• “You can’t make a living here anymore.” The Honduran climate-movers

    Te espero como la lluvia de mayo. I wait for you like the rain of May — a popular refrain among farmers in Central America, where the first rainfall in May long signaled the end of the dry season. But over the past decade, in what is known as the Central American Dry Corridor — a vast swath that stretches, unbroken, from Guatemala to northern Costa Rica — the rain is no longer guaranteed. Farmers who used to count on two harvests every year are now fortunate to get one.

    In southern Honduras, valleys that were once lush and fertile are now filled with stunted cornstalks and parched riverbeds. Adobe shacks erode on mountainsides, abandoned by those who left with no intention of returning.

    The droughts have forced entire generations to migrate in search of jobs; left behind are the elderly, who often care for grandchildren when their parents depart. “You can’t make a living here anymore,” says José Tomás Aplicano, who is 76 and a lifelong resident of Apacilagua, a village in southern Honduras. Aplicano has watched as countless neighbors, and his own children, moved away. His youngest daughter, Maryori, is the last to stay behind, but he knows she will leave as soon as she finishes high school. “She has to look for another environment to see if she finds work to survive,” he says.

    Many head north; U.S. Customs and Border Patrol data shows that migration from the Dry Corridor has spiked over the past few years. Some spend seasons harvesting coffee or sugar cane in less affected areas of the country. Others move to the city, lured by the prospect of a factory job with steady pay.

    https://story.californiasunday.com/honduras-climate-movers
    #photographie #changement_climatique #migrations #réfugiés_environnementaux #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés #asile #sécheresse

    –----------
    Et un nouveau mot, en anglais:
    #climate-movers
    #terminologie #mots #vocabulaire
    ping @sinehebdo

    –---------

    see as well:
    Why the Migrant Caravan Story Is a Climate Change Story
    https://seenthis.net/messages/739539

  • Let’s Talk About Climate Migrants, Not Climate Refugees

    “At first, we woke up to the sound of the wind and right after that the water came streaming into our house. We only managed to grab our children and run away to an area which lies on higher ground,” explains Rafael Domingo, a father of four in Mozambique, where Cyclone Idai left more than 73,000 people homeless in March 2019.

    In 2018 alone, 17.2 million new displacements associated with disasters in 148 countries and territories were recorded (IDMC) and 764,000 people in Somalia, Afghanistan and several other countries were displaced following drought (IOM).

    “Many people who were displaced cannot return home. The drought in Somalia is happening all the time. People have no way to recover,” said Halima, a 30-year-old mother of three displaced in Somalia because of the drought.

    Climate migrants have been invisible for many years on the migration and climate debates. Our work at IOM has been focused for over 10 years on bringing climatic and environmental factors to the light and on building a body of evidence proving that climate change affects – directly and indirectly – human mobility.

    Hence, it might seem paradoxical in this context not to encourage the establishment of a climate specific legal status, parallel to the existing refugees’ status.

    However, while the available evidence on how climate change and environmental degradation affect human mobility is growing and is uncontested, the current focus of the debate on establishing a climate refugee status can lead to a narrow and biased debate and would provide only partial solutions to address the complexity of human mobility and climate change.

    Media are pushing again and again for features on “climate refugees” and request projections on how many climate refugees there will be in twenty years. In contrast, some emblematic small island States, among others, speak out that they do not wish to become climate refugees; they want to be able to stay in their homes, or to move in dignity and through regular channels without abandoning everything behind.

    “When the grass is not enough, movement increases. In the spring, many migrants moved from the south to the north. There is no other way to overcome climate change. All the people wish to survive with their animals and come to a place where they can fatten their livestock,” said Mr. Chinbat, a herder of Sergelen soum in Mongolia, where the adverse effects of climate change are impacting the migration of herders.

    The image of “climate refugees” resonates metaphorically to all as it mirrors the current images we see of those escaping wars and conflicts. With the threat of climate change we imagine millions becoming refugees in the future.

    Yet reducing the issue of migration in the context of climate change to the status of “climate refugees” fails to recognize a number of key aspects that define human mobility in the context of climate change and environmental degradation. Here are 10 of these aspects:

    Climate migration is mainly internal: when migration is internal, people moving are under the responsibility of their own state, they do not cross borders and are not seeking protection from a third country or at the international level.
    Migration is not necessarily forced, especially for very slow onset processes migration is still a matter of choice, even if constrained, so countries need to think first migration management and agreements rather than refugee protection.
    Isolating environment/climatic reasons is difficult, in particular from humanitarian, political, social, conflict or economic ones. It can sometimes be an impossible task and may lead to long and unrealistic legal procedures.
    Creating a special refugee status for climate change related reasons might unfortunately have the opposite effects of what is sought as a solution: it can lead to the exclusion of categories of people who are in need of protection, especially the poorest migrants who move because of a mix of factors and would not be able to prove the link to climate and environmental factors.
    Opening the 1951 Refugee Convention might weaken the refugee status which would be tragic given the state of our world where so many people are in need of protection because of persecution and ongoing conflicts.
    Creating a new convention might be a terribly lengthy political process and countries might not have an appetite for it. Many responses can come from migration management and policy as highlighted already in the 2011 International Dialogue on Migration and the recently adopted Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration. The Nansen Initiative that was launched to look at gaps in protection for people being displaced across borders by disasters, after undertaking thematic and regional consultations also concluded with a document that proposes a “toolkit” of migration policies rather than recommending the establishment of a new status for these people.
    Climate migration discussions should not lose their focus on preventive measures: the key objective of our generation is to invest in climate and environmental solutions for our planet so that people will not have to leave their homes in a forced way in the future. The Paris Agreement offers anchorage for climate action that considers human mobility to avert, minimize and address displacement in the context of climate change.
    IOM encourages the full use of all already existing bodies of laws and instruments, both hard and soft law in humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, instruments on internal displacement, disaster management, legal migration and others.
    Human rights-based approaches are key for addressing climate migration: states of origin bear the primary responsibility for their citizens’ protection even if indeed their countries have not been the main contributors to global warming; they should therefore apply human rights-based approaches for their citizens moving because of environmental or climatic drivers.
    Regular migration pathways can provide relevant protection for climate migrants and facilitate migration strategies in response to environmental factors. Many migration management solutions are available to respond to challenges posed by climate change, environmental degradation and disasters in terms of international migratory movements and can provide a status for people who move in the context of climate change impacts, such as humanitarian visas, temporary protection, authorization to stay, regional and bilateral free movements’ agreements, among several others.

    https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2019/06/lets-talk-about-climate-migrants-not-climate-refugees
    #migrants_environnementaux #réfugiés_environnementaux
    #terminologie #vocabulaire #mots #terminologie #déplacés_internes #IDPs

    ping @sinehebdo @reka @karine4 @isskein

  • El clima cambiante obliga a emigrar a los guatemaltecos desesperados

    Eduardo Méndez López alza la vista al cielo esperando ver nubes cargadas de lluvia.

    Tras meses subsistiendo casi exclusivamente a base de tortillas de maíz y sal, sus ojos y sus mejillas parecen hundidos, y solo una piel fina se extiende sobre el hueso. La mayoría de sus vecinos tienen ese mismo aspecto.

    Es el punto álgido de la estación lluviosa en Guatemala, pero en la aldea de Conacaste, Chiquimula, las precipitaciones llegaron meses más tarde y, a continuación, se detuvieron. Los cultivos de Méndez López se marchitaron y murieron antes de poder producir maíz. Ahora, con un suministro de alimentos menguante y sin fuentes de ingresos, se pregunta cómo podrá alimentar a sus seis hijos pequeños.

    «Es la peor sequía que hemos tenido», afirma Méndez López, tocando la tierra seca con la punta de la bota. «Lo hemos perdido absolutamente todo. Si las cosas no mejoran, tendremos que emigrar a otra parte. No podemos seguir así».

    Guatemala suele aparecer en la lista de los 10 países más vulnerables del mundo a los efectos del cambio climático. Los patrones climáticos cada vez más erráticos han provocado pérdidas de cosechas año tras año y la disminución de las oportunidades laborales en el país, haciendo que cada vez más personas como Méndez López piensen en la emigración como medida desesperada para huir de los niveles disparados de inseguridad alimentaria y pobreza.

    De media, en la última década, 24 millones de personas al año se han visto desplazadas por los fenómenos meteorológicos en el mundo y, aunque no está claro cuántos desplazamientos pueden atribuirse al cambio climático antropogénico, los expertos prevén que esta cifra seguirá aumentando.

    Cada vez más, los desplazados intentan trasladarse a otros países como «refugiados del cambio climático», pero existe un problema: la Convención sobre el Estatuto de los Refugiados de 1951, que define los derechos de las personas desplazadas, aporta una lista de elementos de los que deben huir las personas para que se les garantice asilo o refugio. El cambio climático no figura en la lista.

    Los datos de la Oficina de Aduanas y Protección Fronteriza de los Estados Unidos muestran un gran aumento de la cantidad de inmigrantes guatemaltecos, sobre todo familias y menores no acompañados, interceptados en la frontera estadounidense a partir de 2014. No es una coincidencia que este repunte haya tenido lugar junto con la aparición de condiciones graves de sequía relacionadas con El Niño en el Corredor Seco de Centroamérica, que se extiende por Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador.

    Para entender la tendencia alcista en la emigración de esta región, un gran estudio interinstitucional dirigido por el Programa Mundial de Alimentos (PMA) de la ONU ha entrevistado a familias de distritos fundamentales del Corredor Seco acerca de las presiones que les obligan a marcharse. El principal «factor impulsor» identificado no fue la violencia, sino la sequía y sus consecuencias: falta de alimento, de dinero y de trabajo.

    Sus hallazgos sugieren una relación clara entre la variabilidad climática, la inseguridad alimentaria y la migración, y aportan una perspectiva alarmante de lo que está por venir al empezar a observar efectos reales del cambio climático en el mundo.
    ¿Un país en crisis?

    Para Diego Recalde, director de la FAO en Guatemala, la tendencia actual de migración masiva ante la inseguridad alimentaria y la sequía supone un claro indicador de que el país lleva un tiempo acercándose a una crisis inducida por el cambio climático.

    Las condiciones climáticas adversas en Guatemala afectan a la seguridad alimentaria reduciendo la producción agrícola tanto en la agricultura comercial como en la de subsistencia, limitando las oportunidades laborales en la agricultura que también suponen una parte importante de la economía nacional. Las crecientes tasas de pobreza y el hundimiento de los indicadores sociales pintan una perspectiva funesta para el país, que posee el cuarto nivel más alto de desnutrición crónica en el mundo y el más alto en Latinoamérica. Según el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, se considera que casi el 50 por ciento de los niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición crónica en Guatemala, porcentaje que alcanza el 90 por ciento o más en muchas zonas rurales.

    Para los agricultores de subsistencia como Méndez López, que dependen de las precipitaciones para producir los alimentos que comen, solo hacen falta unos pocos meses de patrones climáticos erráticos para limitar u obstaculizar por completo su capacidad de poner comida sobre la mesa. Con el aumento de la frecuencia y la gravedad de las sequías, a Recalde le preocupa que, en el caso de los sectores de población más vulnerables, lo peor esté aún por llegar.

    «Es un desastre nacional», afirma. «Debería haber banderas rojas por todas partes».

    Los científicos atribuyen las inusuales sequías que comenzaron en 2014 y que han acelerado el éxodo de familias hacia el norte a los efectos de El Niño, parte de un ciclo climático natural conocido como El Niño-Oscilación del Sur (ENOS), que provoca oscilaciones entre periodos más fríos y húmedos y otros más cálidos y secos en todo el mundo.
    La erupción del volcán Fuego cubre Guatemala de ceniza y roca

    Este tipo de variabilidad climática natural ha afectado a Guatemala y a otros países Centroamericanos durante cientos —si no miles— de años, llegando a desempeñar un papel en las sequías que acompañaron al derrumbe de la antigua civilización maya.

    «El clima siempre ha sido muy variable aquí», explica Edwin Castellanos, director del Centro para el Estudio del Medio Ambiente y la Biodiversidad en la Universidad del Valle en Guatemala. «Ahora, el problema es que El Niño y La Niña se han vuelto más fuertes e intensos, pero también más erráticos».
    ¿Es culpa del cambio climático?

    Aunque puede parecer que el cambio climático es el impulsor de estas bruscas oscilaciones meteorológicas, es importante distinguir los periodos de variabilidad climática y las modificaciones a largo plazo del cambio climático. Este último se convierte enseguida en una cuestión de política, negociaciones internacionales y reclamaciones por daños y pérdidas según el Acuerdo de París.

    Aunque los científicos saben que El Niño contribuye a los aumentos de la temperatura global, todavía no está claro si el cambio climático antropogénico hace que El Niño se intensifique y ocurra con más frecuencia.

    «Por definición, el cambio climático debería modelarse en periodos de 50 años. Pero lo que los modelos dicen que debería ocurrir en 2050 ya ocurre ahora», afirma Castellanos, refiriéndose a las alteraciones de los patrones de precipitaciones y los niveles de aridez en Guatemala. «La pregunta es: ¿es la variabilidad más alta de lo normal?».

    La falta de datos meteorológicos históricos hace que sea más difícil demostrar la existencia de un vínculo claro entre el cambio climático antropogénico y un aumento de la variabilidad climática. Sin embargo, Castellanos, uno de los principales expertos en cambio climático de Guatemala, cree que es complicado ignorar la transformación que ha visto de primera mano a lo largo de su vida.

    «Todavía nos queda mucho camino por recorrer antes de concluir científicamente que lo que observamos ahora está fuera de lo normal. Pero si sales al campo y preguntas a cualquiera si esto es normal, todo el mundo te dice que no».

    Ya se atribuya a El Niño o al calentamiento global, la situación en Guatemala pinta una perspectiva vívida de las vulnerabilidades que quedan expuestas cuando las sociedades carecen de la capacidad para hacer frente y adaptarse al clima cambiante.
    Economía vulnerable, aldeas vulnerables

    En años anteriores, las familias afectadas por un mal año de cosechas buscaban trabajo como temporeros en explotaciones comerciales y ganaban el dinero suficiente para comprar alimentos básicos como maíz y judías. Pero este año no hay trabajo. Hasta las explotaciones agrícolas comerciales consolidadas se han visto afectadas por la sequía de este año, un presagio de que surgirán mayores problemas a medida que los cultivos sensibles al clima que componen la mayor parte de las exportaciones agrícolas fundamentales (y del mercado laboral nacional) de Guatemala sufren los efectos del aumento de las temperaturas y los desastres vinculados al clima, cada vez más frecuentes.

    Hoy, hacia el final de otra «estación lluviosa» que no ha traído lluvias, muchas comunidades rurales parecen estar atrapadas en una vorágine catastrófica vertiginosa. Años de meteorología errática, cosechas perdidas y una escasez crónica de oportunidades de empleo han erosionado poco a poco las estrategias que las familias guatemaltecas habían conseguido usar para hacer frente a uno o dos años de sequías sucesivas y cosechas perdidas. Pero ahora, aldeas enteras parecen estar derrumbándose desde dentro a medida que cada vez más comunidades se quedan aisladas, a horas de la ciudad más cercana, sin alimento, trabajo o forma de buscar ayuda.

    «No hay transporte. La gente se ha quedado sin dinero para pagar las tarifas, de forma que los autobuses ya no pasan por aquí», afirma José René Súchite Ramos de El Potrerito, Chiquimula. «Queremos irnos, pero no podemos».

    Muchos describen la situación actual como la más desesperada que han vivido nunca. En el asentamiento de Plan de Jocote, Chiquimula, los cultivos de Gloria Díaz no han producido maíz.

    «Aquí, al 95 por ciento nos han afectado las sequías que comenzaron en 2014, pero este año lo hemos perdido todo, hasta las semillas», afirma Díaz. «Nos hemos quedado atrapados, sin salida. No podemos planificar la segunda cosecha y nos hemos quedado sin los recursos que teníamos para poder comer».

    Como otros miembros de su comunidad, Díaz ha recurrido a buscar raíces de malanga en la naturaleza en un intento por mantener a raya el hambre, pero estas también escasean. Sin una fuente fiable de agua potable, los brotes de diarrea y sarpullidos son cada vez más habituales, sobre todo entre los niños.

    En el departamento vecino de El Progreso, la hermana Edna Morales pasa muchos días recorriendo en burro las montañas secas que rodean la pequeña localidad de San Agustín Acasaguastlán en busca de niños desnutridos cuyas familias son demasiado pobres o estén demasiado débiles para buscar ayuda. En la actualidad, el centro de alimentación nutricional que dirige funciona a plena capacidad.

    «Estos niños tienen muchos problemas de salud que se ven agravados por una grave desnutrición crónica. Se les cae el pelo o son incapaces de caminar», explica. «Cuando vives aquí, se oye hablar de muchos casos de niños que mueren de desnutrición. Ni siquiera aparecen en las noticias».

    No son solo los niños quienes sufren las consecuencias de la grave escasez de alimento y la pobreza aplastante. En Chiquimula, Díaz muestra una antigua fotografía de grupo de la organización comunitaria que preside, la Asociación de Mujeres Progresistas del Sector Plan del Jocote. Señala una por una a las mujeres que han fallecido o que están muriendo lentamente por causas evitables que la pobreza extrema y la desnutrición han vuelto intratables.

    Cuando los agricultores de subsistencia pierden sus cosechas, se ven obligados a comprar los alimentos básicos que acostumbran a cultivar —normalmente a precios muy inflados— para dar de comer a sus familias. Sin una fuente de ingresos, este gasto adicional deja a muchos sin los recursos económicos para permitirse otras necesidades básicas como las medicinas o el transporte a centros médicos.

    A medida que el hambre obliga a padres desesperados a recurrir a medidas desesperadas para alimentar a sus familias, los robos y los ataques violentos se han disparado.

    «Gente de nuestra propia comunidad empieza a robar a otras personas porque es la única opción que tienen», afirma Marco Antonio Vásquez, líder comunitario de la aldea de El Ingeniero en Chiquimula.
    Migraciones masivas

    Muchos consideran la emigración la última opción, por sus enormes riesgos para la seguridad personal y las consecuencias impensables si son incapaces de completar su viaje.

    «Mucha gente se marcha, mucha más que nunca», afirma Vásquez. «Se van a Estados Unidos en busca de un nuevo futuro, llevándose consigo a los niños pequeños porque tienen la presión de arriesgarlo todo».

    Quienes tienen casas o pequeñas parcelas de tierra las usan como aval para pagar a los contrabandistas humanos conocidos como «coyotes» entre 8.800 y 13.000 euros a cambio de tres oportunidades para atravesar la frontera hacia Estados Unidos. Pero familias de las regiones más pobres del país suelen verse obligadas a escoger la opción con las mínimas garantías y los mayores riesgos: ir solos, normalmente con niños pequeños a cuestas.

    En Ciudad de Guatemala, dos o tres aviones aterrizan cada día en la base de la Fuerza Aérea guatemalteca, cada uno con unos 150 ciudadanos guatemaltecos que han sido deportados o interceptados mientras intentaban cruzar a Estados Unidos. Muchos huyen del hambre y la pobreza extrema de su país natal.

    Ernesto, que nos pidió que cambiáramos su nombre, parecía agotado mientras esperaba en la fila para recoger una pequeña bolsa que contiene las pertenencias que le arrebataron cuando le interceptaron en la frontera estadounidense: sus cordones, un teléfono móvil maltrecho y una pequeña biblia. Su familia en Guatemala había puesto en juego su hogar y su subsistencia con la esperanza de que lograra cruzar y encontrara trabajo en Estados Unidos, lo que le permitiría apoyar a su familia. Era la segunda vez que lo deportaban.

    «Me queda una oportunidad. Si no lo consigo, estaré en graves problemas».

    https://www.nationalgeographic.es/medio-ambiente/2018/10/el-clima-cambiante-obliga-emigrar-los-guatemaltecos-desesperados

    #climat #changement_climatique #migrations #émigrations #Guatemala #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux

  • Bangladesh’s disappearing river lands

    ‘If the river starts eroding again, this area will be wiped off’.

    Every year in Bangladesh, thousands of hectares of land crumble into the rivers that wind through this South Asian nation, swallowing homes and pushing families away from their rural villages.

    This land erosion peaks during the June-to-October monsoon season, which brings torrential rains and swells the country’s rivers. This year, erosion destroyed the homes of at least 8,000 people in Bangladesh’s northern districts during heavy July floods that swept through the region and displaced at least 300,000 people across the country. Hundreds more households have been stranded in recent days.

    Rita Begum understands the dangers. Last year, she was one of some 44,000 people in Shariatpur, an impoverished district south of the capital, Dhaka, who lost their homes in what people here say was the worst erosion in seven years. Over four months, the Padma River gobbled up two square kilometres of silt land in Naria, a sub-district.

    Rita, a 51-year-old widow, saw her home and garden destroyed. Now, she lives on rented land in a makeshift shed pieced together with iron sheeting from the remnants of her old house.

    “I have no soil beneath my feet,” she said. “My relatives’ homes are now under water too.”

    Erosion has long been a part of life in Bangladesh, which sits on a massive river delta. The Padma’s rushing waters constantly shift and transform the shape of the river, eating away at its sandy banks. Deforestation, weather extremes, strong currents, and the accumulation of silt all contribute to erosion. But researchers say a warming climate is accelerating today’s risks by intensifying rains and floods – sinking communities deeper into poverty.

    The UN says Bangladesh is one of the world’s most vulnerable to climate change – and one of the least prepared for the rising sea levels, weather extremes, and food security threats that could follow.

    And the World Bank estimates there could be 13 million climate migrants here halfway through this century.

    Now, she lives on rented land in a makeshift shed pieced together with iron sheeting from the remnants of her old house.

    Bangladesh already faces frequent disasters, yet the yearly crises ignited by erosion see little of the spotlight compared to monsoon floods, landslides, and cyclones.

    “Even our policymakers don’t care about it, let alone the international community,” said Abu Syed, a scientist and a contributing author of a report by the UN body assessing climate research.

    But erosion is quietly and permanently altering Bangladesh’s landscape. From 1973 through 2017, Bangladesh’s three major rivers – the Padma, the Meghna, and the Jamuna – have engulfed more than 160,000 hectares of land, according to statistics provided by the UN. That’s roughly five times the land mass of the country’s capital.

    And the Centre for Environmental and Geographic Information Services, a government think-tank, forecasts that erosion could eat up another 4,500 hectares by the end of 2020, potentially displacing another 45,000 people.

    Experts who study Bangladesh’s rivers say the government response to erosion, while improving, has largely been ad hoc and temporary – sandbags thrown against already crumbling land, for example, rather than forward-looking planning to better adapt to the waterways.

    And many who have already lost their homes to erosion, like Rita, have struggled to rebuild their lives without land, or have been forced to join the 300,000 to 400,000 people each year estimated to migrate to teeming Dhaka driven in part by environmental pressures.

    Disaster deepens poverty, fuels migration

    Today Rita shares her shed with her three sons; she’s just scraping by, earning the equivalent of less than $4 a month as a maid. There is no running water or sanitation: Rita treks down a steep slope to fetch water from the same river that devoured her home.

    In nearby Kedarpur village, Aklima Begum, 57, lost not only her home, but her rickshaw-puller husband, who died when a chunk of earth crumpled from beneath a riverside market last August. The sudden collapse washed away 29 people, though some were later rescued.

    “We didn’t find his body,” Aklima said.

    Last year’s disaster has had a lasting impact on both rich and poor here. Year Baksh Laskar, a local businessman, saw most of his house vanish into the river, but he invited 70 neighbouring families to set up makeshift homes on his remaining land.

    “They are helpless,” he said. “Where will these people go?”

    With homes and farmland disappeared, many in the area have left for good, according to Hafez Mohammad Sanaullah, a local government representative.

    “This erosion is severe. People got scattered,” he said.

    Humanitarian aid helped to prevent hunger in the disaster’s aftermath last year, but emergency support doesn’t fix longer-term problems faced by a landless community. Sanaullah singled out housing and jobs as the two biggest problems: “People who used to do farming can’t do it any longer,” he said.

    Babur Ali, the municipality’s mayor, estimated at least 10 percent of the people displaced by last year’s erosion have moved to Dhaka or other urban areas in Bangladesh.

    The government’s Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, which oversees response and recovery programmes, is building three projects in the area to house some 5,000 erosion survivors, an official told The New Humanitarian.

    The Bangladesh Red Crescent Society said it has asked district officials for land to set up a “cluster village” – barrack-like housing where people share common facilities. But the land has not yet been granted, said Nazmul Azam Khan, the organisation’s director.
    Preparing for future threats

    The Bangladesh Water Development Board – the government agency that oversees the management of rivers – in December started a $130-million project intended to shield a nine-kilometre stretch of Naria from further erosion.

    This includes the dredging of waterways to remove excess sediment – which can divert a river’s flow and contribute to erosion – and installing sandbags and concrete blocks to buttress the steep riverbanks.

    There are also plans to erect structures in the river that would redirect water away from the fragile banks, said project head Prakash Krishna Sarker.

    But these changes are part of a three-year project; the bulk of the work wasn’t ready in time for this year’s monsoon season in Naria, and it won’t be finished by next year’s either.

    “People are concerned. If the river starts eroding again, this area will be wiped off,” said Sanaullah.Bangladesh’s government last year approved a multi-billion-dollar infrastructure plan to better manage the country’s rivers, including tackling erosion. AKM Enamul Hoque Shameem, the deputy minister for water resources, said the plans include dredging, river training, and bank protection. He told The New Humanitarian that erosion-vulnerable areas like Shariatpur are a “top priority”.
    Climate pressures

    But this work would be carried out over decades – the current deadline is the year 2100.

    By then, researchers say, the impacts of climate change will be in full force. A 2013 study published in the International Journal of Sciences forecasts that the amount of land lost annually due to erosion along Bangladesh’s three main rivers could jump by 18 percent by the end of the century.

    As with floods, drought, storms, and other disasters that strike each year, erosion is already pushing displaced Bangladeshis to migrate.

    Rabeya Begum, 55, was a resident of Naria until last August. After her home washed away, she packed up and fled to a Dhaka slum – the destination for most migrants pushed out by disasters or other environmental pressures.

    “I don’t feel good staying at my son-in-law’s house,” said Rabeya, who lost her husband to a stroke months after the erosion uprooted her.

    Life without her own land, she said, is like being “afloat in the water”.

    https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/Bangladesh-river-erosion-engulfs-homes-climate-change-migration
    #Bangladesh #érosion #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #migrations #inondations #climat #changement_climatique #Shariatpur #Dhaka #Padma_River #Naria #destruction #terre #sécurité_alimentaire #pauvreté

  • What is a ‘climate refugee’ and how many are there? | Grist
    https://grist.org/article/climate-refugee-number-definition

    There are pros and cons to calling those forced to move due to climate change “refugees.” On the one hand, it certainly communicates the urgency of the climate situation — ecosystems are changing so quickly and so unprecedentedly that many people don’t recognize the places they once called home. (And not in a “this neighborhood’s been taken over by yuppies!” way; in a, “wow, it’s too hot to breathe” way.) The word “refugee” fits the idea of millions of people being forced to leave their homes due to climate change, and that is certainly a convincing argument that we are facing a dire, global emergency.

    But then there’s the way that the word “refugee” is used to stir up xenophobia. In fact, all you have to do is turn on cable news to hear some politician or pundit avidly fearmongering about Salvadoran or Syrian or Sudanese refugees pounding at the borders of wealthier (read: whiter) nations. Instead of inspiring people to do something proactive about climate change, like vote, or roll your car into a ditch, the idea of so many people displaced by global warming can be weaponized into a rationale for border walls, military action, or other forms of protectionism.

    In other words, we’re at a very, very weird moment in the trajectory of climate change awareness. With many people already suffering from climate consequences and many, many more poised to join them, we must convince those in resource-chugging countries to take action without inflaming their, at times misinformed, sense of self-preservation. The scale of action that must be taken is both overwhelming and overdue, and it requires seeing ourselves as a global community. But it’s an incredibly complicated thing to do, and we must choose our words wisely, as pedantic as that can seem.

    Now to the numbers part of your question: The Institute for Economics and Peace, an Australian think tank, recently estimated that in 2017 alone, 18 million people — 61.5 percent of global displacements — were forced to move due to natural disasters. (Those natural disasters are not universally caused by climate change, but global warming is predicted to cause more frequent and intense disasters.) And while projections vary, sources agree that those numbers are going to get a whole lot higher. That same report noted that nearly 1 billion people currently live in areas of “very high” or “high” climate exposure, which could result in millions of people displaced by climate change in the future. A 2018 World Bank report estimated that by 2050, there would be 143 million climate change-driven migrants from the regions of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and southeast Asia alone.

    But, if we’re talking about legally designated “climate refugees,” there’s a much different number being thrown around: zero.

    That’s because “refugee” has a specific legal definition with certain criteria that need to be met to be able to apply for asylum in a new country, including religious and/or social persecution. And most legal scholars and international lawyers will say that most people who move or are forced to move due to climate disasters are not technically refugees because most of those criteria don’t apply to them.

    #terminologie #réfugiés #climat #asile

  • What do we know about data on environmental migration?

    Disaster displacement forces millions of people away from their homes every year. Many more move in the context of environmental changes. Estimating the number of people affected remains a challenge for the international community. #Atle_Solberg, Head of the Platform on Disaster Displacement and #Francois_Gemenne, specialist of environmental geopolitics and migration dynamics, share their views on this topic.

    https://vimeo.com/305714985


    #statistiques #chiffres #réfugiés_environnementaux #migrations #réfugiés #asile #données #catastrophes #climat #changement_climatique #vitesse #rapidité #fiabilité #IDPs #déplacés_internes #collecte_de_données

    ping @reka @simplicissimus

  • 7 idées reçues sur les #migrations climatiques
    https://www.franceculture.fr/ecologie-et-environnement/7-idees-recues-sur-les-migrations-climatiques

    Chaque année, plusieurs millions de personnes sont contraintes de quitter leur lieu de vie à cause des dégradations environnementales ou des catastrophes naturelles. Ces déplacés climatiques sont de plus en plus nombreux, et pourtant on les connaît encore mal.

    #climat

  • After the Quake

    #Gyumri, the city symbol of the quake that 21 years ago struck Armenia. The stories of the homeless, the #domiks, the migrants, waiting for the opening of the borders with Turkey. Reportage.

    December 7, 1988, 11.41 am – An earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale hits northern Armenia, killing 25,000 and leaving many more homeless. Mikhail Gorbachev, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of the U.S.S.R. cuts short an official visit to the United States to travel to the small South Caucasus Soviet republic as news of the catastrophe makes headlines the world over. Poverty skyrockets as a nation mourned its dead.

    Hundreds of millions of dollars flooded into the country for relief and reconstruction efforts, but two other events of as much significance soon frustrated efforts to rebuild the disaster zone. In 1991, Armenia declared independence from the former Soviet Union, and in 1993, in support of Azerbaijan during a de facto war with Armenia over the disputed territory of Nagorno Karabakh, Turkey closed the land border with its eastern neighbor.

    Meanwhile, as corruption skyrocketed, the conflict as well as two closed borders and an economic blockade by Azerbaijan and Turkey only added to Armenia’s woes. Yet, despite strong economic growth in the mid-2000s, albeit from a low base, and promises from then President Robert Kocharyan to completely rebuild Gyumri, Armenia’s second largest city and the main urban center to be hit by the earthquake, the outlook appears as bleak as ever.

    Once Gyumri had been known for its architecture, humor and cultural importance, but now it has become synonymous with the earthquake and domiks – “temporary” accommodation usually amounting to little more than metal containers or dilapidated shacks. Hot in the summer and bitterly cold in the winter, others more fortunate found refuge in abandoned buildings vacated during the economic collapse following independence.

    Vartik Ghukasyan, for example, is 71 and alone. An orphan, she never married and now struggles to survive on a pension of just 25,000 AMD (about $65) a month in a rundown former factory hostel in Gyumri. However, that might all change as more buildings are privatized or their existing owners seek to reclaim them.

    According to the 2001 census, the population of Gyumri stands at 150,000 although some claim that it has since grown to 160-170,000. Nevertheless, few local residents take such figures seriously. Pointing to low school attendance figures, they estimate the actual population might be no more than 70,000. Even so, despite the exodus, there are as many as 4-7,000 families still living in temporary shelter according to various estimates.

    Anush Babajanyan, a 26-year-old photojournalist from the Armenian capital, is one of just a few media professionals who remain concerned by their plight. Having spent the past year documenting the lives of those still waiting for proper housing, the anniversary might have been otherwise low-profile outside of Gyumri, but Babajanyan attempted to focus attention on the occasion by exhibiting her work in Yerevan.

    “When I started this project, 20 years had passed since the earthquake and there were families still living in domiks who were not receiving enough attention,” she told Osservatorio. “ The government and other organizations promised to solve the issue of their housing, but their actions were not enough. Since then I have seen very little improvement.”

    “If this issue wasn’t solved in 20 years, it probably isn’t surprising that not much has changed in just a year. However, it has been two years since Serge Sargsyan, then Armenian prime minister and now president, said that the issue of these residents will be solved by now. But, although some districts are being reconstructed, this is not enough to resolve the issue.”

    As the center of Shirak, an impoverished region that most in Armenia and its large Diaspora appear to have largely forgotten, Gyumri suffers from unemployment higher than the national average. Travel agents continue to advertise flights from the local airport to parts of Russia. As elsewhere in the region, the only hope for a better life lies outside. But, with a global economic crisis hitting the CIS hard, there are now also fewer opportunities even there.

    This year GDP per capita has already plummeted by over 14 percent nationwide, far in excess of the decline registered in Azerbaijan and Georgia, while poverty and extreme poverty - already calculated with a low yardstick - has reportedly increased from 25.6 and 3.6 percent respectively in 2008 to 28.4 and 6.9 percent today. Local civil society activists claim that the figures might be twice as high in Gyumri.

    But, some believe, the city could benefit greatly from an open border with Turkey , transforming itself into a major economic and transit hub for direct trade between the two countries. Just 8 km away lies the village of Akhurik, one of two closed border crossings. Repair work had been conducted on the railway connecting Gyumri to the Turkish city of Kars prior to last year’s World Cup qualifying match with Turkey held in Yerevan.

    With Turkish President Abdullah Gül making a historic visit to Armenia for the match, villagers were once again given hope that a border opening would be imminent. “It will be very good if it opens,” one resident told RFE/RL at the time. “We used to work in the past — 40 families benefited from work related to the railway. Now they sit idle without work or have to choose migrant work in Russia. It will be good when the line is opened.”

    But, with pressure from Azerbaijan on Turkey not to sign two protocols aimed at establishing diplomatic relations and opening the border until the Karabakh conflict is resolved, such a breakthrough appears as elusive as ever while unemployment and poverty increases. Nowhere is that more evident than the city of Ashotsk, just 30 minutes outside of Gyumri. Karine Mkrtchyan, public relations officer for the Caritas Armenia NGO says conditions are typical.

    “Everywhere you will see abandoned places, especially public spaces,” she says. “They are ruined. There are no facilities, there is a lack of drinking water, and irrigation. People are on their own to solve their problems. We had a loss of life during the earthquake and then massive migration which stopped in the late 1990s before starting again in early 2000. Now there are even more people who decide to migrate.”

    Last week, on the 21st anniversary of the earthquake, the government attempted to counter criticism of what many consider to be inaction and a lack of concern with the socioeconomic situation in Gyumri. Opening a sugar refinery owned by one of the country’s most notorious oligarchs at the same time, the Armenian president visited Gyumri and promised that 5,300 new homes would allocated to those still without by 2013.

    The $70 million construction project has been made possible through a $500 million anti-crisis loan from the Russian Federation.

    However, whether such promises come to fruition remains to be seen and government critics remain unimpressed. Indeed, they point out, even if the apartments are built and allocated on time, it would have taken a quarter of a century to do so. Moreover, for Gyumri natives such as Mkrtchyan, the need for economic investment and development in the regions of Armenia remains as urgent as ever.

    https://www.balcanicaucaso.org/eng/Areas/Armenia/After-the-Quake-55719
    #tremblement_de_terre #post-catastrophe #Arménie #histoire #logement #réfugiés_environnementaux #asile #migrations #réfugiés #frontières

  • #ILO Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers – Results and Methodology

    If the right policies are in place, labour migration can help countries respond to shifts in labour supply and demand, stimulate innovation and sustainable development, and transfer and update skills. However, a lack of international standards regarding concepts, definitions and methodologies for measuring labour migration data still needs to be addressed.

    This report gives global and regional estimates, broken down by income group, gender and age. It also describes the data, sources and methodology used, as well as the corresponding limitations.

    The report seeks to contribute to the 2018 Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration and to achieving SDG targets 8.8 and 10.7.


    https://www.ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_652001/lang--en/index.htm

    Le résumé:


    https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_652029.pdf

    #OIT #statistiques #chiffres #monde #genre #âge #2017 #migrations #travailleurs_migrants #travail #femmes

    • Global migrant numbers up 20 percent

      Migrants of working age make up 4.2 percent of the global population, and the number is growing. A UN report notes how poorer countries are increasingly supplying labor to richer ones to their own detriment.

      There are 277 million international migrants, 234 million migrants of working age (15 and older) and 164 million migrant workers worldwide, according to a UN report.

      Figures for 2017 from the United Nations’ Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA) published on Wednesday show that migrants of working age make up 4.2 percent of the global population aged 15 and older, while migrant workers constitute 4.7 percent of all workers.

      The numbers rose by almost 20 percent between 2013 and 2017 for international migrants, 13 percent for migrants of working age and 9 percent for migrant workers.

      Distribution

      Of the 164 million migrant workers worldwide, 111.2 million (67.9 percent) are employed in high-income countries, 30.5 million (18.6 percent) in upper middle-income countries, 16.6 million (10.1 percent) in lower middle- income countries and 5.6 million (3.4 percent) in low-income countries.

      From 2013 to 2017, the concentration of migrant workers in high-income countries fell from 74.7 to 67.9 percent, while their share in upper middle-income countries increased, suggesting a shift in the number of migrant workers from high-income to lower-income countries.

      The report noted that this growing number could be attributed to the economic development of some lower-income nations, particularly if these countries are in close proximity to migrant origin countries with close social networks.

      The share of migrant workers in the labor force of destination countries has increased in all income groups except for lower middle-income countries.

      In high-income countries, falling numbers of migrant workers were observed simultaneously with a higher share in the labor force as a result of the sharp fall in the labor force participation of non-migrants, due to a variety of factors such as changes in demographics, technology and immigration policies.

      “Stricter migration policies in high-income countries and stronger economic growth among upper middle-income countries may also contribute to the trends observed,” the report noted.

      Geography

      Some 60.8 percent of all migrant workers are found in three subregions: Northern America (23.0 percent), Northern, Southern and Western Europe (23.9 percent) and Arab States (13.9 percent). The lowest number of migrant workers is hosted by Northern Africa (less than 1 percent).

      The subregion with the largest share of migrant workers as a proportion of all workers is Arab States (40.8 percent), followed by Northern America (20.6 percent) and Northern, Southern and Western Europe (17.8 percent).

      In nine out of 11 subregions, the labor force participation rate of migrants is higher than that of non-migrants. The largest difference is in the Arab States, where the labor force participation rate of migrants (75.4 percent) is substantially higher than that of non-migrants (42.2 percent).

      Gender

      Among migrant workers, 96 million are men and 68 million are women. In 2017, the stock of male migrant workers was estimated to be 95.7 million, while the corresponding estimate for female migrant workers was 68.1 million.

      “The higher proportion of men among migrant workers may also be explained by...the higher likelihood of women to migrate for reasons other than employment (for instance, for family reunification), as well as by possible discrimination against women that reduces their employment opportunities in destination countries,” the report noted.

      It added that societal stigmatization, the discriminatory impacts of policies and legislation and violence and harassment undermine women’s access to decent work and can result in low pay, the absence of equal pay and the undervaluation of female-dominated sectors.

      Age

      Prime-age adults (ages 25-64) constitute nearly 87 percent of migrant workers. Youth workers (aged 15-24) and older workers (aged 65 plus) constitute 8.3 percent and 5.2 percent, respectively, of migrant workers. This age composition holds for male and female migrant workers alike.

      “The fact that the overwhelming majority of migrant workers consist of prime-age adults suggests that some countries of origin are losing the most productive part of their workforce, which could have a negative impact on their economic growth,” the report noted, but it added that emigration of prime-age individuals may also provide a source of remittances for countries of origin.

      Destination countries, meanwhile, benefit from receiving prime-age workers as they are increasingly faced with demographic pressures.

      Labor shortage in Germany

      Germany’s BDI industry association said skilled labor from abroad was key to Germany’s future economic success. “The integration of skilled workers from other countries contributes significantly to growth and jobs,” BDI President Dieter Kempf said.

      The country’s VDE association of electrical, electronic and IT engineering was the latest group in Germany to point to the growing need for foreign experts. Emphasizing that Germany itself was training too few engineers, VDE said there would be a shortage of 100,000 electrical engineers over the next 10 years.

      “We will strive to increase the number of engineers by means of migration,” VDE President Gunther Kegel noted.

      https://www.dw.com/en/global-migrant-numbers-up-20-percent/a-46596757

    • Al menos uno de cada cuatro movimientos migratorios son retornos a los países de origen

      Un estudio estima que entre el 26% y el 31% de los flujos de migración mundiales consisten en regresos a los lugares de partida. En los últimos 25 años apenas ha habido cambios en la proporción de población migrante mundial

      https://ctxt.es/es/20181226/Firmas/23708/ctxt-Observatorio-Social-La-Caixa-migracion.htm
      #retour_au_pays
      source: https://www.pnas.org/content/116/1/116

    • GLOBAL MIGRATION INDICATORS

      Préparé par le Centre mondial d’analyse des données sur la migration (CMADM) de l’OIM, le rapport 2018 sur les indicateurs de la migration dans le monde résume les principales tendances mondiales en fonction des dernières statistiques, présentant 21 indicateurs dans 17 domaines relatifs à la migration.

      Le rapport s’appuie sur des statistiques provenant de sources diverses facilement accessibles sur le Global Migration Data Portal.

      Le rapport regroupe les statistiques les plus récentes dans des domaines comme la migration de main-d’œuvre, les réfugiés, les étudiants internationaux, les envois de fonds, le trafic illicite de migrants, la gouvernance des migrations et bien d’autres, permettant aux responsables politiques et au grand public d’avoir un aperçu de l’ampleur et des dynamiques de la migration à travers le monde.

      Par ailleurs, le rapport est le premier à faire le lien entre le programme mondial de gouvernance des migrations et les débats sur les données migratoires. Les thèmes choisis sont particulièrement pertinents pour le Pacte mondial pour des migrations sûres, ordonnées et régulières et pour les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD). Le rapport fait un état des lieux des données sur chaque thème et propose des solutions pour les améliorer.

      « Bien que le Pacte mondial sur la migration et les ODD soient des cadres importants pour améliorer la façon dont nous gérons les migrations, des données plus précises et fiables sur les sujets relatifs à la migration sont nécessaires pour tirer parti de cette opportunité. Ce rapport donne un aperçu global de ce que nous savons et ne savons pas sur les tendances de la migration dans le monde », a déclaré Frank Laczko, Directeur du CMADM. 

      « La communauté internationale prend des mesures pour renforcer la collecte et la gestion des données sur la migration mais il reste beaucoup à faire. Une base de données solide est essentielle pour éclairer les politiques nationales sur la migration et seront plus que jamais nécessaires à la lumière du Pacte mondial pour des migrations sûres, ordonnées et régulières », a déclaré Antonio Vitorino, le nouveau Directeur général de l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations.

      https://www.iom.int/fr/news/loim-publie-un-rapport-sur-les-indicateurs-de-la-migration-dans-le-monde-2018

      –---------
      Pour télécharger le rapport :

      https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/global_migration_indicators_2018.pdf

      Quelques éléments-clé :


      #indicateurs #femmes #travailleurs_étrangers #étudiants #réfugiés #migrations_forcées #étudiants_étrangers #remittances #trafic_d'êtres_humains #mourir_aux_frontières #esclavage_moderne #exploitation #smuggling #smugglers #passeurs #retours_volontaires #retour_volontaire #renvois #expulsions #IOM #OIM #économie #PIB #femmes #migrations_environnementales #réfugiés_environnementaux #catastrophes_naturelles #attitude #attitude_envers_les_migrants #opinion_publique #environnement

  • Why the Migrant Caravan Story Is a Climate Change Story

    Drought, crop failure, storms, and land disputes pit the rich against the poor, and Central America is ground zero for climate change.


    https://www.yesmagazine.org/peace-justice/why-the-migrant-caravan-story-is-a-climate-change-story-20181127
    #asile #migrations #réfugiés #réfugiés_environnementaux #Amériques #caravane #Mexique #Amérique_centrale #Amérique_latine #réfugiés_climatiques #climat #changement_climatique #Honduras

    Countries, like the U.S., that have emitted the most CO2 are fortifying their borders against people from countries who have emitted the least.

    #responsabilité

  • “If the water finishes, we will leave”: Drought is forcing hundreds of thousands of Afghans from their homes

    Afghanistan is besieged by decades of conflict, but more people this year have been displaced by drought than war.

    The severe drought has dried up riverbeds and water sources, withered crops, and forced 250,000 people from their homes.

    Journalist Stefanie Glinski spent a week between Herat and Badghis – two of the hardest-hit provinces in western Afghanistan. As these images show, she found parched fields, abandoned homes, and families struggling to cope.

    In the barren hills of Badghis, a gravel road winds through a dusty landscape, where wells and rivers have dried up completely.

    As desperation rises, some families have turned to selling off their daughters, through child marriage, in order to pay off swelling debt.

    Tens of thousands have fled to urban centres, living under simple tents. Available water, food, and healthcare fall far short of what’s needed. Aid groups have stepped in with limited emergency aid, but they acknowledge it hasn’t been enough to reach all the estimated 1.4 million people who require help.

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network, which tracks food security around the world, is warning of more difficulties ahead: it predicts that the combination of a stumbling economy, instability, and failing crops will increase the need for food aid into next year.

    In remote Qapchiq, a village in Badghis’ Abkamari district, community leader Saskidad says his family has already lost their entire harvest.

    This year’s drought, he says, is “the worst I’ve ever seen”.

    https://www.irinnews.org/photo-feature/2018/10/04/if-water-finishes-we-will-leave-drought-forcing-hundreds-thousands-afghans
    #sécheresse #Afghanistan #eau #migrations #réfugiés #asile #réfugiés_environnementaux #désertification

    #photographie
    cc @albertocampiphoto

  • Changement climatique et #migrations humaines au #Sénégal : une approche en termes de #vulnérabilité du système socio-écologique

    Résumé : le changement climatique et les migrations humaines constituent deux problématiques majeures de notre époque. Et, partant du constat d’une connaissance fragmentée entre maximalistes et minimalistes, qui s’est traduite par une capacité limitée de la recherche scientifique à prendre en compte les interactions complexes entre le climat et les migrations humaines, cette thèse propose, à travers une approche renouvelée (celle de la vulnérabilité du système socio-écologique), une meilleure compréhension et explication des relations climat- migrations. Elle cherche à répondre à deux objectifs. D’une part, produire des connaissances nouvelles en nous appropriant de façon sélective et ordonnée les apports empiriques produits par les approches précédentes. Et, d’autre part, par une analyse instrumentée des interactions mises en évidence, générer des informations chiffrées pertinentes permettant un ciblage plus efficace des politiques. Cette thèse insiste en premier lieu sur une certaine difficulté à mettre en évidence une relation robuste entre changement climatique et migrations à l’échelle Sahélienne. Contrairement aux idées reçues sur l’image type du « migrant/réfugié climatique » sahélien véhiculée par les médias et reprise, sans un recul critique, dans la littérature grise et certaines études scientifiques, la région, souvent vue et analysée comme une entité relativement homogène, présente de fortes hétérogénéités spatiales physico-climatiques, outre celles socio-économiques. Et, ces dernières ne permettent pas une compréhension des migrations, une des expressions des transformations sociétales. Il convient de repenser la problématique sur des échelles plus homogènes (Sénégal des zones agro-écologiques et régions administratives). Nos résultats montrent un effet climatique accélérateur/amplificateur des migrations interrégionales sous-jacent aux conditions de vie des populations. Généralement, le climat ne suffit pas, à lui seul, à « produire » des migrations. Il transite par les variables socio-économiques (vulnérabilité initiale). Ce qui nous a amené à retenir l’appellation de « #migrants_éco-climatiques ». Ainsi, les politiques devraient aller à la fois vers : (i) des questions de développement en réduisant des vulnérabilités socio-économiques (pauvreté et inégalités) en agissant sur l’environnement d’action et les acteurs respectivement de manière cohérente et extensive ; mais, également, (ii) des questions d’économie du climat par la réduction de la vulnérabilité physico-climatique à travers des politiques d’atténuation et d’adaptation du milieu et des populations face au changement climatique.

    http://creg.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/version-francaise/accueil/actualites/soutenance-de-these-d-alassane-diallo-299239.htm?RH=CREGFR_
    #thèse #doctorat #thèse_de_doctorat #changement_climatique #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #Sahel #climat

    @sinehebdo : #migrants_éco-climatiques —> ça existe déjà dans ta liste ?

  • Govt may change immigration settings to take climate change refugees

    The Government is considering tweaking immigration settings to take climate change refugees.

    It has been a week of relentless diplomacy in New York, with not a lot of sleep. The Prime Minister’s spent her days schmoozing and being schmoozed by world leaders, while her nights were spent between juggling bath time for baby Neve and writing speeches.

    https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/politics/2018/09/govt-may-change-immigration-settings-to-take-climate-change-refugees.html
    #réfugiés #asile #migrations #climat #changement_climatique #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #Nouvelle_Zélande

  • Govt may change immigration settings to take climate change refugees

    The Government is considering tweaking immigration settings to take climate change refugees.

    It has been a week of relentless diplomacy in New York, with not a lot of sleep. The Prime Minister’s spent her days schmoozing and being schmoozed by world leaders, while her nights were spent between juggling bath time for baby Neve and writing speeches.

    https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/politics/2018/09/govt-may-change-immigration-settings-to-take-climate-change-refugees.html
    #réfugiés #asile #migrations #climat #changement_climatique #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux #Nouvelle_Zélande

  • Le #Bangladesh, un exemple de #migration climatique - Le Courrier
    https://lecourrier.ch/2018/09/18/le-bangladesh-un-exemple-de-migration-climatique

    Pour faire face aux crises climatique et alimentaire, le gouvernement promeut des entreprises privées du secteur agro-alimentaire, plus d’investissements dans les #semences, des fertilisants et des équipements, en adoptant des semences hybrides et en imposant les #OGM au nom de la #sécurité_alimentaire. Le Bangladesh a déjà lancé la première culture d’OGM Brinjal en 2014. Une pomme de terre OGM est dans les tuyaux et le gouvernement a annoncé en 2018 des plans pour la commercialisation du premier riz génétiquement modifié Golden Rice. Ceci plutôt que protéger les paysans et encourager la petite #agriculture agro-écologique.

    La stratégie de la #Banque_mondiale et d’autres bailleurs de fonds internationaux pour la « sécurité alimentaire » gérée par les entreprises est risquée pour l’agriculture dans le contexte du changement climatique. Leur intérêt véritable, derrière cette politique, est de permettre aux entreprises transnationales de semences et d’#agrochimie d’accéder aux marchés agricoles du Bangladesh. Par conséquent, il est important de promouvoir les droits des paysans à des semences et d’autonomiser les communautés afin qu’elles puissent protéger leur propre mode de subsistance. Promouvoir la #souveraineté_alimentaire est la meilleure alternative pour la #politique_agricole actuelle au Bangladesh.

    #mafia #agrobusiness #climat

  • Migration data portal

    Created for journalists and others interested in migration, the Global Migration Data Portal makes migration data, data sources and topics more accessible and understandable. Launched in December 2017 and administered by IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre, the Portal brings together key facts and figures about global migration trends and topics in one place and communicates global data on migration through visualizations, infographics and videos.


    https://migrationdataportal.org/?i=stock_abs_&t=2017

    #portail #statistiques #chiffres #base_de_données #trafic_d'êtres_humains #monde #disparitions #morts #décès #réfugiés_environnementaux #réfugiés_climatiques #migrations_forcées #IDPs #déplacés_internes #migrations #asile #réfugiés #étudiants_internationaux #migration_de_retour #smuggling #passeurs #genre #intégration #santé #diaspora #remittances #droits_des_migrants #SDG #sustainable_development_goals #global_compact #opinion_publique

    Et cette magnifique terminologie : #flux & #stock
    cc @simplicissimus @reka @fil

  • It’s Time to Rethink the Relationship Between Borders and Climate Change

    Climate-induced migration is now a reality. Opening borders and removing sovereignty from environmental decisions needs to be considered.

    https://undark.org/article/borders-climate-change-displacement
    #frontières #migrations #réfugiés #réfugiés_environnementaux #réfugiés_climatiques #asile #climat #changement_climatique #murs #barrières_frontalières #ouverture_des_frontières

  • Cambiamenti climatici: Europa paese di emigrazione per mancanza di cibo?

    E’ uno dei temi al centro del festival del giornalismo alimentare di Torino. Il legame tra cambiamenti climatici e migrazioni rischia di portare a nuovi fenomeni che potrebbero vedere quelli che oggi sono i Paesi di destinazione di migranti, come l’Europa, in luoghi da cui sarà necessario emigrare

    http://www.redattoresociale.it/Notiziario/Articolo/567342/Cambiamenti-climatici-Europa-paese-di-emigrazione-per-mancanza-di-c
    #climat #changement_climatique #migrations #Europe #réfugiés_environnementaux #sécurité_alimentaire #migrations #asile #réfugiés

  • Environmental refugees: who are they, definition and numbers

    The term “environmental refugees” is one of the many phrases that are used to describe people who move due to changes in the environment around them. The relationship between the environment and human movement is complex, and for that reason there are a number of different phrases and definitions. “Environmental refugees” is one such phrase.

    http://climatemigration.org.uk/environmental-refugees-definition-numbers
    #réfugiés_climatiques #réfugiés_environnementaux

  • Réfugiés climatiques : cette crise qui couve au #Vietnam

    Le delta du Mékong vietnamien est l’une des régions les plus productives sur le plan agricole et revêt une importance mondiale pour ses exportations de riz, de crevettes et de fruits. Les 18 millions d’habitants de ce delta de basse altitude sont aussi parmi les plus vulnérables au changement climatique. Au cours des dix dernières années, environ 1,7 million de personnes ont émigré de ces vastes étendues de champs, de rivières et de canaux, alors que 700 000 seulement y sont arrivées.

    https://theconversation.com/refugies-climatiques-cette-crise-qui-couve-au-vietnam-90184
    #réfugiés_environnementaux #asile #migrations #réfugiés #climat #changement_climatique #delta_du_mekong

    Avec cette carte qui peut intéresser @odilon :


    #cartographie #visualisation #agriculture

  • Devastating climate change could lead to 1m migrants a year entering EU by 2100 | Environment | The Guardian
    https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/21/devastating-climate-change-could-see-one-million-migrants-a-year-enteri

    Climate change is predicted to result in more droughts, floods, heatwaves, and other extreme weather, as well as more intense storms and rising sea levels. These effects are likely to render agriculture more difficult, if not impossible, across swathes of the globe, including sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia.

    These effects will also be felt in #Europe, but its lower base temperatures, relative prosperity and advanced infrastructure mean the damage could be contained, and make it an attractive destination for #migrants.

    #climat

  • Floating Cities, No Longer Science Fiction, Begin to Take Shape
    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/business/dealbook/seasteading-floating-cities.html

    Earlier this year, the government of French Polynesia agreed to let the #Seasteading Institute begin testing in its waters. Construction could begin soon, and the first floating buildings — the nucleus of a city — might be inhabitable in just a few years.

    “If you could have a floating city, it would essentially be a start-up country,” said Joe Quirk, president of the Seasteading Institute. “We can create a huge diversity of governments for a huge diversity of people.”

    #silicon