• Trigger Warnings | Centre for Teaching Excellence

      A trigger warning is a statement made prior to sharing potentially disturbing content. That content might include graphic references to topics such as #sexual_abuse, #self-harm, #violence, #eating_disorders, and so on, and can take the form of an #image, #video_clip, #audio_clip, or piece of #text. In an #academic_context, the #instructor delivers these messages in order to allow students to prepare emotionally for the content or to decide to forgo interacting with the content.

      Proponents of trigger warnings contend that certain course content can impact the #wellbeing and #academic_performance of students who have experienced corresponding #traumas in their own lives. Such students might not yet be ready to confront a personal #trauma in an academic context. They choose to #avoid it now so that they can deal with it more effectively at a later date – perhaps after they have set up necessary #resources, #supports, or #counselling. Other students might indeed be ready to #confront a personal trauma in an academic context but will benefit from a #forewarning of certain topics so that they can brace themselves prior to (for example) participating in a #classroom discussion about it. Considered from this perspective, trigger warnings give students increased #autonomy over their learning, and are an affirmation that the instructor #cares about their wellbeing.

      However, not everyone agrees that trigger warnings are #necessary or #helpful. For example, some fear that trigger warnings unnecessarily #insulate students from the often harsh #realities of the world with which academics need to engage. Others are concerned that trigger warnings establish a precedent of making instructors or universities legally #responsible for protecting students from #emotional_trauma. Still others argue that it is impossible to anticipate all the topics that might be potentially triggering for students.

      Trigger warnings do not mean that students can exempt themselves from completing parts of the coursework. Ideally, a student who is genuinely concerned about being #re-traumatized by forthcoming course content would privately inform the instructor of this concern. The instructor would then accommodate the student by proposing #alternative_content or an alternative learning activity, as with an accommodation necessitated by a learning disability or physical disability.

      The decision to preface potentially disturbing content with a trigger warning is ultimately up to the instructor. An instructor who does so might want to include in the course syllabus a preliminary statement (also known as a “#content_note”), such as the following:

      Our classroom provides an open space for the critical and civil exchange of ideas. Some readings and other content in this course will include topics that some students may find offensive and/or traumatizing. I’ll aim to #forewarn students about potentially disturbing content and I ask all students to help to create an #atmosphere of #mutual_respect and #sensitivity.

      Prior to introducing a potentially disturbing topic in class, an instructor might articulate a #verbal_trigger_warning such as the following:

      Next class our discussion will probably touch on the sexual assault that is depicted in the second last chapter of The White Hotel. This content is disturbing, so I encourage you to prepare yourself emotionally beforehand. If you believe that you will find the discussion to be traumatizing, you may choose to not participate in the discussion or to leave the classroom. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so if you leave the room for a significant time, please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.

      A version of the foregoing trigger warning might also preface written materials:

      The following reading includes a discussion of the harsh treatment experienced by First Nations children in residential schools in the 1950s. This content is disturbing, so I encourage everyone to prepare themselves emotionally before proceeding. If you believe that the reading will be traumatizing for you, then you may choose to forgo it. You will still, however, be responsible for material that you miss, so please arrange to get notes from another student or see me individually.

      Trigger warnings, of course, are not the only answer to disturbing content. Instructional #strategies such as the following can also help students approach challenging material:

      – Give your students as much #advance_notice as possible about potentially disturbing content. A day’s notice might not be enough for a student to prepare emotionally, but two weeks might be.

      – Try to “scaffold” a disturbing topic to students. For example, when beginning a history unit on the Holocaust, don’t start with graphic photographs from Auschwitz. Instead, begin by explaining the historical context, then verbally describe the conditions within the concentration camps, and then introduce the photographic record as needed. Whenever possible, allow students to progress through upsetting material at their own pace.

      – Allow students to interact with disturbing material outside of class. A student might feel more vulnerable watching a documentary about sexual assault while in a classroom than in the security of his or her #home.

      – Provide captions when using video materials: some content is easier to watch while reading captions than while listening to the audio.

      – When necessary, provide written descriptions of graphic images as a substitute for the actual visual content.

      – When disturbing content is under discussion, check in with your students from time to time: #ask them how they are doing, whether they need a #break, and so on. Let them know that you are aware that the material in question is emotionally challenging.

      – Advise students to be #sensitive to their classmates’ #vulnerabilities when they are preparing class presentations.

      – Help your students understand the difference between emotional trauma and #intellectual_discomfort: the former is harmful, as is triggering it in the wrong context (such as in a classroom rather than in therapy); the latter is fundamental to a university education – it means our ideas are being challenged as we struggle to resolve cognitive dissonance.

      https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/trigger

    • Why Trigger Warnings Don’t Work

      Because trauma #survivors’ #memories are so specific, increasingly used “trigger warnings” are largely #ineffective.

      Fair warning labels at the beginning of movie and book reviews alert the reader that continuing may reveal critical plot points that spoil the story. The acronym NSFW alerts those reading emails or social media posts that the material is not suitable for work. The Motion Picture Association of America provides film ratings to advise about content so that moviegoers can make informed entertainment choices for themselves and their children.

      Enter stage right: Trigger warning.

      A trigger warning, most often found on #social_media and internet sites, alerts the reader that potentially upsetting information may follow. The words trigger warning are often followed by a subtitle such as *Trigger warning: This may be triggering to those who have struggled with _________. Fill in the blank. #Domestic_abuse. #Rape. #Body_image. #Needles. #Pregnancy.

      Trigger warnings have become prevalent online since about 2012. Victim advocate Gayle Crabtree reports that they were in use as early as 1996 in chat rooms she moderated. “We used the words ‘trigger warning,’ ‘#tw,’ ‘#TW,’ and ‘trigger’ early on. …This meant the survivor could see the warning and then decide if she or he wanted to scroll down for the message or not.” Eventually, trigger warnings spread to social media sites including #Tumblr, #Twitter, and #Facebook.

      The term seems to have originated from the use of the word “trigger” to indicate something that cues a #physiological_response, the way pollen may trigger an allergy attack. A trigger in a firearm is a lever that activates the sequence of firing a gun, so it is not surprising that the word was commandeered by those working in the field of #psychology to indicate objects and sensations that cause neurological firing in the brain, which in turn cause #feelings and #thoughts to occur.

      Spoiler alerts allow us to enjoy the movie or book as it unfolds without being influenced by knowledge about what comes next. The NSFW label helps employees comply with workplace policies that prohibit viewing sexually explicit or profane material. Motion picture ratings enable viewers to select movies they are most likely to find entertaining. Trigger warnings, on the other hand, are “designed to prevent people who have an extremely strong and damaging emotional response… to certain subjects from encountering them unaware.”

      Say what?

      Say hogwash!

      Discussions about trigger warnings have made headlines in the New Yorker, the Los Angeles Times, the Guardian, the New Republic, and various other online and print publications. Erin Dean writes that a trigger “is not something that offends one, troubles one, or angers one; it is something that causes an extreme involuntary reaction in which the individual re-experiences past trauma.”

      For those individuals, it is probably true that coming across material that reminds them of a traumatic event is going to be disturbing. Dean’s definition refers to involuntary fear and stress responses common in individuals with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder characterized by intrusive memories, thoughts, or dreams; intense distress at cues that remind the individual of the event; and reactivity to situations, people, or objects that symbolize the event. PTSD can result from personal victimization, accidents, incarceration, natural disasters, or any unexpected injury or threat of injury or death. Research suggests that it results from a combination of genetic predisposition, fear conditioning, and neural and physiological responses that incorporate the body systems and immunological responses. Current theories suggest that PTSD represents “the failure to recover from the normal effects of trauma.” In other words, anyone would be adversely affected by trauma, but natural mechanisms for healing take place in the majority of individuals. The prevalence of PTSD ranges from 1.9 percent in Europe to 3.5 percent in the United States.

      The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous.

      Some discussions have asserted that because between one in four and one in five women have been sexually abused, trigger warnings are necessary to protect vast numbers of victims from being re-traumatized. However, research shows that the majority of trauma-exposed persons do not develop PTSD. This does not mean they aren’t affected by trauma, but that they do not develop clinically significant symptoms, distress, or impairment in daily functioning. The notion that trigger warnings should be generalized to all social media sites, online journals, and discussion boards is erroneous. Now some students are pushing for trigger warnings on college class syllabi and reading lists.

      But what?

      Balderdash!

      But wait, before people get all riled up, I’d like to say that yes, I have experienced trauma in my life.

      I wore a skirt the first time George hit me. I know this because I remember scrunching my skirt around my waist and balancing in heels while I squatted over a hole in the concrete floor to take a piss. We were in Tijuana. The stench of excrement made my stomach queasy with too much tequila. I wanted to retch.

      We returned to our hotel room. I slid out of my blouse and skirt. He stripped to nothing and lay on the double bed. He was drinking Rompope from the bottle, a kind of Mexican eggnog: strong, sweet, and marketed for its excellent spunk. It’s a thick yellow rum concoction with eggs, sugar, and almond side notes. George wanted to have sex. We bickered and argued as drunks sometimes do. I said something — I know this because I always said something — and he hit me. He grabbed me by the hair and hit me again. “We’re going dancing,” he said.

      “I don’t feel like dancing — “

      “Fine. Stay.”

      The world was tilting at an angle I didn’t recognize. The mathematician Matt Tweed writes that atoms are made up of almost completely empty space. To grasp the vast nothingness, he asks the reader to imagine a cat twirling a bumblebee on the end of a half-mile long string. That’s how much emptiness there is between the nucleus and the electron. There was more space than that between George and me. I remember thinking: I am in a foreign country. I don’t speak Spanish. I have no money. We went dancing.

      Labeling a topic or theme is useless because of the way our brains work. The labels that we give trauma (assault, sexual abuse, rape) are not the primary source of triggers. Memories are, and not just memories, but very specific, insidious, and personally individualized details lodged in our brain at the time of the trauma encoded as memory. Details can include faces, places, sounds, smells, tastes, voices, body positions, time of day, or any other sensate qualities that were present during a traumatic incident.

      If I see a particular shade of yellow or smell a sickly sweet rum drink, I’m reminded of my head being yanked by someone who held a handful of my hair in his fist. A forest green Plymouth Duster (the car we drove) will too. The word assault does not. The words domestic violence don’t either. The specificity of details seared in my mind invokes memory.

      Last year a driver slammed into the back of my car on the freeway. The word tailgate is not a trigger. Nor is the word accident. The flash of another car suddenly encroaching in my rearview mirror is. In my mid-20s, I drove my younger sister (sobbing, wrapped in a bed sheet) to the hospital where two male officers explained they were going to pluck her pubic hair for a rape kit. When I see tweezers in a hospital, I flash back to that awful moment. For my sister, other things may be triggers: the moonlight shining on the edge of a knife. The shadow of a person back lit in a doorway. An Hispanic man’s accent. If we were going to insist on trigger warnings that work, they would need to look something like this:

      Trigger warning: Rompope.

      Trigger warning: a woman wrapped in a bed sheet.

      Trigger warning: the blade of a knife.

      The variability of human #perception and traumatic recall makes it impossible to provide the necessary specificity for trigger warnings to be effective. The nature of specificity is, in part, one reason that treatment for traumatic memories involves safely re-engaging with the images that populate the survivor’s memory of the event. According to Dr. Mark Beuger, an addiction psychiatrist at Deerfield Behavioral Health of Warren (PA), the goal of PTSD treatment is “to allow for processing of the traumatic experience without becoming so emotional that processing is impossible.” By creating a coherent narrative of the past event through telling and retelling the story to a clinician, survivors confront their fears and gain mastery over their thoughts and feelings.

      If a survivor has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided.

      According to the National Center for Health, “#Avoidance is a maladaptive #control_strategy… resulting in maintenance of perceived current threat. In line with this, trauma-focused treatments stress the role of avoidance in the maintenance of PTSD. Prolonged exposure to safe but anxiety-provoking trauma-related stimuli is considered a treatment of choice for PTSD.” Avoidance involves distancing oneself from cues, reminders, or situations that remind one of the event that can result in increased #social_withdrawal. Trigger warnings increase social withdrawal, which contributes to feelings of #isolation. If a survivor who suffers from PTSD has had adequate clinical support, they could engage online with thoughts or ideas that previously had been avoided. The individual is in charge of each word he or she reads. At any time, one may close a book or click a screen shut on the computer. What is safer than that? Conversely, trigger warnings perpetuate avoidance. Because the intrusive memories and thoughts are internal, trigger warnings suggest, “Wait! Don’t go here. I need to protect you from yourself.”

      The argument that trigger warnings help to protect those who have suffered trauma is false. Most people who have experienced trauma do not require preemptive protection. Some may argue that it would be kind to avoid causing others distress with upsetting language and images. But is it? Doesn’t it sometimes take facing the horrific images encountered in trauma to effect change in ourselves and in the world?

      A few weeks ago, I came across a video about Boko Haram’s treatment of a kidnapped schoolgirl. The girl was blindfolded. A man was digging a hole in dry soil. It quickly became evident, as he ushered the girl into the hole, that this would not end well. I felt anxious as several men began shoveling soil in around her while she spoke to them in a language I could not understand. I considered clicking away as my unease and horror grew. But I also felt compelled to know what happened to this girl. In the 11-minute video, she is buried up to her neck.

      All the while, she speaks to her captors, who eventually move out of the frame of the scene. Rocks begin pelting the girl’s head. One after the other strikes her as I stared, horrified, until finally, her head lay motionless at an angle that could only imply death. That video (now confirmed to be a stoning in Somalia rather than by Boko Haram) forever changed my level of concern about young girls kidnapped in other countries.

      We are changed by what we #witness. Had the video contained a trigger warning about gruesome death, I would not have watched it. Weeks later, I would have been spared the rush of feelings I felt when a friend posted a photo of her daughter playfully buried by her brothers in the sand. I would have been spared knowing such horrors occur. But would the world be a better place for my not knowing? Knowledge helps us prioritize our responsibilities in the world. Don’t we want engaged, knowledgeable citizens striving for a better world?

      Recently, the idea of trigger warnings has leapt the gulch between social media and academic settings. #Universities are dabbling with #policies that encourage professors to provide trigger warnings for their classes because of #complaints filed by students. Isn’t the syllabus warning enough? Can’t individual students be responsible for researching the class content and reading #materials before they enroll? One of the benefits of broad exposure to literature and art in education is Theory of Mind, the idea that human beings have the capacity to recognize and understand that other people have thoughts and desires that are different from one’s own. Do we want #higher_education to comprise solely literature and ideas that feel safe to everyone? Could we even agree on what that would be?

      Art occurs at the intersection of experience and danger. It can be risky, subversive, and offensive. Literature encompasses ideas both repugnant and redemptive. News about very difficult subjects is worth sharing. As writers, don’t we want our readers to have the space to respond authentically to the story? As human beings, don’t we want others to understand that we can empathize without sharing the same points of view?

      Trigger warnings fail to warn us of the very things that might cause us to remember our trauma. They insulate. They cause isolation. A trigger warning says, “Be careful. This might be too much for you.” It says, “I don’t trust you can handle it.” As a reader, that’s not a message I want to encounter. As a writer, that is not the message I want to convey.

      Trigger warnings?

      Poppycock.

      http://www.stirjournal.com/2014/09/15/trigger-what-why-trigger-warnings-dont-work

    • Essay on why a professor is adding a trigger warning to his #syllabus

      Trigger warnings in the classroom have been the subject of tremendous #debate in recent weeks, but it’s striking how little the discussion has contemplated what actual trigger warnings in actual classrooms might plausibly look like.

      The debate began with demands for trigger warnings by student governments with no power to compel them and suggestions by #administrators (made and retracted) that #faculty consider them. From there the ball was picked up mostly by observers outside higher ed who presented various #arguments for and against, and by professors who repudiated the whole idea.

      What we haven’t heard much of so far are the voices of professors who are sympathetic to the idea of such warnings talking about what they might look like and how they might operate.

      As it turns out, I’m one of those professors, and I think that discussion is long overdue. I teach history at Hostos Community College of the City University of New York, and starting this summer I’m going to be including a trigger warning in my syllabus.

      I’d like to say a few things about why.

      An Alternative Point of View

      To start off, I think it’s important to be clear about what trigger warnings are, and what purpose they’re intended to serve. Such warnings are often framed — and not just by critics — as a “you may not want to read this” notice, one that’s directed specifically at survivors of trauma. But their actual #purpose is considerably broader.

      Part of the confusion arises from the word “trigger” itself. Originating in the psychological literature, the #term can be misleading in a #non-clinical context, and indeed many people who favor such warnings prefer to call them “#content_warnings” for that reason. It’s not just trauma survivors who may be distracted or derailed by shocking or troubling material, after all. It’s any of us, and a significant part of the distraction comes not from the material itself but from the context in which it’s presented.

      In the original cut of the 1933 version of the film “King Kong,” there was a scene (depicting an attack by a giant spider) that was so graphic that the director removed it before release. He took it out, it’s said, not because of concerns about excessive violence, but because the intensity of the scene ruined the movie — once you saw the sailors get eaten by the spider, the rest of the film passed by you in a haze.

      A similar concern provides a big part of the impetus for content warnings. These warnings prepare the reader for what’s coming, so their #attention isn’t hijacked when it arrives. Even a pleasant surprise can be #distracting, and if the surprise is unpleasant the distraction will be that much more severe.

      I write quite a bit online, and I hardly ever use content warnings myself. I respect the impulse to provide them, but in my experience a well-written title and lead paragraph can usually do the job more effectively and less obtrusively.

      A classroom environment is different, though, for a few reasons. First, it’s a shared space — for the 75 minutes of the class session and the 15 weeks of the semester, we’re pretty much all #stuck with one another, and that fact imposes #interpersonal_obligations on us that don’t exist between writer and reader. Second, it’s an interactive space — it’s a #conversation, not a monologue, and I have a #responsibility to encourage that conversation as best I can. Finally, it’s an unpredictable space — a lot of my students have never previously encountered some of the material we cover in my classes, or haven’t encountered it in the way it’s taught at the college level, and don’t have any clear sense of what to expect.

      For all these reasons, I’ve concluded that it would be sound #pedagogy for me to give my students notice about some of the #challenging_material we’ll be covering in class — material relating to racial and sexual oppression, for instance, and to ethnic and religious conflict — as well as some information about their rights and responsibilities in responding to it. Starting with the summer semester, as a result, I’ll be discussing these issues during the first class meeting and including a notice about them in the syllabus.

      My current draft of that notice reads as follows:

      Course Content Note

      At times this semester we will be discussing historical events that may be disturbing, even traumatizing, to some students. If you ever feel the need to step outside during one of these discussions, either for a short time or for the rest of the class session, you may always do so without academic penalty. (You will, however, be responsible for any material you miss. If you do leave the room for a significant time, please make arrangements to get notes from another student or see me individually.)

      If you ever wish to discuss your personal reactions to this material, either with the class or with me afterwards, I welcome such discussion as an appropriate part of our coursework.

      That’s it. That’s my content warning. That’s all it is.

      I should say as well that nothing in these two paragraphs represents a change in my teaching practice. I have always assumed that if a student steps out of the classroom they’ve got a good reason, and I don’t keep tabs on them when they do. If a student is made uncomfortable by something that happens in class, I’m always glad when they come talk to me about it — I’ve found we usually both learn something from such exchanges. And of course students are still responsible for mastering all the course material, just as they’ve always been.

      So why the note, if everything in it reflects the rules of my classroom as they’ve always existed? Because, again, it’s my job as a professor to facilitate class discussion.

      A few years ago one of my students came to talk to me after class, distraught. She was a student teacher in a New York City junior high school, working with a social studies teacher. The teacher was white, and almost all of his students were, like my student, black. That week, she said, one of the classes had arrived at the point in the semester given over to the discussion of slavery, and at the start of the class the teacher had gotten up, buried his nose in his notes, and started into the lecture without any introduction. The students were visibly upset by what they were hearing, but the teacher just kept going until the end of the period, at which point he finished the lecture, put down his papers, and sent them on to math class.

      My student was appalled. She liked these kids, and she could see that they were hurting. They were angry, they were confused, and they had been given nothing to do with their #emotions. She asked me for advice, and I had very little to offer, but I left our meeting thinking that it would have been better for the teacher to have skipped that material entirely than to have taught it the way he did.

      History is often ugly. History is often troubling. History is often heartbreaking. As a professor, I have an #obligation to my students to raise those difficult subjects, but I also have an obligation to raise them in a way that provokes a productive reckoning with the material.

      And that reckoning can only take place if my students know that I understand that this material is not merely academic, that they are coming to it as whole people with a wide range of experiences, and that the journey we’re going on #together may at times be #painful.

      It’s not coddling them to acknowledge that. In fact, it’s just the opposite.

      https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2014/05/29/essay-why-professor-adding-trigger-warning-his-syllabus

    • @cdb_77, j’ai essayé #police & #viol & #France (pas si mal non, j’avance), mais bon alors #impunité, oui plus efficace cela, je connais pas ce mot, ajouté au vocabulaire...

      Viols, Agressions sexuelles : Faire valoir vos droits.

      Préface
      Un grand nombre de personnes victimes de viols ou d’agressions sexuelles, le plus souvent des femmes et des enfants, hésitent encore à dénoncer les violences subies.Toutefois les mentalités évoluent, l’information porte ses fruits et les victimes de violences sexuelles, plus fréquemment qu’auparavant, osent rompre le silence.Le viol est un crime. Il porte très gravement atteinte à l’intégrité de la personne. Ses répercussions psychologiques, physiques, économiques et sociales sur la vie des victimes sont considérables. Les témoignages reçus à la permanence téléphonique nationale « Viols-Femmes-Informations »confirment que déposer plainte et déclencher une procédure judiciaire peut représenter, au-delà des épreuves auxquelles cette démarche expose, un acte positif susceptible d’aider la personne à se reconstruire.Cette dénonciation est par ailleurs indispensable à l’action de la justice contre une criminalité spécifique, qui porte encore la marque de rapports inégalitaires entre les sexes et de pouvoir abusif d’adultes à l’encontre des enfants.Cette brochure a pour objet de donner aux victimes ainsi qu’aux professionnels les informations nécessaires sur les démarches à entreprendre après un viol ou une autre agression sexuelle et sur les différentes étapes des procédures judiciaires.Elle a été réalisée par le Collectif Féministe Contre le Viol, association qui dispose d’une longue expérience d’accueil et de soutien des victimes de viols et d’agressions sexuelles, majeures ou mineures, notamment à travers sa permanence téléphonique :« Viols -Femmes -Informations »0 800 05 95 95.Gratuit etAnonyme-lundi-vendredi -10h-19h

      https://cfcv.asso.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Livret-juridique-2018.pdf

      p. 13 #récit :
      Il vous faudra faire le récit de tout ce qui s’est passé et qui a abouti à l’agression.

      Où ? Quand ? Comment ? Etiez-vous seule ou accompagnée ?
      Qui a pu être témoin ?
      Comment l’agresseur vous a contactée ? Vous a-t’il dit quelque
      chose ? Quand avez-vous eu peur ?
      Vous a-t’il menacée ? Brutalisée ? Qu’avez-vous craint ? Que
      vouliez-vous faire ?
      Des éléments indiquent-ils un piège prémédité : l’utilisation
      éventuelle d’alcool, de drogues, la contrainte, vos réactions de
      défense, la peur qui vous a paralysée, le viol, les sévices, les paroles ou insultes.
      Comment s’est terminée l’agression ? De quoi avez-vous peur
      maintenant ? Qu’avez-vous fait après l’agression : vos craintes, vos
      doutes, vos recherches pour trouver de l’aide, vos préoccupations.

      Les exigences de l’enquête peuvent conduire à des questions
      difficiles à supporter. Ce récit, et surtout les détails que vous
      fournirez, sont très importants car ils serviront de base aux
      enquêteurs pour appréhender le violeur. L’objectif de l’audition est
      de constituer un dossier le plus précis possible.

      #CFCV #legal_information #complaint #procedure #narration

  • Nicht jeder half uneigennützig

    –-> available as Podcast on website

    Wer während der NS-Zeit in den Untergrund ging, um sich vor der Deportation zu retten, war angewiesen auf Helfer, ob in Deutschland oder im besetzten Europa. Die Helfer riskierten viel – und oft verlangten sie eine Gegenleistung: Jüdinnen sollten sexuell gefügig sein. Von einigen sind Erinnerungen überliefert.

    „Die Situation spitzte sich zu. Wenn wir nicht auf die Straße gesetzt werden wollten, so dachte ich, musste ich etwas tun. Das bedeutete: Ich musste dem Ehemann dieser Frau zu Willen sein. Ich war in sexueller Hinsicht schon erfahren und dachte: Was soll’s, bringen wir’s hinter uns. Es passierte auch nur zwei Mal. Herr Waldmann und ich gingen in das einstmals sehr gutbürgerliche jüdische Hotel ‚König von Portugal‘. Und wen traf ich da auf der Treppe? Meine Turnlehrerin! Wir lächelten uns an. Die war also auch mit einem Mann da. Und ich war noch Schülerin.“ (Marie Jalowicz)

    „Es war völlig – in der Retrospektive – für sie selbstverständlich, dass alles im Leben seinen Preis hat und dass sie diesen Preis eben häufig nicht wollte, aber zahlen musste, mit ihrem Körper. Und das hat sie ganz klar gesehen und ausgesprochen.“

    Was der Historiker Hermann Simon über seine Mutter Marie Jalowicz erzählt, wirft ein Licht auf ein Kapitel der Schoah, das lange kaum beachtet wurde: sexuelle Gewalt gegen untergetauchte Jüdinnen und Juden.

    Dass zur Geschichte der Schoah auch sexuelle Gewalt gehört, kann bei näherer Betrachtung kaum überraschen. Denn überall dort, wo es eine Hierarchie der Macht und Gewaltausübung gibt, wo Menschen schutzlos ausgeliefert sind, wo Rechte nichts gelten und die Würde des Anderen nicht zählt, ist jedweder Anwendung von Gewalt – der körperlichen, der seelischen, der sexuellen – Tür und Tor geöffnet. Man weiß von Bordellen in den Lagern, wo jüdische Frauen ihren Peinigern in SS-Uniform sexuell zu Diensten sein mussten, bevor sie ins Gas geschickt wurden.
    Bündnisse auf Zeit

    Und doch ist nur wenig davon überliefert. Zaghafte Zeugnisse aus einem an alltäglicher Demütigung und Erniedrigung reichen Gewaltregime in den Lagern. Das gilt auch für sexuelle Übergriffe auf Jüdinnen und Juden im Versteck. Wer in den Untergrund ging, um sich vor der Deportation zu retten, war angewiesen auf mutige Helfer, ob im Deutschen Reich oder im besetzten Europa. Ein täglicher Kampf ums Überleben, den viele, sehr viele verloren.

    Über die Umstände im Versteck, die Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse, die fragilen Bündnisse auf Zeit, geprägt von Heldenmut und Verrat und vielen Grautönen dazwischen, ist noch immer recht wenig bekannt. Überliefert sind meist nur die Geschichten von Überlebenden und das oft kaum mehr als in Bruchstücken. Und es gibt ein paar verfasste Erinnerungen. So wie die von Marie Jalowicz.

    „Insgesamt ist das Thema der Hilfen für verfolgte Juden in der NS-Zeit in Deutschland ein Thema, das über Jahrzehnte hinweg nicht beachtet wurde. Stattdessen wurden diejenigen, die Juden geholfen hatten, auch nach 1945 noch als Verräter angesehenm“, sagt Johannes Tuchel ist Leiter der Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand in Berlin. Erst seit den 1980er Jahren haben sich Forscher eingehender mit Hilfen für verfolgte und untergetauchte Juden beschäftigt. Und es ging noch einmal ein Vierteljahrhundert ins Land, bis im Jahr 2000 mit der Dauerausstellung und zugleich Forschungsstelle „Stille Helden“ den Helfern, ihren Netzwerken und den Schicksalen der Untergetauchten erstmals Raum gegeben wurde.

    „Viele haben aber auch geschwiegen, weil sie ihre eigene Rettungstat für etwas Selbstverständliches hielten. Erst langsam hat sich dann auch ein Bewusstsein dafür breitgemacht, wie vielfältig die Hilfen für Verfolgte gewesen sind, aber wie vielfältig auch die Motivlage gewesen ist“, sagt Johannes Tuchel.

    Sichtbar wurden auch Schattenseiten des stillen Heldentums. Nicht jeder half uneigennützig. Johannes Tuchel spricht von einem ganzen Motivbündel, das Menschen dazu brachte, verfolgte Juden zu verstecken. Das konnte von einer ganz spontanen, der Situation geschuldeten Hilfe bis hin zu einem organisierten Netzwerk reichen. Auf jeden Untergetauchten kamen Helfer, meist nicht nur ein oder zwei, sondern oft ein ganzes Netz.

    Politische Gegnerschaft zum Nationalsozialismus fand sich dabei ebenso wie schlicht kommerzielle Interessen. Manchmal ging es auch weiter.
    „Kampf uns Überleben in jedem Augenblick“

    „Zu dieser Vielfalt von Motiven gehörte auch, dass Männer Frauen geholfen haben und dann sich in entsprechender Art und Weise von diesen Frauen eine Gegenleistung erhofften“, sagt Johannes Tuchel.

    Was Marie Jalowicz Jahrzehnte später ihrem Sohn erzählte, war, so ist anzunehmen, keine Seltenheit.

    „Und da ist dann die Frage, ist das noch ambivalent oder ist das ein Ausnutzen der Situation gewesen? Es gehören aber auch immer zwei dazu. Ist ja nicht nur so gewesen, dass der Helfer einen Entschluss fassen musste. Musste ja auch erst einmal derjenige einen Entschluss fassen, der sagt, ich gehe in den Untergrund. Und da stellte sich die Frage: Was nehme ich alles auf mich?

    Von schätzungsweise 10.000 Jüdinnen und Juden geht die Forschung heute aus, die während des Krieges im gesamten Deutschen Reich im Untergrund lebten. Die größte Zahl in der Reichshauptstadt, auch, weil sich hier die Deportationen über einen längeren Zeitraum zogen und es Möglichkeiten zum Untertauchen gab, die in einer Kleinstadt nicht gegeben waren.

    5.000-7.000 haben in Berlin den Sprung in den Untergrund gewagt, doch viele schützte die Zeit im Versteck nicht. Man schätzt, dass vielleicht 2.000 von ihnen den Krieg überlebten. Und das unter kaum vorstellbaren Zuständen. Marie Jalowicz erinnert sich: „Von Augenblick zu Augenblick habe ich darum gekämpft zu überleben. Alles, was ich erlebt habe, war sehr kompliziert, zum Teil qualvoll, zum Teil zum Verzweifeln.“

    Die Geschichte von Marie Jalowicz ist besonders. Nicht weil das, was sie durchlitten hat, sich grundsätzlich unterscheiden würde von den Erlebnissen anderer. Marie Jalowicz Geschichte ist besonders, weil wir davon in einer unglaublichen Detailfülle wissen.

    Weil ihr Sohn, der Historiker Hermann Simon, langjähriger Chef des Berliner Centrum Judaicum, ein altes Vorhaben der Mutter, kurz vor ihrem Tod umsetzte. „Du wolltest doch immer mal Deine Geschichte erzählen“, sagte er eines Tages zu ihr, als sie schon hochbetagt im Krankenhaus lag und hielt ihr ein kleines Aufnahmegerät hin. Was folgte, waren sich über ein Jahr hinziehende Interviews, in denen sich die Mutter Kapitel für Kapitel ihrer eigenen dramatischen Geschichte bis zu ihrer Befreiung im Frühjahr 1945 näherte. Es war auch ein Stück Selbstverpflichtung.

    Simon: „Ja, das spielte bei ihr eine Rolle, aber das hat sie sich wahrscheinlich erst wieder klar gemacht während der Diktate, denn sonst hätte sie, denke ich mal, nicht so lange gezögert. (…) Ich glaube schon, dass viele dieser Geschichten im täglichen Leben präsent waren, sehr viel präsenter, als wir als Familie das wahrgenommen haben und gewusst haben.Hermann Simon beim Unterschreiben von Büchern bei einer Buchvorstellung. (imago/Gerhard Leber)Hermann Simon beim Unterschreiben von Büchern bei einer Buchvorstellung. (imago/Gerhard Leber)

    Zu dem, was sie in bemerkenswerter Klarheit und präziser Erinnerung ein halbes Jahrhundert später ihrem Sohn ins Mikrofon sprach, gehörten Momente höchster Intimität. Herrman Simon sagt: „Sie hat es gar nicht bewertet. Sie hat es einfach berichtet, unsentimental, so war das eben. Aber es schwang immer so ein bisschen mit, glaube ich sagen zu können, das ging doch allen so. Nur die anderen erzählen es nicht.“

    Etwas später verkündete der Gummidirektor: Ich muss Dir mal was sagen, was mir sehr schwerfällt, ich mach’s auch kurz. Mit gesenktem Kopf und mit Tränen in den Augen erklärte er, er müsse mich enttäuschen. Er sei zu keiner wie immer gearteten sexuellen Beziehung mehr im Stande. Ich versuchte, das neutral und freundlich hinzunehmen, aber mich überwältigte ein solcher Jubel und eine solche Erleichterung, dass ich nicht mehr sitzenbleiben konnte. Ich floh auf die Toilette. Es wurde der erhabenste und erhebenste Klobesuch meines Lebens. Ich stellte mir, natürlich in Kurzfassung, einen Freitagabendgottesdienst vor, wie ich ihn in der alten Synagoge oft erlebt hatte. Ich rufe euch meine lieben Chorknaben singen, dachte ich, und ließ sie in meiner Erinnerung singen. All das das diente dazu, gaumel zu benschen, das heißt, für die Errettung aus Lebensgefahr zu danken. (Marie Jalowicz)

    Marie Jalowicz wurde 1922 in Berlin geboren. Ab Frühjahr 1940 musste sie Zwangsarbeit bei Siemens verrichten. Ihre Mutter starb 1938, ihr Vater, ein Anwalt, 1941. Der Verhaftung durch die Gestapo im Juni 1942 entging sie nur um Haaresbreite. Fortan lebte sie bis zu ihrer Befreiung 1945 im Untergrund. Drei quälend lange Jahre. In welche Gefahren sie dabei geriet, illustriert die Begegnung mit dem sogenannten Gummidirektor. Sie traf den unbekannten Mann an einem bitterkalten Winterabend in einer Kneipe. Sie brauchte dringend ein Versteck für die Nacht und so ging sie, ihre wahre Identität verbergend, mit ihm zu seiner Laube, in der er wohnte.

    Er entpuppte sich als überzeugter Nazi und, davon ging die junge Frau aus, als sie ihn auf wackligen Beinen sah, er litt wohl an Syphilis.

    Ich weiß zwar nicht, worunter Galetzki damals wirklich litt, aber ich hielt ihn für einen Syphilitiker. Wenn ich das Bett mit ihm hätte teilen müssen, wäre ich in Lebensgefahr gewesen. Nachdem ich wusste, dass es dazu nicht kommen würde, war ich zutiefst erleichtert und fühlte mich zutiefst befreit. Ha Shem... Gott ist mit mir. Ich fürchte nichts, rezitierte ich im Stillen, bevor ich zu ihm zurückkehrte. (Marie Jalowicz)

    Die Historikerin Barbara Schieb trägt in der Berliner Gedenkstätte „Stille Helden“ Stück für Stück die Geschichten von Untergetauchten und ihren Helfern zusammen.

    „Wir unterscheiden zwischen Helfern, die wirklich aus uneigennützigen Motiven geholfen haben. Und wir wissen ganz genau, dass es viele Menschen gegeben hat, die geholfen haben, aber dafür auch eine Gegenleistung haben wollten. Und eigentlich ist es auch für die Untergetauchten mit der Gegenleistung gar nicht so unwillkommen gewesen. Wenn man einen Deal hat, ich bekomme eine Leistung, dafür gebe ich auch etwas. Das Beste wäre natürlich gewesen, die Leistung mit Geld zu bezahlen, das Handelsübliche.“
    „Augen zu und durch“

    Doch den meisten Untergetauchten war das nicht möglich. Und so geriet man sehr schnell in eine Abhängigkeit, sagt Barbara Schieb.

    Barbara Schieb: „Man war immer abhängig von dem guten Willen anderer Leute und man wusste, man musste etwas bezahlen. Bei Frauen war das eben öfter mal die sexuelle Gegenleistung und das war den meisten Frauen auch völlig klar, dass das so ist. Sie haben sich über alle gefreut, die diese Gegenleistung nicht gefordert haben. Aber sie hielten es für durchaus auch völlig selbstverständlich, dass es so gefordert wurde. Wie Marie Jalowicz, die ganz genau wusste: so, Augen zu und durch.“

    Eine dieser Untergetauchten war Ilse Stillmann. Sie hat später von ihren Erlebnissen berichtet. Die so zwielichtige wie komplexe Problematik fasste Ilse Stillmann in ein paar dünnen Worten zusammen:

    Ja, ich hatte ja Erfahrungen gemacht. Frauen wollten billige Dienstmädchen und Männer wollten mit einem schlafen und dazu war ich nicht bereit. (Ilse Stillmann)

    Doch ob das so stimmt? Das ist die große Schwierigkeit bei einem Thema, das einem Schatten im Schatten gleicht. Vielleicht war es so, dass Ilse Stillmann tatsächlich nein sagen konnte. Barbara Schieb: „Also sie hat ganz explizit gesagt, nein das wollte ich nicht, dann bin ich auf diese Deals nicht eingegangen, dann hat sie sich einen anderen Schlafplatz gesucht.“

    Als ich mich immer noch nicht rührte und auch nichts zu sagen wagte, begann er, sanft meinen Arm zu streicheln, und sagte leise: ‚Berthy, du bist kein Kind mehr... mein Leben ist so viel lebendiger, so viel schöner, seit du hier bist. Ich möchte...‘ Er stockte erneut. Ich war mir nicht sicher, ob es gut wäre, wenn er jetzt weitersprechen würde. ‚Onkel Wim, bitte lass uns doch einfach so unbeschwert zusammen sein wie bisher‘, flüsterte ich endlich zurück. (Cilly Levitus-Peiser)

    Cilly ist noch jung, gerade 17 Jahre alt. Onkel Wim ist der Vater einer holländischen Bauernfamilie, die Cilly, genannt Berthy, nach ihrer Flucht aus Nazideutschland für einige Zeit verstecken. Auf der Flucht hatte sie sich in einen anderen jüdischen Jungen, Yakov, verliebt, erste Zärtlichkeiten erlebt. Sie mochte Bauer Wim, der sie in seinem Haus versteckte. Aber da waren diese Annäherungsversuche des 40-Jährigen Mannes.

    Wie sollte ich mich nur verhalten? Ich mochte Onkel Wim gern, sicher lieber als seine Frau. Aber wie weit wollte er jetzt gehen? Und was konnte ich tun? Was sollte ich tun? Mein Herz begann zu rasen, weil mir nichts einfiel, wie ich mich aus dieser Situation hätte retten können. ‚Berthy, hab keine Angst...‘, begann Onkel Wim nun wieder und fuhr zum ersten Mal mit der Hand unter meinen Schlafanzug. Dieser Abend blieb nicht der einzige. Er wiederholte sich viele Male. (Cilly Levitus-Peiser)
    Schweigen aus Scham

    Cilly Levitus-Peiser, die als 13-Jährige mit einem Kindertransport im November 1938 ins holländische Exil geschickt wurde, hat Jahrzehnte über diese Erlebnisse bei den Bauern geschwiegen. Aus Scham, wie sie später in ihren Erinnerungen schrieb.

    Vielleicht, weil ich mich geschämt habe zuzugeben, dass ich mich nicht wirklich gewehrt habe. Dass ich es manchmal sogar ein wenig genoss. Diese Aufmerksamkeit, diese Zärtlichkeit. Onkel Wim war kein schlechter Mensch. Er war einer von denen, die damals mein Leben gerettet haben. Aber er hat die Situation eines siebzehnjährigen Mädchens, dessen Leben von ihm abhing, ausgenutzt. (Cilly Levitus-Peiser)

    Die Berliner Kinderärztin und Psychotherapeutin Marguerite Marcus hat sich in ihrer Arbeit mit Überlebenden und deren Nachkommen viel mit fortwirkenden Traumata beschäftigt. Sexuelle Gewalt als Erfahrung von Überlebenden im Versteck sei dabei eigentlich nie zur Sprache gekommen, sagt sie.

    Marguerite Marcus: „Das Thema spielt keine Rolle, das ist so schambesetzt. Keiner redet darüber, dass er auch schwach war. Die Überlebenden reden gerne über die Stellen in ihrem Leben, wo sie stark waren und was ihnen geholfen hat zu überleben und sie waren ja so mutig. Das wichtigste war, überlebt zu haben. Die haben weite Teile auch verdrängt, weil sie auch in so depressiven Phasen waren, oft den Lebensmut verloren haben und alles haben über sich ergehen lassen. Manchmal war eben die sexuelle Gewalt gar nicht das Schlimmste. Manchmal war die mentale Gewalt von einer Frau, die einen als Aschenputtel in seinem Haus schrubben ließ auch nicht besser als der Mann, der dann wenigstens zärtlich war und der einen als Mensch begegnet hat.“
    Der „liebe Onkel von nebenan“

    Es wirkt umso erstaunlicher, mit welcher Offenheit Marie Jalowicz von den Übergriffen erzählt. Ihr Sohn Hermann Simon kannte im Wesentlichen all die Geschichten, bevor er das Interview-Projekt am Lebensabend seiner Mutter startete. Er erinnert sich an einen Fall: Ein „lieber Onkel“ von nebenan, zu dem er als Kind gern ging.

    Er erzählt: „In meinen Augen im besten Sinne des Wortes ein Proletarier, Fabrikarbeiter, mit Herz auf dem rechten Fleck, so habe ich den in meiner Erinnerung aus der Kindheit. Die Frau hat meiner Mutter, war ne ganz anständige Frau, in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit geholfen. Und dieser Mann nähert sich meiner Mutter, ich glaube, sie war da nur eine Nacht und konnte da nicht lange bleiben, das ist eine hellhöriges Haus, ich weiß genau, wo das ist, ist ne feste Größe meiner Kindheit, und der nähert sich meiner Mutter, steht da, zitternd, im Nachthemd, beschreibt sie ja ziemlich genau, vor ihrem Bett, also, ja... muss ja eigentlich für eine junge Frau auch ekelhaft gewesen sein.“

    Barbara Schieb: „Das ist einfach eine absolute Schutzlosigkeit und ein Angewiesensein auf Menschen, die einem weiterhelfen in vielerlei Hinsicht. Man brauchte Lebensmittel, man brauchte einen Schlafplatz, man brauchte falsche Papiere, man brauchte einen Job, man brauchte Geld und man brauchte vielleicht auch emotionale Zuwendung. Man war einfach ein in die Welt geworfenes Wesen, das überhaupt nichts mehr mit dem alten Leben zu tun hatte.“

    Ein Foto zeigt den Umschlag des Buches „Untergetaucht“ (undatiertes Foto). In dem Buch sind die Erinnerungen der damals 20 jährigen Jüdin Marie Jalowicz Simon an die Nazi-Diktatur in Deutschland zusammengefasst. (S. Fischer Verlag/dpa)Buchtitel zu den Erinnerungen von Marie Jalowicz (S. Fischer Verlag/dpa)

    Herrmann Simon: „Die ganze Situation war eine Ausnahmesituation für alle Beteiligten. Keiner wusste, wie lange er noch zu leben hat.“

    Dass das Thema der „stillen Helden“ so wenig Beachtung fand, lag vor allem an der deutschen Nachkriegsgesellschaft, sagt Gedenkstättenleiter Johannes Tuchel:

    „In dem Moment, wo Sie eine Geschichte von Menschen erzählen, die verfolgten Juden geholfen haben, wird deutlich, es gab eine Alternative. Und dieses Aufzeigen von Handlungsalternativen hat man natürlich in der Nachkriegsgesellschaft äußerst ungern gesehen. Denn, um einen verfolgten Juden zu verstecken, mussten Sie kein hoher Offizier sein, nicht in irgendeiner Machtposition sein. Sie konnten Ottonormaldeutscher sein, der half.“

    Rein formal sei das Verstecken eines Juden kein Vergehen gewesen. Aber die Nazis konstruierten genügend andere Delikte, für die man belangt werden konnte: Wer einen Juden mit Lebensmitteln versorgte, verstieß gegen die Kriegswirtschaftsordnung. Wer zu falschen Papieren verhalf, beging Urkundenfälschung. Nicht die direkte Hilfe war strafbar, oft aber die begleitenden Handlungen.
    Helden oder Täter?

    Waren Helfer, die sich die Situation zunutze machten und Sex als Preis verlangten, stille „Helden“ oder Täter?

    Herrmann Simon: „Die Helfer haben geholfen. Die Helfer haben objektiv geholfen. Sie haben meiner Mutter das Leben gerettet und haben ihr Leben riskiert. Dass die nicht so selbstlos waren, wie wir das gerne hätten, steht auf einem anderen Blatt. Wenn wir hier irgendwas lernen können, dann doch das, dass die Geschichte nicht schwarz-weiß ist. Ist grau, bestenfalls.“

    Hermann Simons Mutter Marie Jalowicz hatte einen Grundsatz, sagt ihr Sohn: Nach vorne leben, nicht rückwärtsgewandt und schon gar nicht, dieser dunklen Zeit in ihrem Leben, diesen 12 Jahren, zu großen Raum schenken. Es habe für seine Mutter, die in der Zeit des Untertauchens eine junge Frau von Anfang 20 war, auch noch ein Leben danach gegeben. Kinder und Familie, die wissenschaftliche Karriere als Altphilologin und Philosophiehistorikerin an der Berliner Humboldt-Universität, Erfolge, Misserfolge, alles, was so zum Leben dazugehört.

    Herrmann Simon: „Sie wusste und so hat es sie auch gesagt, dass sie einen Preis dafür zu zahlen hat. Der Preis war hoch, aber das war auch mit ihrer Befreiung vorbei. Da fängt ein komplett neues Leben an. Schreibt sie ja auch, dass sie ausspuckt und sagt, jetzt ist Schluss. Jetzt will ich die sein, zu der ich erzogen worden bin.“

    #sexual_harassment #rape #Shoah #National_Sozialism #power_abuse #helper #return_service #underground

    https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/versteckte-juedinnen-in-der-ns-zeit-nicht-jeder-half.2540.de.html?dr

  • Juste Avant

    Dans « Juste Avant », un documentaire en 7 épisodes, sortie le 1er décembre 2019, Ovidie questionne la façon dont on éduque une adolescente quand on est mère et féministe, à travers une série de conversations avec sa fille de 14 ans. Les échanges mère-fille s’entrecroisent avec les témoignages des proches et les réflexions sur sa propre construction.

    Juste Avant (7/7) - Epilogue

    Juste Avant (6/7) - Sois belle et bats-toi !

    Juste Avant (5/7) - Toi, moi, et notre petit matriarcat

    Juste Avant (4/7) - Le temps de la capote à 1 franc

    Juste Avant (3/7) - « Tu sais ce que c’est le consentement ? »

    Juste Avant (2/7) - La maman ou la putain

    Juste Avant (1/7) - Moi à ton âge

    http://www.nouvellesecoutes.fr/podcasts/intime-politique

    #maculinity #paternalistic #nightmare #digital_penetration #consent #college #high_school #social_network #Instagram #Snapchat #pressure #toxic_relationship #rape #post_MeToo #safe_place #sexuality #equality #contraception #STI #AIDS #HIV #school #abortion #condom #morning-after_pill #practical_knowledge #theoretical_knowledge #political_reflexion #distance #third_party #vaccination #pregnant #youth #traumatism #mariage #couple #tradition #divorce #matriarchy #co_parent #food #internet #beauty #weight_watchers #epilation #awareness #body

  • La politique des putes

    Océan réalise, avec « La #Politique_des_putes », une enquête en immersion dans laquelle il tend le micro à des travailleuses·rs du sexe. Elles disent le stigmate, la marginalisation, la précarité, les violences systémiques mais aussi les ressources et l’empowerment. Pour elles, l’intime est résistance. Dix épisodes de 30 mn pour briser les préjugés.



    La Politique des putes (1/10) - Travailler
    La Politique des putes (2/10) - Stigmatiser
    La Politique des putes (3/10) - Militer
    La Politique des putes (4/10) - Choisir
    La Politique des putes (5/10) - Désirer
    La Politique des putes (6/10) - Migrer
    La Politique des putes (7/10) - Soigner
    La Politique des putes (8/10) - S’échapper
    La Politique des putes (9/10) - Agir
    La Politique des putes (10/10) - Construire

    http://www.nouvellesecoutes.fr/podcasts/intime-politique

    #sex_work #prostitution #patriarchy #capitalism #feminism #wage_labor #whorephobe #whorephobia #pimping #stigma #bias #prejudice #stigmatization #discrimination #systemic_violence #instiutional_violence #heterosexual_concept #sexual_education #normalisation #abolotionism #black_and_white #subventions #decriminalisation #penalty #laws #rights #transphobia #domination #marginalisation #vulnerability #invisbility #undocumented #isolation #fear #police_harassment #physical_violence #rape #precarity #affirmation #empowerment #dignity #trust #solidarity #network #community #choice #perception #society #associations #seropositive #access_to_healthcare #suicidal_thought #debt #menace #voodoo #exploitation #trafficking #migration #borders #family_pressure #clients_image #mudered #testimony #interview #podcast #audio #France #Paris

    “sex work is not dirty - dirty are all the representations about sex work” (La politique des putes 7/10, min 7).

  • Les femmes dans la ville

    Partout dans le monde, les #violences faites aux femmes sont massives et récurrentes. La majorité des #agressions ont lieu dans la sphère privée mais les femmes sont loin d’être épargnées dans l’#espace_public, où elles sont touchées de façon disproportionnée. Tour du monde des initiatives qui visent à rendre les villes plus justes et plus sûres.


    https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/RC-015858/les-femmes-dans-la-ville

    #femmes #villes #genre #géographie_culturelle #urban_matter #ressources_pédagogiques
    #gadgets #Rapex #arts_martiaux #transports_en_commun #Pink_Rickshaws #Anza (fondation) #patriarcat #harcèlement_de_rue #No_estoy_sola #Frauen_Werkstatt (Autriche) #espaces_sûrs #sécurité #toilettes #No_toilet_no_bride (Inde) #vidéo #film

    • Women in northern India said, ‘No toilet, no bride,’ and it worked

      For about 12 years, young women in the northern Indian state of Haryana have been telling suitors, “No loo, no ‘I do!’” And according to a recent study, the bargain is working: Toilet ownership has significantly increased as men scramble to attract brides in a marriage market where discrimination has made women scarce.

      Through radio spots, billboards, posters and painted slogans on buildings, the “No Toilet, No Bride” campaign, launched by state authorities in 2005, encourages women and their families to demand that male suitors build a private latrine before they will agree to marriage. According to the study, published last month in ScienceDirect, private sanitation coverage increased by 21 percent in Haryana among households with boys active on the marriage market from 2004 to 2008.

      However, the study also found that the low-cost social marketing campaign was only successful because it was able to take advantage of “one of the most severely skewed sex ratios on earth.”

      Like most of northern India, Haryana values males much more than females. Even before birth, males often receive far better care, while females face a high risk of selective abortion because of their gender. Once born, girls continue to face discrimination through constraints on health care, movement, education or employment. However, they also face much higher risk of violence due to the widespread practice of open defecation.

      Globally, 1.1 billion people today defecate in open spaces, such as fields, but the problem is especially concentrated in India, where 626 million people do so. To maintain some semblance of privacy and dignity, women and girls usually take care of business under cover of darkness, making them more vulnerable to harassment, rape, kidnapping and wild animal attacks. According to the study, about 70 percent of rural households in Haryana did not have a private latrine in 2004.

      Recognizing the urgent need for sanitation, the Indian government launched a community-led “Total Sanitation Campaign” in 1999. But Haryana state authorities, inspired by the work of a local nongovernmental organization, saw a unique opportunity to achieve a public policy goal (sanitation) by exploiting deeply rooted social norms (marriage) and marriage market conditions (a scarcity of women).

      “Despite widespread and persistent discrimination, heightened competition on the male side of the market has shaped the overall bargaining environment” and increased women’s bargaining power, the study said.

      The benefit has been felt most deeply not only by the brides, but also the sisters and mothers of the grooms who can enjoy the safety, convenience and health benefits of a latrine in their home as well. And after years of the information campaign, brides do not even have to make the demand themselves in some cases. Men have begun to recognize that saving up to build a latrine is a standard prerequisite to marriage.

      “I will have to work hard to afford a toilet,” Harpal Sirshwa, a 22-year-old at the time, told the Washington Post in 2009. “We won’t get any bride if we don’t have one now. I won’t be offended when the woman I like asks for a toilet.”

      Based on government household surveys, the study reported that 1.42 million toilets were built between 2005 and 2009. Of those, 470,000 were built by households below the poverty line. The numbers may not overshadow those of other sanitation campaigns and randomized control trials in India, but the “No Toilet, No Bride” campaign is comparatively very cost-effective.

      Unfortunately, in marriage markets where there is not a significant scarcity of women the study found that “No Toilet, No Bride” had little to no effect. However, in regions like northern India where the sex ratio is skewed, the campaign has already begun to expand into neighboring states, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. In February, 110 villages took it one step further by requiring grooms obtain certificates verifying their toilets before they can marry.

      “Open defecation is not only an unhygienic habit, but also it often leads to crime against women,” Yahya Karimi, who oversaw the decision, told Times of India. “So, unless a groom has a toilet at his house, he won’t get a bride.”


      http://www.humanosphere.org/global-health/2017/05/women-northern-india-said-no-toilet-no-bride-worked

  • “I Will Become A Straight Girl”
    http://africasacountry.com/2016/12/i-will-become-a-straight-girl

    In May 2015, Zakwe, a 28 year old woman from Soweto, in Johannesburg, told ActionAid: “They tell me that they will kill me, they will #rape me and after raping me I will become a girl. I will become a straight girl. Earlier this week, the body of #Noluvo_Swelindawo, a 22 year old lesbian […]

    #POLITICS #South_Africa

  • How to write an anti-feminist profile in six easy steps
    https://medium.com/athena-talks/how-to-write-an-anti-feminist-profile-in-six-easy-steps-14ca9b885f39
    Ce qui est drôle dans cet article c’est la naïveté de son autrice. Aujourd’hui, ça n’arriverait pas, non, non.

    So today, in this brave new era of feminist hashtags such as #everydaysexism, #rapecultureiswhen, and #freethenipple; of online publications such as Lenny, Jezebel, Bitch, Bust, Rookie, Feministe, Feministing; of smart feminist role models such as Tina Fey, Amy Poehler, Amy Schumer, Lena Dunham, Beyoncé, Cheryl Strayed, Taylor Swift, Roxane Gay, Jill Soloway, Sheryl Sandberg, shonda rhimes, Jennifer Lawrence, Eva Longoria, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichi, Emma Watson, Meg Wolitzer, Katie Roiphe, Rachel Sklar, Ayelet Waldman, Nell Scovell, Liza Featherstone, and Angelina Jolie — just to name a few! — all of whom are out there, in one way or another, speaking the formerly unspeakable, I present, from its analog vault, this ancient artifact of anti-feminist rhetoric, to remind us all that, just fifteen years ago today, it was okay, in a mainstream publication, to blame a woman for her rape and call her a slut.


    #sexisme #presse

  • Culture du viol dans les médias : Quand le Point conseille aux femmes d’"accepter la brutalité de leur amant ». | CONTEXTU’ELLES
    http://contextuelles.wordpress.com/2014/07/23/medias-culture-du-viol-incitation-a-la-violence-sexuelle-se


    juillet 23, 2014Nathalie Blu-Perouapologie du viol, banalisation du viol, Clichés genrés, #Culture_du_viol, féminisme, incitation à la violence sexuelle, médias, préjugés, sexisme, viol conjugal 2 Commentaires

    Le « Rape culture » (« culture du viol »), terme utilisé pour la première fois par les féministes dans les années 1970, semble décidément plus que jamais au goût du jour, tant le concept apparaît omniprésent dans nos médias.

    Si par « culture du viol », on entend tout un appareil de pensée, de représentation, de pratiques et de discours qui excusent, banalisent, érotisent voire encouragent la violence sexuelle, alors c’est bien le magazine Le Point qui, sur son site, nous offre cette semaine, le plus beau cas d’école.

    Traitement médiatique inapproprié de la violence sexuelle

    Dans cette chronique pourrie et teintée d’humour graveleux, intitulée « Les conseils avisés de nos amies les bêtes de sexe(1) : pratiquer avec modération l’amour sado-maso », deux journalistes du Point (Frédéric Lewino et Gwendoline Dos Santos) s’improvisent, pour l’occasion, experts en relations conjugales et se croient obligés de distiller leurs « bons » conseils, afin de booster notre libido.

    Le tout, bien-sûr, vidéo à l’appui :

    Cette vidéo, donc, montre un accouplement de tortues Hermann (Testudo Hermanni), au cours duquel le mâle s’efforce maladroitement de monter sur la femelle, après l’avoir au préalable immobilisée, au moyen de légers mordillements et autres petits coups sur sa carapace.

    Accumulation de préjugés sexistes

    Il n’en fallait pas plus à ces 2 journalistes, pour nous proposer sur un ton rigolard, une grotesque mise en abyme du comportement sexuel humain, à travers celui de l’espèce animale. Et de nous expliquer, via une consternante énumération de clichés et préjugés sexistes relatifs à la culture du viol, comment la tortue Hermann prend son pied en morflant.

    #rape_culture #sexisme #diktat_phallocrate

  • #Egypt police arrest man accused of raping Russian tourist
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/egypt-police-arrest-man-accused-raping-russian-tourist

    Egyptian police said Saturday they have arrested a driver for raping a Russian tourist in a resort town, as the government cracks down on an epidemic of #sexual_harassment and violence. Police said the mini-bus driver raped the woman after pretending the vehicle had broken down, to trick her husband into getting off before speeding off with his intended victim. The incident took place in the Red Sea resort town of Sharm al-Sheikh, where the tourism ministry had previously shut down two hotels over alleged rapes. read more

    #rape

  • Egyptian Chronicles:
    : The video is not the Problem
    http://egyptianchronicles.blogspot.fr/2014/06/endsh-video-is-not-problem.html

    I am sorry for not joining the festivity mood of celebrating on how El-Sisi apologized to the victim but I got a very bad problem : I do not forget easily. No one has apologized for the girls who had undergone virginity tests in March 2011 “El-Sisi him admitted that there were virginity tests in Egypt in his meeting with the head of Amnesty International” or the famous Blue bra girl in December 2011.
    I can not forget either that there are girls in Anatar women’s prison are being beaten and assaulted during their imprisonment because of their political affiliation. 

    By the way Entasser El-Sisi , Egypt’s current first lady visited the victim at the military hospital early Friday in what is considered her first public visit as a First lady. It is still unclear if she is going to have a public role like Jihan El-Sadat and Suzanne Mubarak or will have a small public role like Tahia Abdel Nasser and Naglaa Morsi.

    Earlier today during his cycling marathon which he won it , President El-Sisi spoke about sexual harassment problem and he attacked the sexual assault video and that person who filmed. The Field Marshal wondered how the man had the guts to leave “his honor” {The lady} to be assaulted and to film that video and share the video defaming his country.

    As much as I understand the debate about whether the man should have tried to save the lady or to complete filming but I do not understand how this clip defamed the country. This quote means that we are returning to the old days of sweeping dirt under the carpet for fear of defaming our image in front of the world as if the world does not know the truth !!

    Let’s be clear here without any photo or video footage unfortunately no one would have believed that there were horrifying sexual assaults in Tahrir square whether now or in the past. In fact no one would have believed that there were torture, abuse and brutality in Egyptian police stations without video or photo proof because simply people reject to admit that we got problems. Nobody would have cared about the victims if that shocking video did not find its way to the internet.

    Do you know that during the 30 June protests till the ousting of Morsi on 4 July Tahrir square witnessed several sexual harassment and assaults and that nobody gave a damn in the media !?

    #rape #sexualviolence

  • #Iraq #violence kills hundreds this week: #UN
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/iraq-violence-kills-hundreds-week-un

    The number of people killed after jihadist militants overran the Iraqi city of Mosul earlier this week may run into the hundreds, UN human rights spokesman Rupert Colville said on Friday. He said his office had reports the killings included the execution of 17 civilians working for the police and a court employee in central Mosul. Four women had killed themselves after being raped, 16 Jordanians had been kidnapped, and prisoners released by the fighters had been looking to exact revenge on those responsible for their incarceration, he said. read more

    #rape

  • Lebanese police arrest two serial rapists
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/lebanese-police-arrest-two-serial-rapists

    Lebanese authorities arrested two men suspected of raping more than 60 women, the Internal Security Forces said. In a statement posted online, the ISF said that the two men, aged about 34 and 22, lured their victims into their cars by offering them rides. Instead, they took uninhabited routes where they raped and robbed the women at gunpoint. Authorities found about 20 purses and an assault rifle after raiding one of the men’s homes in the Mount #Lebanon town of Aramoun. The statement said the man confessed to raping at least 50 women. read more

    #rape

  • Ex-US soldier guilty of #rape, #murder found hanged in prison
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/18699

    A former US soldier, sentenced to life imprisonment for the 2006 rape and murder of a 14-year-old Iraqi girl as well as the murder of her parents and six-year-old sister, has been found hanged in his cell. According to American media reports, prison officials said the death of Steven Dale Green, found hanging in his Arizona cell last week, was currently being investigated as an act of suicide. read more

    #Iraq #Top_News #US_solider

  • #Lebanon: ‘On-Demand’ Clerics Officiate Child Marriage
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/lebanon-%E2%80%98-demand%E2%80%99-clerics-officiate-child-marriag

    (Photo: Douaa El-Adel, Egypt) (Photo: Douaa El-Adel, Egypt)

    What do Eva, Fatima, Linda, and Zainab – 14, 11, 13, and 15 years of age, respectively – have in common? They are all #Child_Brides and expectant mothers, with clerics involved in legitimizing their #rape. But most importantly, the Lebanese government is sitting idly by, even condoning what is being done under religious cover. The government sees these cases as mere technical violations, doing nothing more than occasionally fining the clerics 50,000 Lebanese lira ($33), the equivalent of a traffic ticket.

    Rajana Hamyeh

    read (...)

    #Culture_&_Society #Articles #Dar_al-Fatwa #Minors #sharia #Statutory_Rape

  • Gay sex ? Wrong. Men raping girls ? Natural - according to Uganda’s Minister for Ethics and Integrity

    Transcript from a conversation between Stephen Fry and Uganda’s Minister for Ethics and Integrity, as reported by Stephen Fry on The Late Late Show - http://www.johnmbecker.com/2013/06/03/ugandan-minister-gay-sex-wrong-men-raping-girls-natural

    Stephen Fry: ‘Look, even if these… utterly false supports on which you base your homophobia were true, which they aren’t, there’s so much more to worry about in your country than the odd gay person going to bed with the other gay person. For example, you have almost an epidemic of child rape in this country, which is just frightening’
    Uganda’s Minister for Ethics and Integrity: ‘Ah, but it is the right kind of child rape.’
    Stephen Fry: ‘That was on camera. Do you know that that was on camera?’
    Uganda’s Minister for Ethics and Integrity: ‘Yes‘
    Stephen Fry: ‘Can you just explain what you mean ?‘
    Uganda’s Minister for Ethics and Integrity: ‘Well, is men raping girls, which is natural’

    #rape #Uganda

  • #Somalia jails #rape victim for “defamation”
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/somalia-jails-rape-victim-defamation

    A Somali court on Monday sentenced to jail a woman who said she was raped and two journalists who broadcast her story, saying they were guilty of defamation and insulting state institutions. The 19-year old woman, who is also a journalist, was handed a suspended six-month jail sentence for defamation and lying, during which time she will be confined to her home, said Judge Hashi Elmi Nur. The journalists are to serve out their sentences, of one year and six months respectively, or pay a fine in order to win early release. read more

    #Top_News

  • On the Pain of Violent Men, or, Why I’m not Sorry about Max and Montle
    http://africasacountry.com/on-the-pain-of-violent-men-or-why-im-not-sorry-about-max-and-montle

    Let me start by saying that I feel very ambivalent about causing two workers to lose their source of income. It makes me uncomfortable to have deprived anyone of a wage in this time of crisis. ‘Getting someone fired’, more than a victory, makes me feel miserable, concerned, confused. There are a number of other [...]

    #OPINION #FHM #rape #South_Africa

  • South African NGO challenges dominant ideas about how to be a man
    http://africasacountry.com/south-african-ngo-challenges-dominant-ideas-about-how-to-be-a-man

    Even though the overall media attention for the matter has faded these past few months, women in #South_Africa continue to be brutalized, harassed, assaulted and murdered by the country’s men (mostly in the domestic sphere by known perpetrators) — we wrote about that here. A few weeks ago, black lesbian woman #Duduzile_Zozo, was raped [...]

    #OPINION #rape #Sonke_Gender_Justice

  • Après les diverses déclarations scandaleuses sur le viol aux Etats-Unis, un rappel nécessaire sur les déplorables politiques de soutien aux victimes.

    http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/28/opinion/sunday/kristof-Outrageous-Policies-Toward-Rape-Victims.html?smid=fb-share&_r=0

    THE silliness began when Todd Akin claimed during his Senate campaign in Missouri that in the case of “legitimate rape,” women “shut that whole thing down” to prevent pregnancy. Then, a few days ago, Richard Mourdock of Indiana seemed to blame God for such pregnancies, saying this was “something God intended to happen.” I think God should sue him for defamation.
    But our political system jumps all over verbal stupidity, while giving a pass to stupid policies. If we’re offended by insensitive words about rape, for example, shouldn’t we be incomparably more upset that rape kits are routinely left untested in the United States? And wouldn’t it be nice if Democrats, instead of just firing sound bites, tackled these underlying issues?

    #rape #United States
    #viol #Etats-Unis

  • My cut-out-and-keep guide on how to stop #women having sex | Hadley Freeman | Comment is free | The Guardian
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/feb/09/guide-to-stop-women-having-sex

    An exciting update on last week’s discussion about how certain US politicians believe that, while some women are unfortunate enough to be raped, not all of them have been raped enough. “Forcible #rape” was the coinage these chaps came up with, which heretofore many would have considered tautological. But these politicians pointed out the error of such thinking: in the bill they put forward, they said that if a woman was in any way mentally incapacitated while she was raped, she couldn’t qualify for government money to have an #abortion. The rape hadn’t been forced, you see, and maybe the woman hadn’t fought her attacker off because she was drugged up with Rohypnol, but it could also have been because she, you know, wanted it. Hard to say. So instead, if this woman really did insist on aborting the conception-by-rape pregnancy, she should just go back and get raped again and this time, for heaven’s sake, try to stay awake during the proceedings.

    #viol