• Clouds of Unknowing : Edward Quin’s Historical Atlas (1830)

    “Now when I was a little chap I had a passion for maps”, says the seafaring raconteur #Charles_Marlow in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1899) (https://www.gutenberg.org/files/219/219-h/219-h.htm). “At that time there were many blank spaces on the earth, and when I saw one that looked particularly inviting on a map (but they all look that) I would put my finger on it and say, ’When I grow up I will go there.’” Of course, these “blank spaces” were anything but. The no-man’s-lands that colonial explorers like #Marlow found most inviting (the Congo River basin, #Tasmania, the #Andaman_Islands) were, in fact, richly populated, and faced devastating consequences in the name of imperial expansion.

    In the same troublesome vein as Marlow, Edward Quin’s Historical Atlas painted cartographic knowledge as a candle coruscating against the void of ignorance, represented in his unique vision by a broiling mass of black cloud. Each map represents the bounds of geographical learning at a particular point in history, from a specific civilizational perspective, beginning with Eden, circa “B.C. 2348”. In the next map titled “B.C. 1491. The Exodus of the Israelites”, Armenia, Assyria, Arabia, Aram, and Egypt form an island of light, pushing back the black clouds of unknowing. As history progresses — through various Roman dynasties, the reign of Charlemagne, and the Crusades — the foul weather retreats further. In the map titled “A.D. 1498. The Discovery of America”, the transatlantic exploits of the so-called Age of Discovery force Quin to employ a shift in scale — the luminescence of his globe now extends to include Africa and most of Asia, but North America hides behind cumulus clouds, with its “unnamed” eastern shores peeking out from beneath a storm of oblivion. In the Atlas’ last map, we find a world without darkness, not a trace of cloud. Instead, unexplored territories stretch out in the pale brown of vellum parchment, demarcating “barbarous and uncivilized countries”, as if the hinterlands of Africa and Canada are awaiting colonial inscription.

    Not much is known about Edward Quin, the Oxford graduate, London barrister, and amateur cartographer whose Atlas was published two years after his death at the age of thirty-four. We learn, thanks to Walter Goffart’s research into historical atlases, that Quin’s images were more popular than his words. The well-regarded cartographer William Hughes rescaled the maps for a new edition in 1846, discarding their artist’s accompanying text. The Atlas’ enduring technical advancement, which influenced subsequent cartographers, can be found in its ingenious use of negative space. Emma Willard’s Atlas to Accompany a System of Universal History, for instance, features cloudy borders that seem very much indebted to Quin.

    Looking back from a contemporary vantage, the Historical Atlas remains memorable for what is not shown. Quin’s cartography inadvertently visualizes the ideology of empire: a geographic chauvinism that had little respect for the knowledge of those beyond imperial borders. And aside from depicting the reach of Kublai Khan, his focus remains narrowly European and Judeo-Christian. While Quin strives for accuracy, he admits to programmatic omission. “The colours we have used being generally meant to point out and distinguish one state or empire from another. . . were obviously inapplicable to deserts peopled by tribes having no settled form of government, or political existence, or known territorial limits”. Instead of representing these groups, Quin, like his clouds, has erased them from view.

    #cartographie_historique #cartographie #connu #inconnu #géographie_du_vide #vide #histoire #Tasmanie #fleuve_Congo #colonisation #colonialisme #Edward_Quin #atlas

    ping @reka @visionscarto

    via @isskein

  • Joy, actually: happy reunions fill Auckland airport as trans-Tasman bubble begins | New Zealand | The Guardian

    Joy, actually: happy reunions fill Auckland airport as trans-Tasman bubble begins. Emotional scenes in arrivals hall as hundreds of travellers touch down on first day of quarantine-free travel from Australia
    Lisa Tetai warned her son not to take a sick day when he picked her up from Auckland airport. “I thought there might be media there,” she explains.She wasn’t wrong.As she stepped into the arrivals hall on Monday afternoon, Tetai, like hundreds of others who travelled to New Zealand on the first day of what has been dubbed the trans-Tasman travel “bubble” with Australia, was swamped; a flash of cameras, journalists buzzing with anticipation, then, pushing through the crowd, the people she had actually come to see. Cue tears.
    “I was supposed to be here for a funeral,” she said. “My uncle was admitted to hospital and I booked the earliest ticket I could get. He didn’t make it. They had the funeral last week, but I wanted to see my son and my grandson.
    “I’ve got family all over the North Island and before the pandemic I came back four or five times a year. It has been really, really hard.”
    It happened over and over again. Steph Wood was already crying when she walked into the cacophony. So too was her mother, Narelle. Wood had hoped to be back for Christmas last year, but a Covid outbreak in her home city of Sydney delayed the beginning of the long-mooted quarantine exemption for Australian arrivals.

    When it was finally announced two weeks ago, she didn’t waste time.

    “It was just like, I need to be here as soon as I possibly can,” she said. “I haven’t been back since 2019, I have been counting down the days.”

    Narelle was mostly speechless: “It’s just too good to have her back.”

    So it went all afternoon. A never-ending stream of emotional airport scenes, as though someone had organised a mass re-enactment of Love Actually’s opening montage. It was hard not to be moved. Not only by the reunions but also by the deep link these two island nations share
    Both Auckland airport and the airlines supplying the flights had put a lot of work into manufacturing this media moment – an acoustic band played the same Dave Dobbyn song on repeat all afternoon (Welcome home / I bid you welcome / I bid you welcome) and Jetstar served champagne in the departures lounge – possibly a budget airline world-first – before the first flight to leave Sydney.And for good reason. Monday might have been a day for reunions but there is a lot riding on the bubble. The pandemic has decimated both airlines and the tourism industry. According to Tourism Australia, 8,000 international visitors came in January – a 99% decrease from the year before.For both countries, pulling visitors from across the ditch is a crucial lifeline, particularly as lagging vaccine rollouts have forced politicians to warn other international travel may be some time off.
    While the New Zealand prime minister, Jacinda Ardern, said on Monday that her government was exploring options for travel bubbles with other Covid-free nations in the Pacific, it would not look further afield. Similarly, the Australian prime minister, Scott Morrison said on Sunday that Australia was “in no hurry to open those borders” to other countries.
    The questions is whether, after the initial flurry of reunions, the bubble between these two countries will offer a genuine economic boon for devastated tourism industries.Pre-Covid, Australians made up about 40% of the international visitors to New Zealand and spent $2.7bn in 2019. New Zealanders spent almost the same amount – $2.6bn in 2019, although Australia’s larger tourism market meant they only made up about 15% of visitors there. Perhaps aware of the political risks to welcoming Australians if there were to be an outbreak – a new poll by Research New Zealand for RNZ found 22% of New Zealanders were on the fence about the bubble and 28% were against an opening – Ardern has warned the high probability of fresh Covid-19 outbreaks meant the travel bubble could be burst at any moment.
    Indeed, new arrivals on Monday were warned they could be forced into quarantine in the event of an outbreak. But despite the tough stance, Ardern also seemed to get swept up in the enthusiasm on Monday, saying she was personally experiencing some of the excitement that had greeted the travel bubble. “I, like many New Zealanders, have friends and family in Australia,” she said, including some who were “desperate to return to New Zealand”.
    “I know how enthusiastically this has been greeted and I’m really pleased about that,” she said. “It is truly exciting to be able to welcome our Tasman cousins quarantine-free to Aotearoa.”Still, that level of uncertainty could mean that many holiday-makers will delay trips while they wait to see how it unfolds. Tourism NZ acknowledges this, saying its scenario modelling showed it could take until January 2022 for Australia to reach 80% recovery to pre-Covid 19 levels.


  • New Zealand suspends travel from India after jump in Covid-19 cases | New Zealand | The Guardian

    New Zealand suspends travel from India after jump in Covid-19 cases
    PM Jacinda Ardern said the government would look at risk management measures during suspension.NZ Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern Announces Plans For COVID Travel Bubble With AustraliaWELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND - APRIL 06: Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern speaks to media during a press conference at Parliament on April 06, 2021 in Wellington, New Zealand. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced that quarantine-free travel between New Zealand and Australia will start on Monday 19 April. The travel bubble will aid economic recovery by safely opening up international travel between the two countries while continuing to pursue a COVID-19 elimination strategy. New Zealand has temporarily suspended entry for all travellers from India, including its own citizens, for about two weeks following a high number of positive coronavirus cases arriving from the South Asian country.The move comes after New Zealand recorded 23 new positive coronavirus cases at its border on Thursday, of which 17 were from India.“We are temporarily suspending entry into New Zealand for travellers from India,” the prime minister, Jacinda Ardern, said in a news conference in Auckland.India is battling a deadly second wave of Covid-19 with daily infections this week passing the peak of the first wave seen last September.
    The suspension will start on 11 April and will be in place until 28 April. During this time the government will look at risk management measures to resume travel.“I want to emphasise that while arrivals of Covid from India has prompted this measure, we are looking at how we manage high risk points of departure generally. This is not a country specific risk assessment,” Ardern said.
    New Zealand has virtually eliminated the virus within its borders, and has not reported any community transmission locally for about 40 days.
    But it’s been reviewing its border settings as more people with infections arrive in New Zealand, the majority from India.Ardern said the rolling average of positive cases has been steadily rising and hit 7 cases on Wednesday, the highest since last October.New Zealand on Thursday also reported one new locally infected case in a worker who was employed at a coronavirus managed isolation facility. The 24-year-old was yet to be vaccinated.The travel suspension came just two days after New Zealand announced it would be launching a trans-Tasman travel bubble with Australia on 19 April.


  • PM says New Zealand’s borders shut for much of 2021 – Asia Times

    New Zealand’s borders are likely to remain closed for much of the year as health officials assess global vaccine rollouts, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern warned Tuesday.Ardern said the emergence over the weekend of New Zealand’s first case of community transmission in more than two months showed the danger Covid-19 still posed to a nation hailed for its response to the coronavirus.She said her government would not re-open its borders – which have been effectively closed to all but returning citizens since last March – while the pandemic was still raging worldwide.“Given the risks in the world around us and the uncertainty of the global rollout of a vaccine, we can expect our borders to be impacted for much of this year,” she told reporters.Still, Ardern said New Zealand would continue to pursue “travel bubbles” with Australia and Pacific island nations, which have also been largely successful at keeping out or containing the virus.
    Plans to open a travel bubble by the end of March were thrown into question when Australia suspended quarantine-free travel for Kiwis in response to the latest case of community transmission.
    Ardern said the case – a 56-year-old New Zealander who recently returned from Europe – was “well under control” and criticized Australia for re-imposing quarantine for New Zealanders.The center-left leader said she made her feelings known in a call on Monday with Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison.“If we’re to enter a trans-Tasman travel bubble, we need to give people confidence they won’t see border closures at very short notice over incidents that we believe can be well managed domestically,” she said.
    Officials in Canberra on Monday said the restrictions on New Zealanders were being imposed “out of an abundance of caution.”New Zealand Health Minister Chris Hipkins said 15 close contacts of the infected woman had tested negative for the virus, which has been identified as the more contagious South African variant


  • Tasmania is burning. The climate disaster future has arrived while those in power laugh at us | #Richard_Flanagan | Opinion | The Guardian

    #Australie : la #Tasmanie brûle. L’#avenir du désastre climatique est arrivé et les membres du #pouvoir se moquent de nous - Le conseil du PECO

    (Traduction approximative et parfois farfelue)

    Il y a deux ans, le trésorier de l’époque, Scott Morrison [actuel premier ministre], a ramassé un gros morceau de #charbon. Peut-être a-t-il pensé que c’était une bonne blague pour l’Australie aux dépens de quelques individus étranges, comme les Verts et la communauté scientifique mondiale. Ou peut-être que Morrison ne pensait vraiment pas. La plus grande erreur des journalistes est peut-être de penser que les personnes au centre sont plus nombreuses qu’elles ne le paraissent. Le problème avec des gens comme Morrison, la véritable #terreur, est qu’ils peuvent être beaucoup moins.

    « C’est du charbon », commença Morrison. « N’ayez pas peur, n’ayez pas peur, ne vous faites pas de mal, vous ne vous ferez pas de mal. »

    Presque bégayant dans son excitation, manquant de pronoms, il bavardait sans ponctuation. Si le style était grammaticalement joycéen, l’effet, à l’instar de son précédent chef-d’œuvre, « Où diable êtes-vous ? », Était mémorable.

    Il agita le morceau de charbon comme s’il s’agissait de l’Armée sacrée elle-même. Il le balança très haut et le rabaissa si bas que ce fut un instant comme si un Barnaby Joyeux écœuré pouvait le lécher. Comme ils ont ri ! Les rangs du parti libéral se sont rassemblés autour et derrière, comment ils ont tous ri et ont ri ce jour-là.

    Ces visages déformés avec une drôle de gaieté sont les masques #grotesques d’un grand #crime historique, se moquant non seulement de leurs adversaires politiques, mais se moquant de l’avenir avec ce pur mépris du pouvoir, nous rappelant au-delà du prochain cycle de nouvelles, de s’inquiéter au-delà du prochain cercle protégé. #outrage, de voir passé le prochain #mensonge. C’est l’image de notre #époque : le pouvoir se moque de nous.

    La plus grande fierté de Scott Morrison est qu’il les a arrêtés lorsque les #barbares étaient à la porte. Mais maintenant, la vérité est claire : les barbares n’ont jamais été à la porte. Ils ont toujours été ici , dans le palais, au pouvoir et ils nous ont aveuglés avec leur mensonge que les ennemis qui détruiraient notre monde étaient les misérables et les impuissants qui cherchaient #asile ici. Et tout au long de notre véritable ennemi, c’est eux : ceux qui ont brandi des morceaux de charbon devant leur trône, qui ont ri et qui se sont moqués ne vous feront pas de mal.


  • La #découverte de l’ #Australie et de la #Nouvelle-Zélande - #Persée

    Cet #article extrait des #Cahiers_d'Outre-Mer de #Christian_Huetz_de_Lemps en #1970 nous informe de l’importance #géographique des #découvertes de #Tasman dans le #Pacifique_Sud. Ainsi l’ #explorateur est envoyé à la recherche de la séparation entre la #Nouvelle_Guinée et l’Australie, mais en même temps chargé de nouvelles découvertes à la recherche d’ #or et d’ #argent sur ces #territoires inexplorés.

    Tasman décida alors de remonter un peu au Nord et de suivre en gros le 44’ parallèle. Le 24 novembre apparut une terre élevée que l’on contourna, observa et dénomma Terre de Van Diemen : il s’agissait du Sud-Ouest de la #Tasmanie. Continuant vers l’Est, le 13 décembre 1642 les #Hollandais virent une haute terre qu’ils entreprirent de longer vers le Nord : c’était l’île Sud de la Nouvelle-Zélande qu’ils nommèrent île des Etats. Dans la baie Golden, Tasman essaya de prendre contact avec les indigènes dont les nombreuses pirogues suivaient les évolutions des Européens, mais le seul résultat fut la perte de quatre hommes et d’une chaloupe, attaqués par surprise dans cette « baie des Assassins ». L’expédition suivit ensuite la côte de l’île Nord de la Nouvelle-Zélande, toucha aux #Tonga, aux #Fidji et gagna la côte Est de la Nouvelle-Guinée avant de rentrer à #Batavia. Le résultat de l’entreprise fut jugé médiocre dans la mesure où elle n’ouvrait guère de perspectives commerciales.

    Cependant cette entreprise peut être considérée comme fructueuse pour le #géographe car les explorations de Tasman consignées dans son journal de bord sont celles d’un grand #découvreur. L’intérêt géographique de ses découvertes a bien été reconnu plus tard par ses concitoyens hollandais qui ont reconnu l’apport d’ #informations que leur a fourni l’explorateur en incorporant dans leurs #cartes ses découvertes.

  • Alors qu’il était sur le point de disparaitre, le diable de Tasmanie développe une résistance à son cancer


    En un peu plus de 20 ans, la maladie “Devil Facial Tumour Disease” (DFTD) a ravagé la population de diables de Tasmanie sur l’île australienne, ce qui a entrainé une réduction globale de 80 % de l’espèce. Le cancer transmissible se distingue par des tumeurs faciales rouges et suintantes, fatales dans presque 100 % des cas, 6 mois après avoir contracté la maladie.

    Sur la base de modèles statistiques, les populations de diable sur la bordure Est de l’île, où les chercheurs ont d’abord détecté la maladie en 1996, devraient déjà être éteintes, mais cela n’a pas eu lieu. De petites populations s’accrochent encore à la vie, parce que, comme de nouvelles preuves le suggèrent, les diables de Tasmanie pourraient développer une résistance à leur mortel cancer.

    En 2015, des chercheurs ont annoncé qu’ils avaient détecté une deuxième souche, génétiquement distincte de DFTD, désignée DFT2 (la plus ancienne souche étant DFT1) chez 8 diables de Tasmanie au sud-est de l’île. L’étude publiée cette semaine ne porte que sur DFT1 et les chercheurs s’efforcent actuellement d’en apprendre plus sur DFT2. Étonnamment, l’émergence d’une deuxième souche pourrait donner lieu à un certain optimisme.
    Selon le coauteur de l’étude, le généticien évolutionniste Andrew Storfer, de l’université d’Etat de Washington :

    L’émergence de l’évolution de la deuxième tumeur est curieuse. Les chance que cela se produise en 20 ans semble très éloignée.

    Qu’un tel un évènement, aussi rare, se produisent deux fois, de façon indépendante dans une espèce et dans un laps de temps aussi court, est une indication que les diables ont pu rencontrer cet ennemi dans le passé. Storfer souligne que c’est une hypothèse, une supposition qui devra être testée.

    Selon Storfer :

    Peut-être qu’ils sont juste sujets aux cancers transmissibles comme celui-ci.Peut-être qu’ils sont déjà passés par là et, bien que dévastateur, ils le feront à nouveau.

  • Patrimoine mondial : l’Unesco refuse de déclasser des forêts australiennes


    Le comité du patrimoine mondial de l’Unesco, réuni à Doha, a refusé de déclasser partiellement des forêts de Tasmanie comme le demandait l’Australie, une décision de bon sens, se sont félicitées mardi 24 juin les associations australiennes de protection de la nature.
    Cette décision est un camouflet pour le premier ministre conservateur australien, Tony Abbott, qui souhaitait déclasser 74 000 hectares sur 120 000 inscrits au patrimoine mondial en 2013 sous le gouvernement travailliste. C’était la première fois qu’un pays développé avait déposé une telle demande.

  • Tasmania Wants To Use 100 Percent Renewable Energy By 2020 | ThinkProgress

    Tasmania has given the climate community something to smile about after months of frowning toward Australia. Since being elected in September, Prime Minister Tony Abbott has been waging an anti-climate crusade. He’s abandoned the country’s long-held emissions reduction target, taken steps towards repealing the carbon emissions trading scheme, and started an international row with the likes of Al Gore and U.N. climate chief Christiana Figueres over climate change’s role in this year’s intense, early season bushfires.

    Amidst all that, Abbott also found time to slash funding for renewable energy. Now Tasmania, Australia’s island state off the southeastern edge of the continent, has taken it’s own initiative in the face of Abbott’s many setbacks and released a climate change strategy aimed at achieving 100 percent renewable power usage by 2020.

    Tasmania’s new plan — known as the Climate Smart Tasmania plan — includes energy reduction targets across multiple sectors with an interim 2020 target to reduce carbon emissions to 35 percent below 1990 levels.

    #climat #Tasmanie #Australie