of 2016 with the help of environmental groups Trout Unlimited and Earthworks. The bill, ultimately, was not successful.

    The practical reality of Good Samaritan legislation is that most parties who are interested in cleaning up the spills will not have the funds to effectuate a successful cleanup. While Good Samaritan laws appear to be a reasonable way to encourage cleanups, they are not enough to solve the multifaceted abandoned mine issue that has a variety of stakeholders- including the mining companies who are often let off the hook. This is why most environmental advocates tend to reject Good Samaritan proposals, as they distract from the bigger picture that the mining companies are causing the spills and are not taking responsibility to clean them up. While the EPA has issued guidance on Good Samaritan laws, few parties are willing to proceed with cleanup projects because the EPA has failed to engage in regulatory rulemaking and enforce law on the subject.

    This being said, Good Samaritan legislation alone will not solve the abandoned and orphaned mine issue. Conservation groups have proposed increased liability for mining companies. At the state level, conservation groups like San Juan Citizens Alliance and Conservation Colorado have supported the

    Thus, what seems to be the closest thing to an answer to the abandoned and orphaned mine problem is some sort of combination of many proposed solutions: Good Samaritan laws, imposition of royalties, creation of a hardrock reclamation fund, etc. At this point, the main question is where resources should be allocated and at what cost, especially amidst federal laws and agencies that often disagree on how and to what extent…” to protect the environment.


    http://duwaterlawreview.com/the-abandoned-mine-problem-who-should-bear-the-burden
    #mines #abandon #fermeture #extractivisme #pollution #mines_abandonnées #environnement #santé

    ping @albertocampiphoto @daphne


  • EU border ’lie detector’ system criticised as pseudoscience

    Technology that analyses facial expressions being trialled in Hungary, Greece and Latvia.

    The EU has been accused of promoting pseudoscience after announcing plans for a “#smart_lie-detection_system” at its busiest borders in an attempt to identify illegal migrants.

    The “#lie_detector”, to be trialled in Hungary, Greece and Latvia, involves the use of a computer animation of a border guard, personalised to the traveller’s gender, ethnicity and language, asking questions via a webcam.

    The “deception detection” system will analyse the micro-expressions of those seeking to enter EU territory to see if they are being truthful about their personal background and intentions. Those arriving at the border will be required to have uploaded pictures of their passport, visa and proof of funds.

    According to an article published by the European commission, the “unique approach to ‘deception detection’ analyses the micro-expressions of travellers to figure out if the interviewee is lying”.

    The project’s coordinator, George Boultadakis, who works for the technology supplier, European Dynamics, in Luxembourg, said: “We’re employing existing and proven technologies – as well as novel ones – to empower border agents to increase the accuracy and efficiency of border checks. The system will collect data that will move beyond biometrics and on to biomarkers of deceit.”

    Travellers who have been flagged as low risk by the #avatar, and its lie detector, will go through a short re-evaluation of their information for entry. Those judged to be of higher risk will undergo a more detailed check.

    Border officials will use a handheld device to automatically crosscheck information, comparing the facial images captured during the pre-screening stage to passports and photos taken on previous border crossings.

    When documents have been reassessed, and fingerprinting, palm-vein scanning and face matching have been carried out, the potential risk will be recalculated. A border guard will then take over from the automated system.

    The project, which has received €4.5m (£3.95m) in EU funding, has been heavily criticised by experts.

    Bruno Verschuere, a senior lecturer in forensic psychology at the University of Amsterdam, told the Dutch newspaper De Volskrant he believed the system would deliver unfair outcomes.
    A neuroscientist explains: the need for ‘empathetic citizens’ - podcast

    “Non-verbal signals, such as micro-expressions, really do not say anything about whether someone is lying or not,” he said. “This is the embodiment of everything that can go wrong with lie detection. There is no scientific foundation for the methods that are going to be used now.

    “Once these systems are put into use, they will not go away. The public will only hear the success stories and not the stories about those who have been wrongly stopped.”

    Verschuere said there was no evidence for the assumption that liars were stressed and that this translated to into fidgeting or subtle facial movements.

    Bennett Kleinberg, an assistant professor in data science at University College London, said: “This can lead to the implementation of a pseudoscientific border control.”

    A spokesman for the project said: “The border crossing decision is not based on the single tool (ie lie detection) but on the aggregated risk estimations based on a risk-based approach and technology that has been used widely in custom procedures.

    “Therefore, the overall procedure is safe because it is not relying in the risk on one analysis (ie the lie detector) but on the correlated risks from various analysis.”

    The technology has been designed by a consortium of the Hungarian national police, Latvian customs, and Manchester Metropolitan and Leibnitz universities. Similar technology is being developed in the US, where lie detection is widely used in law enforcement, despite scepticism over its scientific utility in much of the rest of the world.

    Last month, engineers at the University of Arizona said they had developed a system that they hoped to install on the US-Mexico border known as the #Automated_Virtual_Agent_for_Truth_Assessments_in_Real-Time, or Avatar.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/02/eu-border-lie-detection-system-criticised-as-pseudoscience?CMP=share_bt
    #wtf #what_the_fuck #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #technologie #expressions_faciales #Grèce #Hongrie #Lettonie #mensonge #abus #gardes-frontière #biométrie #biomarqueurs #corps #smart_borders #risques #université #science-fiction
    ping @reka @isskein

    • Smart lie-detection system to tighten EU’s busy borders

      An EU-funded project is developing a way to speed up traffic at the EU’s external borders and ramp up security using an automated border-control system that will put travellers to the test using lie-detecting avatars. It is introducing advanced analytics and risk-based management at border controls.

      More than 700 million people enter the EU every year – a number that is rapidly rising. The huge volume of travellers and vehicles is piling pressure on external borders, making it increasingly difficult for border staff to uphold strict security protocols – checking the travel documents and biometrics of every passenger – whilst keeping disruption to a minimum.

      To help, the EU-funded project IBORDERCTRL is developing an ‘intelligent control system’ facilitating – making faster – border procedures for bona fide and law-abiding travellers. In this sense, the project is aiming to deliver more efficient and secure land border crossings to facilitate the work of border guards in spotting illegal immigrants, and so contribute to the prevention of crime and terrorism.

      ‘We’re employing existing and proven technologies – as well as novel ones – to empower border agents to increase the accuracy and efficiency of border checks,’ says project coordinator George Boultadakis of European Dynamics in Luxembourg. ‘IBORDERCTRL’s system will collect data that will move beyond biometrics and on to biomarkers of deceit.’
      Smart ‘deception detection’

      The IBORDERCTRL system has been set up so that travellers will use an online application to upload pictures of their passport, visa and proof of funds, then use a webcam to answer questions from a computer-animated border guard, personalised to the traveller’s gender, ethnicity and language. The unique approach to ‘deception detection’ analyses the micro-expressions of travellers to figure out if the interviewee is lying.

      This pre-screening step is the first of two stages. Before arrival at the border, it also informs travellers of their rights and travel procedures, as well as providing advice and alerts to discourage illegal activity.

      The second stage takes place at the actual border. Travellers who have been flagged as low risk during the pre-screening stage will go through a short re-evaluation of their information for entry, while higher-risk passengers will undergo a more detailed check.

      Border officials will use a hand-held device to automatically cross-check information, comparing the facial images captured during the pre-screening stage to passports and photos taken on previous border crossings. After the traveller’s documents have been reassessed, and fingerprinting, palm vein scanning and face matching have been carried out, the potential risk posed by the traveller will be recalculated. Only then does a border guard take over from the automated system.

      At the start of the IBORDERCTRL project, researchers spent a lot of time learning about border crossings from border officials themselves, through interviews, workshops, site surveys, and by watching them at work.

      It is hoped that trials about to start in Hungary, Greece and Latvia will prove that the intelligent portable control system helps border guards reliably identify travellers engaging in criminal activity. The trials will start with lab testing to familiarise border guards with the system, followed by scenarios and tests in realistic conditions along the borders.
      A mounting challenge

      ‘The global maritime and border security market is growing fast in light of the alarming terror threats and increasing terror attacks taking place on European Union soil, and the migration crisis,” says Boultadakis.

      As a consequence, the partner organisations of IBORDERCTRL are likely to benefit from this growing European security market – a sector predicted to be worth USD 146 billion (EUR 128 bn) in Europe by 2020.

      Project details

      Project acronym: #iBorderCtrl
      Participants: Luxembourg (Coordinator), Greece, Cyprus, United Kingdom, Poland, Spain, Hungary, Germany, Latvia
      Project N°: 700626
      Total costs: € 4 501 877
      EU contribution: € 4 501 877
      Duration: September 2016 to August 2019


      http://ec.europa.eu/research/infocentre/article_en.cfm?artid=49726

    • AVATAR - Automated Virtual Agent for Truth Assessments in Real-Time

      There are many circumstances, particularly in a border-crossing scenario, when credibility must be accurately assessed. At the same time, since people deceive for a variety of reasons, benign and nefarious, detecting deception and determining potential risk are extremely difficult. Using artificial intelligence and non-invasive sensor technologies, BORDERS has developed a screening system called the Automated Virtual Agent for Truth Assessments in Real-Time (AVATAR). The AVATAR is designed to flag suspicious or anomalous behavior that warrants further investigation by a trained human agent in the field. This screening technology may be useful at Land Ports of Entry, airports, detention centers, visa processing, asylum requests, and personnel screening.

      The AVATAR has the potential to greatly assist DHS by serving as a force multiplier that frees personnel to focus on other mission-critical tasks, and provides more accurate decision support and risk assessment. This can be accomplished by automating interviews and document/biometric collection, and delivering real-time multi-sensor credibility assessments in a screening environment. In previous years, we have focused on conducting the basic research on reliably analyzing human behavior for deceptive cues, better understanding the DHS operational environment, and developing and testing a prototype system.

      Principal Investigators:
      #Aaron_Elkins
      #Doug_Derrick
      #Jay_Nunamaker, Jr.
      #Judee_Burgoon
      Status:
      Current

      http://borders.arizona.edu/cms/projects/avatar-automated-virtual-agent-truth-assessments-real-time
      #University_of_Arizona

    • Un #détecteur_de_mensonges bientôt testé aux frontières de l’Union européenne

      L’Union européenne va tester dans un avenir proche un moyen de réguler le passage des migrants sur certaines de ses frontières, en rendant celui-ci plus simple et plus rapide. Ce moyen prendra la forme d’un détecteur de mensonges basé sur l’intelligence artificielle.

      Financé depuis 2016 par l’UE, le projet iBorderCtrl fera bientôt l’objet d’un test qui se déroulera durant six mois sur quatre postes-frontière situés en Hongrie, en Grèce et en Lettonie. Il s’avère que chaque année, environ 700 millions de nouvelles personnes arrivent dans l’UE, et les gardes-frontières ont de plus en plus de mal à effectuer les vérifications d’usage.

      Ce projet iBorderCtrl destiné à aider les gardes-frontières n’est autre qu’un détecteur de mensonges reposant sur une intelligence artificielle. Il s’agit en somme d’une sorte de garde frontière virtuel qui, après avoir pris connaissance des documents d’un individu (passeport, visa et autres), lui fera passer un interrogatoire. Ce dernier devra donc faire face à une caméra et répondre à des questions.

      L’IA en question observera la personne et fera surtout attention aux micro-mouvements du visage, le but étant de détecter un éventuel mensonge. À la fin de l’entretien, l’individu se verra remettre un code QR qui déterminera son appartenance à une des deux files d’attente, c’est-à-dire les personnes acceptées et celles – sur lesquelles il subsiste un doute – qui feront l’objet d’un entretien plus poussé avec cette fois, des gardes-frontières humains.

      Le système iBorderCtrl qui sera bientôt testé affiche pour l’instant un taux de réussite de 74 %, mais les porteurs du projet veulent atteindre au moins les 85 %. Enfin, évoquons le fait que ce dispositif pose assez logiquement des questions éthiques, et a déjà de nombreux opposants  !

      L’IA a été présentée lors du Manchester Science Festival qui s’est déroulé du 18 au 29 octobre 2018, comme le montre la vidéo ci-dessous :
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9fsd3Ubqi38

      https://sciencepost.fr/2018/11/un-detecteur-de-mensonges-bientot-teste-aux-frontieres-de-lunion-europee