• #Woody_Guthrie #Ludlow Massacre

    Refers to the violent deaths of 20 people, 11 of them children, during an attack by the #Colorado_National_Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families in Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914

    #résistance #histoire #massacre #musique #musique_et_politique #mineurs #extractivisme #mines #charbon #USA #Etats-Unis
    ping @sinehebdo @albertocampiphoto

    Chanson découverte dans la #BD « Une histoire populaire de l’empire américain »

  • Upgraded Russian SPY PLANE makes maiden flight over US nuclear & military sites – report — RT World News

    A Russian Air Force Tupolev Tu-214ON at Ramenskoye Airport in Moscow region.
    © Wikipedia / Oleg Belyakov

    A Russian Tu-214ON spy plane has reportedly made a reconnaissance tour over the southwestern US, taking a glimpse at an array of military bases as well as nuclear and chemical weapons depots as part of the #Open_Skies treaty.

    The Drive reported, citing FlightRadar 24 tracking service data, that the newest version of the Tu-214 observation aircraft graced US skies after taking off from Rosecrans Air National Guard Base in St. Joseph, Missouri on Thursday.

    The flight reportedly lasted six hours and saw the surveillance aircraft fly over a series of US defense and storage facilities scattered over the territory of West Texas, New Mexico and Colorado. The plane is reported to have flown over the Kirtland Air Force Base, which hosts the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center and functions as a nuclear storage site. In Colorado, the plane passed over the Pueblo Chemical Depot, one of the last two sites in the US with chemical munitions and materials.

    The flight itself had been authorized by the US under the Treaty on Open Skies, which allows its signatories to conduct short inspections of each other’s territory. The treaty was signed in 1992, but did not come into force until 2002. The US and Russia are among its 34 members.

    The Russian Defense Ministry has not commented on the details of the mission. Earlier, Sergey Ryzhkov, head of the Russian Center for Reduction of Nuclear Threat, announced that the Tu-214ON would be conducting surveillance from Missouri Airport between 22 April and April 27. Under the treaty, the flight has to be monitored by US specialists on board the plane.

    Washington eventually greenlighted the Tu-214ON flyover after initially refusing to certify the Russian “spy eye,” claiming that its digital surveillance equipment was more advanced than Moscow had declared and might manipulate digital data. After some back-and-forth, the US approved the plane for the flights over its territory in September last year.

    Tu-214ON is an updated version of the regular Tu-214. Its cockpit can fit two more people, which allowed the manufacturer to install more modern electronics. Its range has increased to a reported 6,500km (4,040 miles). The aircraft boasts three sensor arrays that include a digital photo camera, an infrared camera, and a TV camera complete with a sideways-looking synthetic aperture radar.

    • Il y a 2 mois, c’était en sens inverse.

      ‘Sign of good will’: US spy plane carries out 1st observation flights over Russia in 2 years — RT Russia News

      An American OC-135B taxiing to the runway

      On Thursday and Friday, a US spy plane performs observation flights over Russia as part of the Open Skies pact, the first action of the kind in months. It can be also considered a sign of “good will” from Moscow, RT was told.
      The Pentagon has confirmed that an OC-135B plane, fitted with high-resolution cameras and infrared sensors, is indeed performing the flyovers, and that Moscow is fully aware of the action. The flights are the first since November 2017, according to spokesman Lt. Col. Jamie Davis.

      He said Russia is aware of the flight and the American spy plane has six of the country’s military observers on board to ensure the mission goes according to the treaty. The Pentagon did not expand on this, nor did the Russian military comment on it.

      Moscow “is demonstrating goodwill” quite apart from treaty obligations by allowing an American plane in its airspace despite major strains in relations, Konstantin Sivkov, a military expert and retired navy officer, told RT. The US is unlikely to stick to the treaty for very long, as accords like this are seen as unnecessary restraints in Washington, he believes.

      The Open Skies Treaty, a crucial multinational accord that allows signatories to perform mutual surveillance flights, has recently been placed in jeopardy by US lawmakers. In August of last year, Congress suspended US-Russia ties under the pact, citing alleged violations by Moscow. The latter denied all of the claims.

      Separately, Washington also curbed funding for any modifications to America’s own surveillance planes. Technical glitches on the ageing US Open Skies aircraft have left the country unable to carry out its missions over Russia. In 2017, only 13 of the 16 missions were actually flown.

      The OC-135B, specifically built for Open Skies missions in 1993, is based up the OC-135 Stratolifter cargo plane. It seats 35, including cockpit crew, aircraft maintenance staff, and foreign observers.

      Russia uses the Tu-214 ON and the Tu-154 ON derived from civilian versions of Tupolev airliners. The former was finally cleared for Open Skies flights over the US last year after months of political flip-flops and media frenzy, with numerous publications claiming Russia benefits too much from the Open Skies initiative.

    • L’article original de The Drive cité par RT

      Russia’s New Surveillance Plane Just Flew Over Two Of America’s Top Nuclear Labs - The Drive

      The route across Los Alamos National Laboratory.

      One Russia’s two Tu-214ON aircraft has conducted what appears to be its first-ever flight over the United States under the Open Skies Treaty. This agreement allows member states to conduct aerial surveillance missions, with certain limitations in hardware and in the presence of monitors from the surveilled country, over each other’s territory. Today’s sortie took the Russian plane over parts of West Texas, through New Mexico, and into Colorado, including overflights of Fort Bliss, White Sands Missile Range, Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and finally hitting up the Pueblo Chemical Depot.

      et photos aériennes des différentes bases et sites avec trajectoire de l’avion de reconnaissance.

    • RF-64525 is set to depart Rosecrans at around 12:30 PM on Apr. 26, 2019 for another mission over areas of Colorado and Nebraska. This could take it over a number of other strategic sites, such as Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha and the Cheyenne Mountain Complex bunker outside Colorado Springs.

      The plane is then scheduled to head back to Russia on Apr. 27, 2019, but with Open Skies back in full swing, we could easily be seeing one of the Kremlin’s surveillance planes come back later in the year for another visit.

  • CppCon 2019 Call for Submissions

    Get with the program!

    CppCon 2019 Call for Submissions is Open

    From the article:

    Call for Submissions is now open for CppCon 2019 to be held September 15-20, 2019 at the Gaylord Rockies in Aurora, Colorado, USA. The submission deadline is May 20th.


  • Old Stuff !!

    Playlist :

    Jandek : The Stumble (The place - Corwood Industries - 2003)

    Naked city : Grand Guignol (Grand Guignol - Avant - 1992)

    Sadato : Guitar Taiko (1992 - Atonal Records - 1992)

    AMM III : Radio Activity (It Had Been An Ordinary Enough Day In Peublo, Colorado - ECM Records - 1991)

    Blurt : The Tree Is Dead, Long Live The Tree (Smoke Time - Moving Target - 1987)

    Holy Modal Rounders : The Second Hand-Watch (Indian War Whoop - ESP Disk / ZYX Music - original 1967)

    Current Ninety Three : The Magical Birds In The Magical Woods (Sleep Has His House - Durtro - 2000)

    Third Ear Band : Spirits (Radio Session - Voiceprint - 1994)

    Jon Rose : Semi Membranosus (Moves and Games (In Six Mouvements)) (Pulled Muscles - Immigrant - 1993)

    Edward ka-Spel : Inferno (Down In The City Of Heartbreak And (...)

  • C++Now 2019 Schedule Announcement

    C++Now 2019 will be held in Aspen, Colorado, from May 5-10. Registration is still open!

    Schedule Announced: Over 50 Presentations in 3 Tracks

    From the announcement:

    This year we have 3 tracks with over 50 C++-focused presentations including keynotes, lightning talks, panels, and the “Library in a Week” hands-on workshop. If you are still on the fence about whether to join us, now is a good time to make up your mind. Check out the list of session tags, the conference schedule, and the attendee video. The venue has a hard attendee limit and if the conference sells out (as it tends to do), your remaining option is to wait until (...)


  • C++ Now 2019 Keynote Announcement: Compile Time RegEx by Hana Dusíková

    C++Now 2019 will be held in Aspen, Colorado, from May 5-10. Registration is still open!

    Keynote Announced: Hana Dusíková on Compile Time Regular Expressions

    From the announcement:

    The theme of this year’s keynotes is Compile-time Magic and the first keynote that we are announcing is Hana Dusíková’s presentation of a library that performs at compile-time, work that is often done at runtime. Hana’s keynote is entitled Compile Time Regular Expressions with Deterministic Finite Automaton.


  • In the Middle of Winter, Bering Strait Sea Ice Is Disappearing - Bloomberg
    rubrique : Climate Changed

    Photographer: Yuri Smityuk/Getty Images

    Ice cover should be building, but instead it’s now at a record low for this time of year.

    The ice cover in the Bering Sea is at its lowest on record for this time of year after losing an area about the size of Montana at the height of winter.

    It’s the second consecutive year that the ice extent in the area has retreated at record pace. It shrank from 566,000 square kilometers (219,000 square miles) to 193,000 square kilometers between Jan. 27 and March 3, according to scientists at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Colorado.

    Low ice levels impact local communities who rely on the ice to hunt for walrus and other wildlife during the winter, and the unprecedented change could also impact feeding habits of Arctic animals. And while that’s alarming to environmentalists concerned about global warming, ship owners carrying liquefied natural gas and other goods see it as an opportunity.

    The Bering Sea is more susceptible to temperature fluctuations during the winter when thin ice moves further south and melts, but this year has been “extreme,” the boffins said.

    “A major cause of the ice loss is the strong low pressure in the Bering Sea and the high pressure over northwestern Canada,” the researchers said. “Strong winds between these pressure centers drew warm air into the region from the south, inhibiting ice growth in the Bering Sea while also pushing ice to the north.”

    Elsewhere in the Arctic, sea-ice extent during February was at the seventh lowest on record and on a par with 2015 levels. But the scientists in Colorado aren’t ready yet to call the end of the growing season.

    Thinner ice allows Russia’s Novatek PJSC to transport LNG cargoes from its Yamal plant directly to Asia, the biggest consumer of the fuel, rather than sell or transfer them in western Europe.

  • “For nearly two decades at the Grand Canyon, tourists, employees, and children on tours passed by three paint buckets stored in the National Park’s museum collection building, unaware that they were being exposed to radiation.”

    #radioactivity #GrandCanyon #Colorado #nuclear_industry

  • #USS_Fitzgerald : le rapport de l’Amiral Fort sur la collision de juin 2017, produit moins de 6 semaines après l’événement et resté secret, fuite dans le Navy Times depuis le 14 janvier. Une succession d’articles décrit une situation catastrophique : des marins non formés, ne sachant pas utiliser les équipements, les équipements qui dysfonctionnent et sont bricolés ou carrément ignorés, absence de communication et de confiance entre les équipes, commandement dépassé dont un commandant absent de la passerelle…

    Plusieurs articles, tous aussi effrayants les uns que les autres…

    The ghost in the Fitz’s machine : why a doomed warship’s crew never saw the vessel that hit it

    The warship Fitzgerald returns to Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan, following a collision with a merchant vessel on June 17, 2017.
    U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Peter Burghart/Released

    When Navy Rear Adm. Brian Fort stepped aboard the guided-missile destroyer Fitzgerald in the aftermath of the 2017 collision with a commercial cargo ship, everything was off.

    Any warship would seem a little off after a catastrophe that claimed the lives of seven sailors, but this was different.

    It didn’t look right, smell right, sound right,” Fort said during a hearing last year for a Fitzgerald officer facing court-martial in the wake of the June 17, 2017, disaster.

    After gazing at the gash in the hull through which gushed the seawater that drowned the Fitz’s dead, Fort and his team of investigators walked to the destroyer’s electronic nerve center, the combat information center everyone calls the “CIC.”

    It hadn’t taken a direct hit from the bow of the Philippine-flagged ACX Crystal, but it was trashed nonetheless and smelled like urine.

    He found a pee bottle that had tipped and spilled behind a large-screen display. Fort’s eyes started to take over for his nose, and he took it all in.

    There was debris everywhere,” Fort said under oath. “Food debris, food waste, uneaten food, half-eaten food, personal gear in the form of books, workout gear, workout bands, kettlebells, weightlifting equipment, the status boards had graffiti on them.

    I’d never seen a CIC like that in my entire time in the Navy,” the surface warfare officer of more than 25 years recollected.

    The more Fort looked, the worse it got: broken sensors that were reported for repairs but never fixed, schedule changes ordered by superiors high above the Fitz’s command triad that delayed crucial maintenance, taped-up radar controls and, worse, sailors who had no idea how to use the technology.

    About six weeks after the Fitzgerald collision, Fort signed and submitted his damning internal report to superiors.

    Designed in part to help federal attorneys defend against a wave of lawsuits from the owners and operators of the ACX Crystal and, indirectly, the families of the Fitz’s injured, traumatized and drowned, the Navy sought to keep Fort’s findings from the public.

    But Navy Times obtained a copy of it and began stitching his details to a growing body of court testimony by the crew of the Fitzgerald to reveal just how much worse conditions were on the destroyer than the Navy previously shared with the public.

    What it all reveals is that a mostly green crew joined the Fitzgerald shortly after the warship left dry dock maintenance in early 2017.

    They learned to make do with broken equipment, a lack of communication between departments and, especially in the CIC, a world in which failure had become “systemic across the board,” as Fort put it at last year’s hearing.

    Or as his secret report described it, a lack of training in basic seamanship fatally combined with material deficiencies to create “a culture of complacency, of accepting problems, and a dismissal of the use of some of the most important, modern equipment used for safe navigation.

    • A warship doomed by ‘confusion, indecision, and ultimately panic’ on the bridge

      The guided-missile destroyer Fitzgerald’s heavily damaged starboard side as the warship made its way back to port following a 2017 collision off the coast of Japan.
      Photo courtesy Sean Babbitt

      The Navy has paraded out a series of public reports addressing both the Fitzgerald tragedy and the Aug. 21, 2017, collision involving the John S. McCain and the Liberian-flagged tanker Alnic MC that killed 10 more American sailors.

      But none of those investigations so starkly blueprinted the cascade of failures at all levels of the Navy that combined to cause the Fitzgerald disaster, especially the way the doomed crew of the destroyer was staffed, trained and led in the months before it the collision.

      Fort’s team of investigators described a bridge team that was overworked and exhausted, plagued by low morale, facing a relentless tempo of operations decreed by admirals far above them, distrustful of their superiors and, fatally, each other.

      And Navy officials knew all of that at least a year before the tragedy.
      [The Commanding Officer (CO) Commander] Benson was “a little more active” on the bridge than Shu [his predecessor], but “it was not routine for the CO or (executive officer) to come up to the Bridge from (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.),” Fort wrote.

      Out of 78 underway days from February to May of that year, the CO was on the bridge just four times between the dark hours of 10 p.m. to 6 a.m., according to the report.

      Et donc logiquement, absent de la passerelle quand le navire a croisé le “rail” de nuit…

    • A watery hell: how a green crew fought the Fitz to save her

      The inside of the destroyer Fitzgerald after it collided with a merchant vessel on June 17, 2017, killing seven sailors.
      U.S. Navy photo

      On the day after the Fitzgerald limped back to Yokosuka, a plane carrying Rear Adm. Brian Fort landed in Japan.

      A surface warfare officer with a quarter-century in uniform, Fort had been tasked with creating a report the Navy would use, in part, to defend itself against potential negligence lawsuits brought by ACX Crystal’s owners and operators and, indirectly, by the families of the Fitz’s dead sailors.

      Completed 41 days after the disaster, it remained secret from the public until it was obtained by Navy Times.

      Far more candid than the parade of public pronouncements by senior Navy officials since 2017, Fort’s report details how the the skills of Fitzgerald’s crew had atrophied in the months since it went into dry dock.

      For example, after reporting to the Fitz, sailors were supposed to receive instruction on how to escape flooded berthing areas, a crucial course that was to be followed up by retraining every six months.

      Of the 38 sailors assigned to Berthing 2, which flooded minutes after the ACX Crystal collision, 36 of 39 “were delinquent in the six-month periodic egress training,” Fort wrote.

    • Et si, le rapport de l’amiral Fort est resté secret, c’est parce qu’"il recouvre très largement les informations fournies dans les rapports publiés" (publiés d’ailleurs, nettement plus tard…

      CNO defends hiding scathing internal report on Fitzgerald collision from public

      The Navy’s top officer Friday defended the decision to keep from the public eye a damning internal report on the 2017 warship Fitzgerald collision that killed seven sailors.

      Speaking to reporters after his appearance at the U.S. Naval Institute’s West 2019 conference here, Chief of Naval Operations Adm. John Richardson said much of the report overlapped with what the service publicly released.

      But much of the probe overseen by Rear Adm. Brian Fort portrayed a far grimmer picture of what the crew of the guided-missile destroyer faced. It also prompted hard questions about the actions taken by the Fitz’s squadron and Navy officials back in the United States.

      First revealed by Navy Times, the Fort report chronicled details that Richardson, other Navy leaders and their public reports never mentioned, such as specifics about the destroyer’s brutal operational tempo, officers who didn’t trust each other, radars that didn’t work and sailors who didn’t know how to operate them.

      The investigators also portrayed the warship’s chiefs mess as ineffective and their sailors plagued by low morale in the months leading up to the June 17, 2017, collision.

      (les 3 expressions en gras sont des liens vers les articles ci-dessus)

  • C++Now 2019 Registration is Open

    C++Now 2019 will be held in Aspen, May 6–1, 2018.

    C++Now 2019 Registration is Open

    From the announcement:

    The eighth annual C++Now Conference will be held at the Aspen Center for Physics in Aspen, Colorado, May 5th to 10th, 2019. We expect C++Now to sell out again. Register immediately so you won’t miss out.


  • January 10 strike date set for 33,000 Los Angeles teachers - World Socialist Web Site

    Le gouvernement des États Unis est en train de remplacer l’école publique par des charter schools privées. Les enseignants et parents d’élèves mènent un mouvement de résistance contre le démantèlement de l’institution publique.

    Last week, the United Teachers of Los Angeles (UTLA) announced that it had set a strike date of January 10 for 33,000 teachers after failing to reach an agreement with the district after more than 18 months of negotiations.

    The announcement came a few days after as many as 50,000 educators and their supporters marched in the nation’s second largest school district to demand increased wages, a reduction in class sizes and the hiring of nurses and other critical staff. Teachers in Oakland, Fremont and other California cities are also pressing for strike action as part of the resumption of teachers’ strikes, which saw statewide walkouts earlier this year in West Virginia, Oklahoma, Arizona and other states.

    Virginia teachers plan statewide protest to demand school funding - World Socialist Web Site

    The teachers’ movement that began last February in West Virginia—spreading to Kentucky, Oklahoma, Arizona, Colorado, North and South Carolina and Washington state—is clearly expanding in the face of the continued assault on public education. Charter school teachers have joined the growing number of walkouts as well, with a recent strike against Acero in Chicago.

    Meeting on Oakland school closure expresses hostility to attacks on public education - World Socialist Web Site

    Last Tuesday, over 150 parents, students, educators and community members attended a public meeting to protest the planned closure of Roots International Academy, a middle school that serves low-income youth in East Oakland, California. After listening to district representatives attempt to justify the closure, numerous attendees spoke out forcefully against it and in favor of expanding public education funding and resources.

    Roots is one of 24 public schools in Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) that are slated to be closed or merged with other public schools over the next five years as part of the district’s and state’s savage assault on public education, which includes district budget cuts of $60 million over the next two years. All 24 schools slated for closure or merger are located in the “flatlands” regions of East and West Oakland, where poverty and crime are far more prevalent than in the rest of the city.

    In response to this unprecedented attack on education in Oakland, the city’s working class residents are beginning to mobilize. Among Oakland teachers, who have been working without a contract since July 2017, there is growing sentiment for a statewide teachers strike to unite with Los Angeles teachers, who last week announced that they will begin striking on January 10.

    Two weeks ago, roughly 100 Oakland teachers engaged in a wildcat “sickout” strike, largely out of frustration over the stalled negotiations and lack of initiative from the Oakland Education Association (OEA) teachers union.

    #USA #éducation #privatisation


    This study explores the complex issues surrounding comparative genocide studies and how Native American history relates to this field. Historical contexts for Native American historiography, particularly the scholarship of Vine Deloria, Jr., are examined. In addition, the manifestation of some problematic trends in the field is detailed through the mordant debate between scholars of native America and the Jewish Holocaust. Arguments over Holocaust uniqueness and how the depopulation of Native America should be classified typifies how certain aspects of comparative genocide studies have a propensity for subjectively motivated and biased methodology. Finally, a case study using the historiography of the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre of Cheyennes and Araphahoes in southeastern Colorado by the Colorado Militia helps illustrate the difficulties in producing objective research on such morally-charged historical events. By examining
    these issues, the historiography of Native American genocide studies are both chronicled and critiqued.

    #USA #american_holocaust #histoire #science #politique

  • CppCast Episode 177: BDD, TDD, Low Latency and CppCon with Lenny Maiorani

    Episode 177 of CppCast the first podcast for C++ developers by C++ developers. In this episode Rob and Jason are joined by Lenny Maiorani to discuss TDD, BDD, Low Latency and CppCon moving to Denver.

    CppCast Episode 177: BDD, TDD, Low Latency and CppCon with Lenny Maiorani by Rob Irving and Jason Turner

    About the interviewee:

    Lenny has been using C++ off and on since 1995. Since graduating from SUNY Plattsburgh with a degree in Computer Science, he has been working at startups focused on high-throughput applications. About 2 years ago he joined Quantlab and discovered a different type of high-performance computing in low latency systems. Lenny lives in Denver, Colorado with his wife Lexey and their dog. He can be found hiking in the Colorado mountains while thinking about (...)


  • TDD, BDD, Low Latency and CppCon with Lenny Maiorani

    Rob and Jason are joined by Lenny Maiorani from Quantlab to discuss high performance computing, pair programming, volunteering for CppCon and the site of next year’s CppCon. Lenny has been using C++ off and on since 1995. Since graduating from SUNY Plattsburgh with a degree in Computer Science, he has been working at startups focused on high-throughput applications. About 2 years ago he joined Quantlab and discovered a different type of high-performance computing in low latency systems. Lenny lives in Denver, Colorado with his wife Lexey and their dog. He can be found hiking in the Colorado mountains while thinking about container access patterns and wondering if std::map can be renamed to std::ordered_map. News Better template support and error detection in C++ Modules with MSVC (...)

  • The Smookes Speak at University of Colorado’s Disruptive #entrepreneurship Class

    Hacker Noon Podcast: Live from BoulderPhoto Credit, of Boulder Live Edition: Linh & David Smooke Speak at Disruptive Entrepreneurship ClassHacker Noon CEO David Smooke & COO Linh Dao Smooke recently spoke at University of Colorado Boulder’s Disruptive Entrepreneurship class taught by Professor & Hacker Noon contributing writer Nathan Schneider. notable quotes:“On the internet right now, there is a massive battle going on between centralization and decentralization.” — David“It’s what drives us everyday: we know that people want to read more, write more and that people rally behind us when we are threatened by an external source.” — Linh“Know that the obstacles are only a day, and (...)

    #university-of-colorado #smookes-speak #live-tech-podcast #hackernoon-podcast

  • The Abandoned Mine Problem: Who Should Bear the Burden?

    Thousands of abandoned and orphaned mines dot the American West. They pose a danger to both public and environmental health, and responsible parties are difficult to find, differentiate, or hold accountable. Why do inactive mines continue to pose safety hazards and pollute our waterways? The laws in place simply don’t have teeth. The Gold King Mine wastewater spill in southwestern Colorado in 2015 was a good reminder of the scope of the problem of abandoned and orphaned mines and how our current regulatory framework falls short.

    There are three laws that generally govern mining law in the United States: the 1872 Mining Law, the Clean Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). These laws lack concrete measures to prevent mine spills from occurring as well as reliable methods to ensure that all mines receive the necessary attention in the case of a spill (or better yet, to prevent one). In addition, these laws can create liabilities and disincentives on parties who might otherwise be willing to come in and remediate the mine on their own. However, some states are turning towards a non-traditional form of legislation: Good Samaritan laws, in which citizens, companies, and organizations would be not liable in the case they decide to take on the task of cleaning up acid mine drainage.

    The abandoned mine problem in the United States is striking. Specifically, hard rock mines (including metals like gold, silver, iron, copper, and zinc) are predominant in the West as a result of the discovery of gold and silver during the era of western expansion. Up until the 1970s, the federal government engaged in little oversight on mining across much of the West. During the mining era, there were few expectations about environmental safeguards, and as a result, historic mining operations often went largely unregulated. Before the 1970s, it was common for mining companies to abandon mine sites after mineral extraction was completed or no longer profitable. The land was often left exposed, with waste materials in piles or dumped into mine cavities and pits. At the time, mining companies had no requirement to restore mine lands to their original condition. Today, it is almost impossible to hold these mine owners financially responsible because records of original ownership have been lost and accountable individuals have long passed away. There are over 500,000 abandoned hardrock mine sites across the nation, and the cost for cleaning up these inactive mines is estimated to be between $33 and 72 billion dollars. Today, these abandoned mines are capable of polluting adjacent streams, lakes, and groundwater with high volumes of toxic waste. In doing so, contamination from spills has the potential to—and often does—harm marine ecosystems, poison local drinking water, and pose serious health risks to local communities.

    What Laws Are in Place?

    The Mining Law of 1872, or the General Mining Law, governs the transfer of rights to mine gold, silver, copper, uranium and other hardrock minerals from federal lands. Under the law, citizens may enter and explore the public domain, and if they find valuable mineral deposits, they may obtain title to the land through the Department of the Interior. The law has jurisdictional coverage over 270 million acres of publicly owned land, which is almost one-fourth of all land in the United States. In essence, mining companies are able to search for minerals without any authorization from any government agency. The law contains little to no environmental protections for using use of the land and it does not include any royalty or bonding provisions (to help fund cleanup in case of an accident). As a result, many have criticized the law for giving away public land to private companies practically for free, leaving the public to bear the burden for cleaning up the spills. Since there is no requirement to pay royalties or report extraction volume, the government does not keep track of the volume of hardrock minerals being extracted from federal public lands each year. Consequently, this aspect of mines is largely unchecked and has disparate effects.

    But the issue of abandoned mines has not entirely been overlooked. In September 2017, Senator Tom Udall (Arizona) introduced legislation to reform the General Mining Law and address many of the above-mention criticisms. If passed, the legislation would help fund clean-up activities through fees and royalties. In March 2018, the House Committee on Natural Resources held a hearing on the issue of abandoned mines.

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) is aimed at restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. The Act splits the responsibility to state agencies and some responsibility to the EPA to carry out the regulatory purposes. The Act requires would-be polluters to obtain a permit for any kind of discharge of a pollutant from a point source (such as mine waste) into the navigable waters of the United States. While the structure of the Act enforces a basic foundation for protecting water resources, one consequence of the permitting system is that parties who own or attempt to clean up mines will likely become subject to its extensive permitting requirements and face liability. This being said, when parties do attempt to clean up mines, their actions could still constitute a violation of the CWA. Under the Act, a party seeking to engage in cleanup activity would need a permit regardless of whether their actions aggravate or improve the water quality.

    CERCLA allows for the cleanup of sites that are already contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants. It is also referred to as the “Superfund,” due to the large fund that it created for cleanup of contaminated sites. CERCLA is intended to spread the cost of cleanup among responsible parties, and allows the government to undertake cleanup of contaminated property or compel private parties to undertake the cleanup themselves. Like the CWA, CERCLA creates potential liability for parties that might attempt to clean up abandoned mines, which usually takes form of lawsuits. Under 107(a)(4)(B), private parties can recover from a potential responsible party (PRP) for the cleanup costs they “directly incur.” Under this broad liability scheme, people who own property containing hazardous substances can be held liable for enormous cleanup costs even though they were not involved in any hazardous waste disposal activities. Even with some liability defense for certain types of innocent landowners and bonafide prospective purchaser, CERCLA has in effect discouraged the purchase and reuse of properties that may be contaminated. As a result, the overwhelming costs of cleanups (and potential liability) have been the primary restraining factors for people otherwise interested in reusing and restoring contaminated properties.

    Good Samaritan Legislation

    There has been no shortage of offered fixes to the problem of abandoned and orphaned mines, but one solution that has seemed to be getting more traction recently is the idea of Good Samaritan legislation. While potential liability under the CWA and CERCLA has discouraged parties from cleaning up abandoned mines or reusing and restoring contaminated properties, Good Samaritan legislation may provide new hope for parties who want to attempt to clean up mines but do not have the resources to take on the liability that might accompany cleanup efforts. These parties may include citizens, government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and mining companies.

    Pennsylvania implemented the Environmental Good Samaritan Act in 1999 and has completed fifty projects since. Those protected by this legislation include individuals, corporations, nonprofit organizations, and government entities. The Act protects them if they meet several requirements, including they that did not cause/create the abandoned mineral extraction land or water pollution, and that they provide equipment and/or materials for the project. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) administers and reviews project proposals to determine project eligibility. While the Act has been used for mine reclamation in the past, DEP has also applied it to other environmental remediation projects, achieving success so far. In 2017, the Act has been applied to two oil and gas well projects, which are estimated to have saved DEP $60,000 to $85,000, in addition to administrative cost savings related to contract development and management. Three more projects are currently under review.

    Recently, members of Congress have made efforts to enact something similar at the federal level. In 2016, three members of the Colorado delegation to Congress proposed the Good Samaritan Cleanup of Orphan Mines Act of 2016 with the help of environmental groups Trout Unlimited and Earthworks. The bill, ultimately, was not successful.

    The practical reality of Good Samaritan legislation is that most parties who are interested in cleaning up the spills will not have the funds to effectuate a successful cleanup. While Good Samaritan laws appear to be a reasonable way to encourage cleanups, they are not enough to solve the multifaceted abandoned mine issue that has a variety of stakeholders- including the mining companies who are often let off the hook. This is why most environmental advocates tend to reject Good Samaritan proposals, as they distract from the bigger picture that the mining companies are causing the spills and are not taking responsibility to clean them up. While the EPA has issued guidance on Good Samaritan laws, few parties are willing to proceed with cleanup projects because the EPA has failed to engage in regulatory rulemaking and enforce law on the subject.

    This being said, Good Samaritan legislation alone will not solve the abandoned and orphaned mine issue. Conservation groups have proposed increased liability for mining companies. At the state level, conservation groups like San Juan Citizens Alliance and Conservation Colorado have supported the

    Thus, what seems to be the closest thing to an answer to the abandoned and orphaned mine problem is some sort of combination of many proposed solutions: Good Samaritan laws, imposition of royalties, creation of a hardrock reclamation fund, etc. At this point, the main question is where resources should be allocated and at what cost, especially amidst federal laws and agencies that often disagree on how and to what extent…” to protect the environment.
    #mines #abandon #fermeture #extractivisme #pollution #mines_abandonnées #environnement #santé

    ping @albertocampiphoto @daphne

  • CppCon Lightning Interviews

    Rob and Jason give a brief trip report of CppCon before being joined by several guests who gave Lightning Talks at CppCon 2018. Lightning Talkers Anastasia Kazakova Timur Doumler Phil Nash Staffan Tjernström Matthew von Arx Tony Wasserka Jens Weller Anny G. Borislav Stanimirov Ezra Chung (@eracpp on slack) Jean-Louis Leroy Links CppCon 2019 will be in Denver, Colorado from September 15 to 20th CppCon 2018: Bjarne Stroustrup “Concepts: The Future of Generic Programming (the future is here)” CppCon 2018: Mark Elendt “Patterns and Techniques Used in the Houdini 3D Graphics Application” CppCon 2018: Kate Gregory “Simplicity: Not Just For Beginners” CppCon 2018: Herb Sutter “Thoughts on a more powerful and simpler C++ (5 of N)” CppCon 2018: Chandler Carruth "Spectre: Secrets, (...)

  • The impact of ride-hailing on vehicle miles traveled | SpringerLink

    Ride-haling such as #Uber and #Lyft are changing the ways people travel. Despite widespread claims that these services help reduce driving, there is little research on this topic. This research paper uses a quasi-natural experiment in the Denver, Colorado, region to analyze basic impacts of ride-hailing on transportation efficiency in terms of deadheading, vehicle occupancy, mode replacement, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Realizing the difficulty in obtaining data directly from Uber and Lyft, we designed a quasi-natural experiment—by one of the authors driving for both companies—to collect primary data. This experiment uses an ethnographic and survey-based approach that allows the authors to gain access to exclusive data and real-time passenger feedback. The dataset includes actual travel attributes from 416 ride-hailing rides—Lyft, UberX, LyftLine, and UberPool—and travel behavior and socio-demographics from 311 passenger surveys. For this study, the conservative (lower end) percentage of deadheading miles from ride-hailing is 40.8%. The average vehicle occupancy is 1.4 passengers per ride, while the distance weighted vehicle occupancy is 1.3 without accounting for deadheading and 0.8 when accounting deadheading. When accounting for mode replacement and issues such as driver deadheading, we estimate that ride-hailing leads to approximately 83.5% more VMT than would have been driven had ride-hailing not existed. Although our data collection focused on the Denver region, these results provide insight into the impacts of ride-hailing.

    En résumé : un chercheur se fait chauffeur de VTC pour établir un jeu de données sur les trajets. Ces données montrent que le nombre total de miles est très largement supérieur à celui qui aurait eu lieu sans ces services, car il faut compter la distance parcourue par le chauffeur tout seul quand il part travailler, tourne en ville ou rejoint le point de rendez-vous. Et comme la plupart des voyageurs sont seuls et sur des trajectoires courtes, ils auraient pu aller à pied, en vélo ou en transports en commun.

    (article dispo sur sci-hub si vous voulez éviter de payer 45$)

    #urban_matter #transport #taxi #voiture

  • RAVI AMAR ZUPA « WORLD OF GODS » world-of-gods.html

    RAVI AMAR ZUPA « WORLD OF GODS »Débuts de l’imprimerie, Primitifs flamands et peintres expressionnistes, enluminures mogholes et estampes japonaises, arts précolombiens... Ravi Amar Zupa passe plusieurs millénaires et quelques civilisations à la moulinette de ses collages picturaux.

    Enfant d’artistes et réalisateur de vidéos musicales pour le label Anticon de San Francisco, Zupa revendique les influences conjuguées de Noam Chomsky, Franz Kafka, George Orwell, Pink Floyd, Kurt Vonnegut, Tupac, Goya, Chapelle, Kubrick ou Spike Lee.

    Autant de noms synonymes de rébellion qui répondent aux pulsions iconoclastes de ce natif de Denver dans le Colorado, ville hippie et contre-culturelle par (...)


  • Large Wildfires Scorch Forests in Drought-Stricken Southwest

    A number of wildfires are currently ablaze in the Western U.S. as severe drought envelops much of the region.

    The 416 Fire in Colorado, which has scorched 27,420 acres since it broke out on June 1, has forced the evacuation of more than 2,000 homes and the closure of all 1.8 million acres of the San Juan National Forest.

    The fire is currently 15 percent contained and no structures have been destroyed, the Rocky Mountain Incident Management Team said.

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group noted that the blaze has been fueled by abnormally dry conditions and prolonged drought.

    Large fires in the West are also burning the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona, the Gila National Forest in New Mexico, Manti-Lasal National Forest in Utah and Medicone Bow-Routt National Forest in Wyoming, the National Interagency Fire Center reported Tuesday.

    New Mexico’s Santa Fe National Forest, one of the state’s most popular recreation sites, has been closed since June 1 due to fire danger.

    #incendies #feux #sécheresse #climat #états-unis

  • Dans l’Utah, la bataille pour protéger le sommet Bears Ears, en territoire navajo

    Pour satisfaire les éleveurs locaux et l’industrie minière, Donald Trump a réduit de 85 % la zone protégée créée par Barack Obama à la demande des tribus indiennes.

    Difficile, quand on arrive dans le comté de San Juan, dans le sud-est de l’Utah, de ne pas songer à un scénario de western. D’un côté, les ranchers, mormons arrivés à la fin du XIXe siècle. De l’autre, les Indiens, héritiers des Pueblos qui peuplent le plateau du Colorado depuis plus d’un millénaire. Alliés modernes des tribus : les défenseurs de l’environnement. Ils sont détestés, selon un sondage, par 61 % des premiers.

    Décor ? L’Ouest américain mythologique, le paysage de canyons rouges immortalisé par John Wayne et John Ford. La région de Bears Ears compte l’une des plus grandes concentrations du monde de trésors archéologiques – à peine enfouis dans le sable – et de fossiles. En 2016, le paléontologue Robert Gay y a découvert des centaines d’os de phytosaures datant de quelque 220 millions d’années.

    Hors de l’Utah, personne n’avait entendu parler de Bears Ears jusqu’à ce que Barack Obama en fasse, en décembre 2016, un monument national (deuxième catégorie, dans la nomenclature des espaces protégés, derrière les parcs nationaux). Et que Donald Trump, à son habitude, s’empresse de défaire ce que son prédécesseur avait fait. Aujourd’hui, les visiteurs se bousculent pour apercevoir le sommet reconnaissable à ses deux buttes en forme d’oreilles d’ours (l’une à 2 721 m d’altitude, l’autre à 2 760 m). Les défenseurs de l’environnement s’installent, les journalistes accourent.

    Le « monument » est devenu l’enjeu d’une bataille majeure : entre « Anglos » et Amérindiens, entre éleveurs et écologistes, entre secteur du plein air et compagnies minières. Un affrontement qui pourrait aussi redéfinir l’Antiquities Act, la loi de 1906 sur les antiquités qui permet au président des Etats-Unis de protéger des régions dotées d’une richesse culturelle ou scientifique exceptionnelle.

    Six mois après la décision de Donald Trump, les tensions restent vives entre opposants et partisans du monument. Les écologistes trouvent leurs pneus lacérés. Les ranchers se disent harcelés dès qu’ils mettent le nez dehors, par exemple dans les canyons, avec leurs quads tout-terrain. « Le comté est poursuivi en justice trois fois par an », soupire l’élu républicain Phil Lyman. En 2014, lorsque les défenseurs de la nature ont obtenu l’interdiction des véhicules à moteur dans le Recapture Canyon, Phil Lyman y a conduit une armada d’une centaine de 4x4. La reconquête a tourné court. L’élu a été envoyé dix jours en prison au pénitencier de Purgatory, à 500 kilomètres de là.

    « Welcome home »

    La bataille de Bears Ears couve depuis des années. Depuis ce matin de 2009 où 140 agents fédéraux ont perquisitionné 26 domiciles dans le cours d’une enquête sur le vol d’objets indiens sacrés (ce que les locaux considéraient jusque-là comme un passe-temps sans conséquence : le « pot hunting » ou chasse aux poteries). L’investigation a connu des développements tragiques – deux figures du comté se sont suicidées. Et elle a créé des antagonismes majeurs. L’hostilité au gouvernement fédéral a gagné le fief mormon. La nécessité de protéger officiellement leur passé est apparue clairement aux Navajo.

    La première manche a été remportée par les tribus. En l’occurrence, le conseil intertribal des Navajo, Hopi, Zuni, Mountain Ute et Indian Ute, lorsque Barack Obama a protégé plus de 546 000 hectares, interdisant tout nouveau projet d’extraction minière ou pétrolière. Une victoire historique. Non seulement les Indiens avaient réussi à se mettre d’accord, surmontant leurs animosités ancestrales (les Hopi, dont le territoire est encerclé par la réserve des Navajo, ne leur ont jamais pardonné. Les Navajo, eux, en veulent encore aux Ute d’avoir accepté d’être recrutés par l’armée américaine pour les surveiller) ; mais ils avaient obtenu de Barack Obama une forme de reconnaissance. Ils seraient associés, consultés.

    « Et non pas à la manière habituelle, à savoir : le gouvernement informe les Indiens de ce qu’il compte faire », résume Alexander Tallchief Skibine, professeur à l’université de l’Utah et éminent spécialiste de droit indien. Cette fois, les agences fédérales seraient tenues de prendre en compte les recommandations formulées par les tribus, incluant le « savoir traditionnel ».

    « C’était historique, poursuit le professeur Skibine. Une reconnaissance du fait que les Indiens font partie de l’histoire de ces terres. Alors que souvent, avant la création d’un parc national, ils étaient écartés ; il fallait que la vision présentée soit juste, la vision de terres sauvages non peuplées. »

    Malcolm Lehi, du conseil tribal des Mountain Ute, était présent ce jour d’avril 2015, quand Mark Maryboy, le chef des Navajo, a accueilli les autres nations d’un « Welcome home », qui a tiré des larmes à plus d’un participant. Lui aussi le dit : « C’était historique. » En accueillant les autres tribus « à la maison », Mark Maryboy reconnaissait que les Hopi et les Zuni étaient installés dans la région avant les Navajo. Bears Ears est une montagne sacrée, « C’est là où on va prier pour vous tous », décrit Butch Russell, le medecine man des Mountain Ute.


    Mais le « grand » Bears Ears n’a pas duré longtemps. Le 4 décembre 2017, Donald Trump, pressé par les élus républicains de l’Utah, a réduit la taille du monument de 85 %. Courriels officiels à l’appui, le New York Times a montré que le ministère de l’intérieur avait travaillé en liaison avec l’industrie pétrolière et minière. Résultat : un tracé savamment découpé selon les desiderata des exploitants. Ici, le pétrole ; là, l’uranium, à la satisfaction de la compagnie canadienne Energy Fuels Resources, qui possède l’unique usine de concentration d’uranium des Etats-Unis. Elle se trouve à 3 kilomètres de la réserve des Mountain Ute. A l’entrée, une pancarte se veut rassurante : aucun incident n’a été enregistré « depuis 517 751 heures ».

    Phil Lyman, 53 ans, est le héros local de la rébellion antimonument. Ancien missionnaire mormon en Afrique du Sud, il reçoit dans son cabinet d’expert-comptable, au milieu des chèques du trésor public et des cartes topographiques. Son arrière-grand-père est arrivé avec la fameuse expédition dite du « Hole in the rock », le « trou » dans la montagne où a réussi à se glisser, en 1880, un convoi de 250 colons et 1 000 têtes de bétail, envoyés par l’Eglise de Jésus-Christ des saints des derniers jours pour convertir les populations indigènes du sud de l’Utah. Après l’or, c’est l’uranium qui a fait les beaux jours du comté. « On l’expédiait à Marie Curie », se flatte-t-il.

    500 mines abandonnées

    Au nom de cette légitimité historique, Phil Lyman dénonce la prétention des tribus à vouloir soustraire à l’industrie une zone aussi vaste. Le comté avait commencé à négocier avec les élus indiens sur une zone plus réduite, explique-t-il. Mais les mouvements environnementaux sont arrivés et, avec eux, les géants des sports de plein air. « Ils ont mis 30 millions de dollars sur la table, accuse-t-il. Aucune de ces personnes n’est d’ici. Et elles prétendent être les sauveurs des Navajo. »

    Qui remportera la prochaine bataille ? Trois plaintes ont été déposées contre le président Trump, décrit Steve Bloch, le juriste de l’association Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance. Elles réunissent les tribus, les écologistes et la compagnie de vêtements de sport Patagonia. Même la Société américaine de paléontologie vertébrée s’est portée en justice. Le site de la découverte de Robert Gay n’est plus dans les limites du nouveau monument : il est vrai que la formation de Chinle, où se trouvent les fossiles, recèle aussi de l’uranium.

    Bears Ears est devenu « monument national » en 2016.
    Sans attendre la décision de la juge fédérale chargée du dossier à Washington, l’administration Trump a ouvert les zones contestées à l’exploitation du sous-sol. Aucun rush n’a été enregistré pour l’instant sur les hydrocarbures (la dernière ouverture de puits remonte à 1984). Quant à l’uranium, « le cours, heureusement, est au plus bas », souligne Alastair Lee Bitsoi, de l’association Utah Dine Bikeyah (Protect Bears Ears), fondée en 2012 pour la sauvegarde de la culture navajo (et financée par Patagonia). Les Navajo sont particulièrement sensibles à la question : plus de 500 mines abandonnées se trouvent sur leurs terres ou à proximité. Des puits sont toujours contaminés.

    « Bears Ears-Disneyland »

    Byron Clarke, 39 ans, est le directeur du système de santé navajo de l’Utah, un ensemble de quatre cliniques qui servent 13 000 patients. Petit-fils de medicine man, fils d’une enseignante et traductrice navajo et d’un professeur de Virginie, le juriste comprend mieux que quiconque les contradictions locales. En tant qu’Amérindien, il apprécie la signification historique de l’accord avec l’Etat fédéral.

    En tant que chasseur à l’arc, qui fabrique lui-même ses flèches avec le cèdre traditionnel, il est opposé au classement de Bears Ears. Il craint que les lieux sacrés, les tombes des ancêtres où les Navajo, par respect, ne pénètrent pas, ne deviennent un « Bears Ears-Disneyland » envahi de visiteurs à sacs à dos et VTT. C’est le modèle prôné par le secteur des activités de plein air, un mammouth en pleine expansion qui a généré 374 milliards de dollars de retombées en 2016, selon le Bureau des analyses économiques, soit 2 % du PIB.

    Si les Navajo ont – pour l’instant – « perdu » Bears Ears, leur montée en puissance est réelle. A la grande déconvenue de Phil Lyman, un juge fédéral, qui avait été saisi par la tribu pour discrimination, vient d’ordonner un nouveau redécoupage électoral. Lors des élections américaines de novembre 2018, le rapport de forces devrait s’inverser dans le comté de San Juan. Jusqu’à présent, deux des trois élus de la commission du comté étaient des Blancs, alors que les Navajo représentent plus de 50 % de la population. Pour la première fois, les « Anglos » risquent de perdre la majorité. Mais rien n’est joué. Un assesseur conteste les titres de créances du candidat navajo, qui risque d’être disqualifié. Au pied de Bears Ears, la bataille est loin d’être terminée…

  • #Glace sur #Mars : de récentes #découvertes encourageantes pour l’#exploration humaine - #L'Express

    Cet #article du journal #L'Express du #11_janvier #2018 nous donne des nouvelles de la #planète_rouge, nouveau #territoire à #explorer pour l’Homme, où l’on a découvert la présence de glace le long de certaines #falaises. Ces couches de glace sont un #témoignage de l’#histoire #climatique de Mars, mais aussi une #opportunité pour les #scientifiques.

    Ces sites sont « très excitants » pour éventuellement établir des bases d’#exploration_humaine, juge Angel Abbud-Madrid, directeur du centre des ressources spatiales à l’#école_des_mines_du_Colorado et auteur d’une étude pour la #Nasa sur des sites potentiels où les astronautes pourraient se poser sur Mars.

    Car nous devons rappeler que l’eau est à la fois vecteur de #vie possible sur Mars, mais aussi et surtout d’oxygène nécessaire à la vie aussi sûrement que l’eau par elle-même, et de méthane qui peut servir de #carburant pour les #fusées.

  • Quand l’os pénien rencontre l’os clitoridien : baculum baubellumque
    Jean-Louis Hartenberger, Histoires de Mammifères, le 21 avril 2015

    Le baculum ou os pénien sert de nombreux mammifères dans leurs ébats amoureux : les mâles de plusieurs espèces de Primates, Carnivores, Rongeurs, Chauve souris en sont pourvus. Pour répondre à leurs assauts, le clitoris des femelles des mêmes est soutenu lui aussi par un os, le baubellum. Il faut reconnaître que si le baculum de très différentes espèces a été étudié, décrit, mesuré, figuré, et son action soutenue de divers arguments, en revanche le baubellum est tout juste cité de façon anecdotique dans la littérature savante, presque ignoré. Ainsi les écoliers du monde globalisé (scholar google) dans les 15 dernières années évoquent le mot baubellum 25 fois alors qu’ils accordent 40 fois plus de citations à baculum.

    A rajouter sur la compilation d’article sur la #sexualité animale et humaine :

    les femelles de notre espèce ont exercé une pression de sélection qui a rendu superflu ce soutien osseux

    A rajouter aussi à la compilation #archéologie et #sexisme :

    #clitoris #pénis #animaux #baculum #baubellum #préhistoire #évolution