• Ausgehöhlte Rechtsstaatlichkeit: Der Fall Julian Assange | DW | 19....
    https://diasp.eu/p/12774466

    Ausgehöhlte Rechtsstaatlichkeit: Der Fall Julian Assange | DW | 19.04.2021

    Justizskandal, Folter, politische Verfolgung - UN-Folterexperte Nils Melzer erhebt in seinem neuen Buch schwere Vorwürfe – untermauert mit den Ergebnissen einer zweijährigen Untersuchung. Ausgehöhlte Rechtsstaatlichkeit: Der Fall Julian Assange | DW | 19.04.2021 #Assange #Pressefreiheit #Wikileaks #NilsMelzer #England #Ecuador #USA #Schweden #Auslieferung

  • Saddam Key in Early CIA Plot
    https://archive.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/169-history/36408.html

    By Richard Sale, United Press International, April 10, 2003

    U.S. forces in Baghdad might now be searching high and low for Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, but in the past Saddam was seen by U.S. intelligence services as a bulwark of anti-communism and they used him as their instrument for more than 40 years, according to former U.S. intelligence diplomats and intelligence officials.

    United Press International has interviewed almost a dozen former U.S. diplomats, British scholars and former U.S. intelligence officials to piece together the following account. The CIA declined to comment on the report.

    While many have thought that Saddam first became involved with U.S. intelligence agencies at the start of the September 1980 Iran-Iraq war, his first contacts with U.S. officials date back to 1959, when he was part of a CIA-authorized six-man squad tasked with assassinating then Iraqi Prime Minister Gen. Abd al-Karim Qasim.

    In July 1958, Qasim had overthrown the Iraqi monarchy in what one former U.S. diplomat, who asked not to be identified, described as “a horrible orgy of bloodshed.”

    According to current and former U.S. officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity, Iraq was then regarded as a key buffer and strategic asset in the Cold War with the Soviet Union. For example, in the mid-1950s, Iraq was quick to join the anti-Soviet Baghdad Pact which was to defend the region and whose members included Turkey, Britain, Iran and Pakistan.

    Little attention was paid to Qasim’s bloody and conspiratorial regime until his sudden decision to withdraw from the pact in 1959, an act that “freaked everybody out” according to a former senior U.S. State Department official.

    Washington watched in marked dismay as Qasim began to buy arms from the Soviet Union and put his own domestic communists into ministry positions of “real power,” according to this official. The domestic instability of the country prompted CIA Director Allan Dulles to say publicly that Iraq was “the most dangerous spot in the world.”

    In the mid-1980s, Miles Copeland, a veteran CIA operative, told UPI the CIA had enjoyed “close ties” with [the] . . . ruling Baath Party, just as it had close connections with the intelligence service of Egyptian leader Gamel Abd Nassar. In a recent public statement, Roger Morris, a former National Security Council staffer in the 1970s, confirmed this claim, saying that the CIA had chosen the authoritarian and anti-communist Baath Party “as its instrument.”

    According to another former senior State Department official, Saddam, while only in his early 20s, became a part of a U.S. plot to get rid of Qasim. According to this source, Saddam was installed in an apartment in Baghdad on al-Rashid Street directly opposite Qasim’s office in Iraq’s Ministry of Defense, to observe Qasim’s movements.

    Adel Darwish, Middle East expert and author of “Unholy Babylon,” said the move was done “with full knowledge of the CIA,” and that Saddam’s CIA handler was an Iraqi dentist working for CIA and Egyptian intelligence. U.S. officials separately confirmed Darwish’s account.

    Darwish said that Saddam’s paymaster was Capt. Abdel Maquid Farid, the assistant military attaché at the Egyptian Embassy who paid for the apartment from his own personal account. Three former senior U.S. officials have confirmed that this is accurate.

    The assassination was set for Oct. 7, 1959, but it was completely botched. Accounts differ. One former CIA official said that the 22-year-old Saddam lost his nerve and began firing too soon, killing Qasim’s driver and only wounding Qasim in the shoulder and arm. Darwish told UPI that one of the assassins had bullets that did not fit his gun and that another had a hand grenade that got stuck in the lining of his coat.

    “It bordered on farce,” a former senior U.S. intelligence official said. But Qasim, hiding on the floor of his car, escaped death, and Saddam, whose calf had been grazed by a fellow would-be assassin, escaped to Tikrit, thanks to CIA and Egyptian intelligence agents, several U.S. government officials said.

    Saddam then crossed into Syria and was transferred by Egyptian intelligence agents to Beirut, according to Darwish and former senior CIA officials. While Saddam was in Beirut, the CIA paid for Saddam’s apartment and put him through a brief training course, former CIA officials said. The agency then helped him get to Cairo, they said.

    One former U.S. government official, who knew Saddam at the time, said that even then Saddam “was known as having no class. He was a thug — a cutthroat.”

    In Cairo, Saddam was installed in an apartment in the upper class neighborhood of Dukki and spent his time playing dominos in the Indiana Café, watched over by CIA and Egyptian intelligence operatives, according to Darwish and former U.S. intelligence officials.

    One former senior U.S. government official said: “In Cairo, I often went to Groppie Café at Emad Eldine Pasha Street, which was very posh, very upper class. Saddam would not have fit in there. The Indiana was your basic dive.”

    But during this time Saddam was making frequent visits to the American Embassy where CIA specialists such as Miles Copeland and CIA station chief Jim Eichelberger were in residence and knew Saddam, former U.S. intelligence officials said.

    Saddam’s U.S. handlers even pushed Saddam to get his Egyptian handlers to raise his monthly allowance, a gesture not appreciated by Egyptian officials since they knew of Saddam’s American connection, according to Darwish. His assertion was confirmed by former U.S. diplomat in Egypt at the time.

    In February 1963 Qasim was killed in a Baath Party coup. Morris claimed recently that the CIA was behind the coup, which was sanctioned by President John F. Kennedy, but a former very senior CIA official strongly denied this.

    “We were absolutely stunned. We had guys running around asking what the hell had happened,” this official said.

    But the agency quickly moved into action. Noting that the Baath Party was hunting down Iraq’s communist, the CIA provided the submachine gun-toting Iraqi National Guardsmen with lists of suspected communists who were then jailed, interrogated, and summarily gunned down, according to former U.S. intelligence officials with intimate knowledge of the executions.

    Many suspected communists were killed outright, these sources said. Darwish told UPI that the mass killings, presided over by Saddam, took place at Qasr al-Nehayat, literally, the Palace of the End.

    A former senior U.S. State Department official told UPI: “We were frankly glad to be rid of them. You ask that they get a fair trial? You have to get kidding. This was serious business.”

    A former senior CIA official said: “It was a bit like the mysterious killings of Iran’s communists just after Ayatollah Khomeini came to power in 1979. All 4,000 of his communists suddenly got killed.”

    British scholar Con Coughlin, author of “Saddam: King of Terror,” quotes Jim Critchfield, then a senior Middle East agency official, as saying the killing of Qasim and the communists was regarded “as a great victory.” A former long-time covert U.S. intelligence operative and friend of Critchfield said: “Jim was an old Middle East hand. He wasn’t sorry to see the communists go at all. Hey, we were playing for keeps.”

    Saddam, in the meantime, became head of al-Jihaz a-Khas, the secret intelligence apparatus of the Baath Party.

    The CIA/Defense Intelligence Agency relation with Saddam intensified after the start of the Iran-Iraq war in September of 1980. During the war, the CIA regularly sent a team to Saddam to deliver battlefield intelligence obtained from Saudi AWACS surveillance aircraft to aid the effectiveness of Iraq’s armed forces, according to a former DIA official, part of a U.S. interagency intelligence group.

    This former official said that he personally had signed off on a document that shared U.S. satellite intelligence with both Iraq and Iran in an attempt to produce a military stalemate. “When I signed it, I thought I was losing my mind,” the former official told UPI.

    A former CIA official said that Saddam had assigned a top team of three senior officers from the Estikhbarat, Iraq’s military intelligence, to meet with the Americans.

    According to Darwish, the CIA and DIA provided military assistance to Saddam’s ferocious February 1988 assault on Iranian positions in the al-Fao peninsula by blinding Iranian radars for three days.

    The Saddam-U.S. intelligence alliance of convenience came to an end at 2 a.m. Aug. 2, 1990, when 100,000 Iraqi troops, backed by 300 tanks, invaded its neighbor, Kuwait. America’s one-time ally had become its bitterest enemy.

    #impérialisme #USA #Iraq #CIA #histoire

  • Seit 30 Jahren bombardieren die USA den Irak
    https://www.nachdenkseiten.de/?p=70630

    US-Justizminister Clark nannte Mitte der 1990er die erschreckende Zahl von 1,5 Millionen durch Sanktionen Getötete, während andere diese noch höher ansetzten. Die Welternährungsorganisation nannte bereits 1995 die Zahl von 576.000 durch Sanktionen getötete Kinder – das ist Madeleine Albrights berühmt-berüchtigter „Preis“ für den Regime Change der USA, den es „wert“ sei, von irakischen Kindern zahlen zu lassen. Genozid durch Sanktionen, Zerstörung eines Landes durch Wirtschaftsterrorismus, millionenfacher Mord durch aktive Unterlassung – das ist Bill Clintons Erbe im Irak und das Paradebeispiel, wie ein Land und seine Bevölkerung zerstört werden können, ohne auch nur einen Fuß auf dieses Land zu setzen.

    Madeleine Albright: „500,000 Dead Iraqi Children Was Worth It“
    https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2008/03/madeleine-albright-500000-dead-iraqi-children-was-worth-it

    Here is a much forgotten exchange between Lesley Stahl and Madeleine Albright on “60 Minutes” back on May 12, 1996 that is not getting much play lately:

    Lesley Stahl on U.S. sanctions against Iraq: We have heard that a half million children have died. I mean, that’s more children than died in Hiroshima. And, you know, is the price worth it?

    Secretary of State Madeleine Albright: I think this is a very hard choice, but the price–we think the price is worth it.

    In case you missed that episode, here is the video:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omnskeu-puE

    #impérialisme #USA #Iraq #guerre #enfants #boycott

  • Seit 30 Jahren bombardieren die USA den Irak
    https://www.nachdenkseiten.de/?p=70630

    11. März 2021 um 9:37 Ein Artikel von Jakob Reimann

    Mit der Operation Desert Storm setzte Bush Senior 1991 eine Pathologie US-amerikanischer Außenpolitik in Gang, unter der seit nunmehr 30 Jahren Krieg gegen die irakische Bevölkerung geführt wird. Die Kriegsformen wechseln sich ab und greifen verstärkend ineinander: Bombenteppich, Invasion, Flugverbotszonen, Wirtschaftskrieg, Drohnenkrieg. Das Ziel ist es, den Aufstieg des ölreichen Irak zum Regionalhegemonen dauerhaft zu unterbinden. Für dieses machtpolitische Kalkül zerstörten die USA die Grundfeste eines ganzen Landes, der Wiege der Zivilisation, und töteten im Irak mindestens 2,7 Millionen Menschen – im Schnitt 250 jeden Tag, seit 30 Jahren.

    Der 17. Januar 2021 markierte den 30. Jahrestag des Krieges der USA gegen den Irak. Seit Januar 1991 bombardieren die Vereinigten Staaten nun ohne Unterbrechung das Land an Euphrat und Tigris, die Wiege der Zivilisation, und setzen darüber hinaus Wirtschaftskrieg, Staatsterrorismus und Folter ein. Der Irakkrieg dauert länger als der Amerikanische Bürgerkrieg, der Spanisch-Amerikanische Krieg, der Erste Weltkrieg, der Zweite Weltkrieg, der Koreakrieg, der Vietnamkrieg und der Kosovokrieg zusammen und ist damit der längste international ausgetragene Krieg seit dem Dreißigjährigen Krieg von 1618. Im Folgenden soll die Geschichte nachskizziert werden, wie die USA auf diesen mörderischen Irrweg gelangt sind.

    #impérialisme #guerre #USA #Iraq

  • #Mathieu_Bock-Côté : « Le #racialisme est un #totalitarisme »

    –-> attention : toxique !

    ENTRETIEN. #Privilège_blanc, #blanchité, #racisme_systémique… L’auteur de « La Révolution racialiste » (Les Presses de la Cité) décape les théories de la gauche identitaire.

    https://www.lepoint.fr/editos-du-point/sebastien-le-fol/mathieu-bock-cote-le-racialisme-est-un-totalitarisme-14-04-2021-2422277_1913

    #division #Blancs #racisés #couleur_de_peau #obsession_raciale #sciences_sociales #race #rapports_de_pouvoir #rapports_de_pouvoir #colonialisme_idéologique #révolution_racialiste #civilisation_occidentale #liberté_d'expression #démocratie #régression #imperméabilité_ethnique #enferment #groupe_racial #assignation #indigénisme #décolonial #mouvance_racialiste #américanisation #université #sciences_sociales #théorie_du_genre #genre #colonisation_idéologique #conscience_raciale #identification_raciale #Noirs_américains #clivages #intégration #assimilation #trahison_raciale #USA #Etats-Unis #Canada #multiculturalisme #niqab #Justin_Trudeau #noyau_identitaire #diversité #identité #utopie_diversitaire #France #résistance #Québec #idéologie #culture_française #universalisme #universel #moeurs #culture #imperméabilité #culture_nationale #nationalisme #déterminismes_biologiques #civilisation_occidentale #hygiène_intellectuelle #vérité #rigueur_intellectuelle #société_libérale

    ping @cede @karine4 (attention : indigeste)

  • Le géant indien des vaccins demande à Biden de mettre fin à l’embargo sur ses matières premières
    https://www.rtbf.be/info/monde/detail_le-geant-indien-des-vaccins-demande-a-biden-de-mettre-fin-a-l-embargo-su

    Le patron du plus grand fabricant mondial de vaccins, basé en Inde, s’est adressé directement vendredi au président américain Joe Biden sur Twitter pour lui demander de mettre fin à un embargo sur les exportations de composants.

    La méthode peu courante adoptée par Adar Poonawalla, patron du Serum Institute (SII), l’un des principaux fournisseurs des pays en voie de développement, souligne la gravité des difficultés que rencontrent ces pays pour s’approvisionner en vaccins anti-Covid.

    « Respecté Président, si nous voulons sincèrement nous unir dans le combat contre ce virus, au nom de l’industrie de la vaccination à l’extérieur des Etats-Unis, je vous demande humblement de supprimer l’embargo sur l’exportation de produits de base, afin que la production de vaccins puisse augmenter », a-t-il tweeté.

    Il n’y a pas eu de réponse immédiate sur Twitter de Joe Biden. . . . . .
    #covid #coronavirus #vaccins #pénurie organisée #inde #usa #biden

  • États-Unis : #Kamala_Harris, une ascension californienne

    Avec la victoire de Joe Biden, Kamala Harris est la première femme et la première noire à devenir vice-présidente des États-Unis. À 56 ans, la sénatrice de Californie est un pur produit de la diversité américaine. Elle est jeune, télégénique, pugnace et a passé sa vie à repousser les barrières sociales.

    Kamala Harris est la première femme et la première noire à accéder à la vice-présidence des États-Unis. Et certains la voient même devenir la première présidente des Etats-Unis en 2024, car Joe Biden a annoncé ne vouloir briguer qu’un seul mandat en raison de son âge, 77 ans.

    Comment Kamala Harris est-elle allée si loin, si vite ? Qu’est-ce que son ascension raconte du système politique américain ? Du racisme aujourd’hui aux États-Unis ? Du pouvoir de l’argent ? Des bastions du mouvement pour les droits civiques de Berkeley et Oakland, aux grandes fortunes de San Francisco jusqu’aux nouveaux moguls de la Silicon Valley, ce reportage de Marjolaine Grappe et Gary Grabli raconte l’ascension californienne de Kamala Harris.

    https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/099969-000-A/etats-unis-kamala-harris-une-ascension-californienne
    #Etats-Unis #USA #National_Association_for_the_Advancement_of_Colored_People (#NAACP) #religion #Rainbow_Sign #Oakland #Terry_Wiley #procureur #Willie_Brown #Herb_Caen

  • La corde du diable

    « La corde du diable » est le nom du barbelé, ce fil de fer inventé à la fin du XIXe siècle aux États-Unis qui emprisonne les hommes et les bêtes, de la prairie à la prison, de la base militaire à la frontière. C’est à travers ce prisme que Sophie Bruneau approche l’épineuse question de la #surveillance et du #contrôle. Un essai documentaire exigeant, à la force plastique stupéfiante qui présente une poignante réflexion sur la gestion politique de l’espace.

    « La corde du diable », c’est le nom donné par ses détracteurs au barbelé, ce fil de fer inventé à la fin du XIXe siècle aux États-Unis. Le film s’ancre dans les grands espaces américains et leurs kilomètres de clôture, comme si la trame narrative se dévidait en miroir de ces millions d’épissures acérées derrière lesquelles lorgnent les têtes de bétail. Point de départ : Omaha, dans le Nebraska, entre foire aux bestiaux, bottes rutilantes et Stetson poussiéreux. Claquements de fouet et musique bluegrass en fond sonore. De la prairie à la prison, de la base militaire à la frontière, la corde du diable emprisonne les hommes et les bêtes. C’est à travers le prisme de cet objet universel que Sophie Bruneau – coréalisatrice du remarquable documentaire Ils ne mouraient pas tous mais tous étaient frappés, sur la souffrance au travail – aborde l’épineuse question de la surveillance et du contrôle.

    https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/057390-000-A/la-corde-du-diable

    #film #film_documentaire
    #barbelé #clôture #USA #Etats-Unis #fil_barbelé #élevage #prison #armée #objets #identification #frontières #Mexique #Tohono_O'odham #Baboquivari #migrations #mourir_dans_le_désert #morts #décès #morgue

  • L’usage de l’art - Fred Turner - Babelio
    https://www.babelio.com/livres/Turner-Lusage-de-lart/1283295#critiques

    C’est bien de pouvoir les critiques des véritables lecteurs. merci Babelio.

    Fred Turner nous guide au coeur du festival Burning Man, véritable mythe au sein de la Silicon Valley, puis dans les locaux de Facebook, parmi les plus secrets de la planète. Ses observations nourrissent une analyse sur le nouvel usage de l’art comme outil de management et de création d’une culture d’entreprise.
    Acquisitions, fondations, mécénat : les entreprises utilisent depuis fort longtemps l’art pour manifester leur grandeur et leur rayonnement tant dans leurs bâtiments que dans l’espace public. Depuis quelques années, la Silicon Valley utilise l’art différemment pour créer un nouvel environnement de travail, un nouveau style de vie en entreprise, chaque salarié pouvant apporter ses émotions, son moi profond et sa créativité.

    Pour accompagner leur croissance accélérée, les firmes du numérique ont développé leur propre culture d’entreprise en intégrant un nouvel usage de l’art. On voit ainsi des ingénieurs préparer des performances pour Burning Man, ou des artistes recouvrir de fresques et d’affiches les murs des locaux de Facebook. À l’image des utilisateurs des médias sociaux, les salariés, chargés de « changer le monde », acceptent de rendre floue la frontière entre vie privée et travail, entre leurs sentiments et leur production.

    Dans ce nouvel ouvrage incisif, Fred Turner montre comment les entreprises de technologie ont construit un modèle managérial qui veut rendre invisibles les relations de pouvoir. Elles récupèrent ainsi les idées de la contre-culture, celles d’un monde sans hiérarchie et sans contrats... pour notre bénéfice individuel et pour le plus grand bien des entreprises de la Silicon Valley.

    #Usage_art #Fred_Turner #Babelio

  • Les infirmières du centre hospitalier universitaire de Californie condamnent les attaques racistes contre les communautés asiatiques

    Les infirmières diplômées de centre hospitalier universitaire de Californie sont indignées par les attaques racistes et xénophobes dont sont victimes les Asiatiques et appellent à la solidarité avec les communautés asiatiques et à un engagement public en faveur de solutions visant à mettre fin au racisme structurel et à promouvoir l’équité et la guérison sociales, a annoncé aujourd’hui le syndicat California Nurses Association/National Nurses United (CNA/NNU).

    https://entreleslignesentrelesmots.blog/2021/04/09/les-infirmieres-du-centre-hospitalier-universitaire-de-

    #international #usa #racisme

  • Academic freedom is in crisis ; free speech is not

    In August 2020, the UK think tank The Policy Exchange produced a report on Academic Freedom in the UK (https://policyexchange.org.uk/publication/academic-freedom-in-the-uk-2), alleging a chilling effect for staff and students expressing conservative opinions, particularly pro-Brexit or ‘gender critical’ ideas. This is an issue that was examined by a 2018 parliamentary committee on Human Rights which found a lack of evidence for serious infringements of free speech (https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201719/jtselect/jtrights/1279/127904.htm). In a university context, freedom of speech is protected under the Human Rights Act 1998 as long as the speech is lawful and does not contravene other university regulations on issues like harassment, bullying or inclusion. Some of these controversies have been firmly rebutted by Chris Parr (https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/free-speech-crisis-uk-universities-chris-parr) and others who describe how the incidents have been over-hyped.

    Despite this, the government seems keen to appoint a free speech champion for universities (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2021/feb/15/tories-war-on-the-woke-ministers-statues-protests) which continues a campaign started by #Sam_Gyimah (https://academicirregularities.wordpress.com/2018/07/06/sams-on-campus-but-is-the-campus-onto-sam) when he was minister for universities in 2018, and has been interpreted by some commentators as a ‘war on woke’. In the current climate of threats to university autonomy, many vice chancellors wonder whether this might be followed by heavy fines or reduced funding for those institutions deemed to fall on the wrong side of the culture wars.

    While public concern has been directed to an imagined crisis of free speech, there are more significant questions to answer on the separate but related issue of academic freedom. Most university statutes echo legislation and guarantee academics ‘freedom within the law to question and test received wisdom, and to put forward new ideas and controversial and unpopular opinions, without placing themselves in jeopardy of losing their jobs or privileges they may have at their institutions.’ [Section 202 of the Education Reform Act 1988]. In reality, these freedoms are surrendered to the greater claims of academic capitalism, government policy, legislation, managers’ responses to the pandemic and more dirigiste approaches to academics’ work.

    Nevertheless, this government is ploughing ahead with policies designed to protect the freedom of speech that is already protected, while doing little to hold university managers to account for their very demonstrable violations of academic freedom. The government is suspicious of courses which declare a sympathy with social justice or which manifest a ‘progressive’ approach. This hostility also extends to critical race theory and black studies. Indeed, the New York Times has identified a right wing ‘Campaign to Cancel Wokeness’ (https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/26/opinion/speech-racism-academia.html) on both sides of the Atlantic, citing a speech by the UK Equalities Minister, Kemi Badenoch, in which she said, “We do not want teachers to teach their white pupils about white privilege and inherited racial guilt…Any school which teaches these elements of critical race theory, or which promotes partisan political views such as defunding the police without offering a balanced treatment of opposing views, is breaking the law.”

    This has now set a tone for ideological oversight which some university leaders seem keen to embrace. Universities will always wish to review their offerings to ensure they reflect academic currency and student choice. However, operating under the cover of emergency pandemic planning, some are now seeking to dismantle what they see as politically troublesome subject areas.

    Let’s start with the most egregious and transparent attack on academic freedom. The University of Leicester Business School, known primarily for its disdain of management orthodoxy, has announced it will no longer support research in critical management studies (https://www.uculeicester.org.uk/redundancy-briefing) and political economy, and the university has put all researchers who identify with this field, or who at some time might have published in CMS, at risk of redundancy. Among the numerous responses circulating on Twitter, nearly all point to the fact that the critical orientation made Leicester Business School distinctive and attractive to scholars wishing to study and teach there. Among those threatened with redundancy is the distinguished former dean, Professor Gibson Burrell. The sheer volume of protest at this anomaly must be an embarrassment to Leicester management. We should remember that academic freedom means that, as a scholar of proven expertise, you have the freedom to teach and research according to your own judgement. When those in a field critical of structures of power have their academic freedom removed, this is, unarguably, a breach of that expectation. Such a violation should be of concern to the new freedom of speech champion and to the regulator, the Office for Students.

    If the devastation in the School of Business were not enough humiliation for Leicester, in the department of English, there are plans to cancel scholarship and teaching in Medieval and Early Modern literature. The thoughtless stripping out of key areas that give context and coherence within a subject is not unique to Leicester – similar moves have taken place in English at University of Portsmouth. At Leicester, management have offered the justification that this realignment will allow them to put resources towards the study of gender and sexuality. After all, the Vice Chancellor, Nishan Canagarajah, offered the keynote speech at the Advance HE conference in Equality, Diversity and Inclusion on 19th March (https://www.advance-he.ac.uk/programmes-events/conferences/EDIConf20#Keynotes) and has signalled that he supports decolonising the curriculum. This might have had more credibility if he was not equally committed to extinguishing critical scholarship in the Business School. The two positions are incompatible and reveal an opportunistic attempt to reduce costs and remove signs of critical scholarship which might attract government disapproval.

    At the University of Birmingham, the response to the difficulties of maintaining teaching during the pandemic has been to issue a ruling that three academic staff must be able to teach each module. The explanation for this apparent reversal of the ‘lean’ principle of staffing efficiency, is to make modules more resilient in the face of challenges like the pandemic – or perhaps strike action. There is a consequence for academic freedom though – only the most familiar, established courses can be taught. Courses that might have been offered, which arise from the current research of the academic staff, will have to be cancelled if the material is not already familiar to other colleagues in the department. It is a way of designing innovation and advancement out of courses at the University of Birmingham.

    Still at Birmingham, UCU is contesting a proposal for a new ‘career framework’ (https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/strike-warning-over-birminghams-or-out-probation-plan) by management characterised as ‘up or out’. It will require newly appointed lecturers to achieve promotion to senior lecturer within five years or face the sort of performance management procedures that could lead to termination of their appointment. The junior academics who enter on these conditions are unlikely to gamble their careers on academic risk-taking or pursue a challenge to an established paradigm. We can only speculate how this apprenticeship in organisational obedience might restrain the pursuit of discovery, let alone achieve the management’s stated aim to “develop and maintain an academic culture of intellectual stimulation and high achievement”.

    Meanwhile at the University of Liverpool, Vice Chancellor Janet Beer is attempting to apply research metrics and measures of research income over a five-year period to select academics for redundancy in the Faculty of Life Sciences. Staff have been threatened with sacking and replacement by those felt to hold more promise. It will be an unwise scholar who chooses a niche field of research which will not elicit prime citations. Astoundingly, university mangers claim that their criteria are not in breach of their status as a signatory to the San Fransisco Declaration on Research Assessment (https://news.liverpool.ac.uk/2021/03/08/project-shape-update). That is correct insofar as selection for redundancy by grant income is clearly such dishonorable practice as to have been placed beyond contemplation by the international board of DORA.

    It seems we are reaching a pivotal moment for academic freedom for higher education systems across the world. In #Arkansas and some other states in the #USA, there are efforts to prohibit the teaching of social justice (https://www.chronicle.com/article/no-social-justice-in-the-classroom-new-state-scrutiny-of-speech-at-public).

    In #France, the education minister has blamed American critical race theory (https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/11/france-about-become-less-free/617195) for undermining France’s self-professed race-blindness and for causing the rise of “islamo-gauchisme”, a term which has been cynically deployed to blunt any critique of structural racism.

    In Greece, universities are now bound by law to ensure policing and surveillance of university campuses (https://www.crimetalk.org.uk/index.php/library/section-list/1012-exiting-democracy-entering-authoritarianism) by ‘squads for the protection of universities’ in order to suppress dissent with the Orwellian announcement that the creation of these squads and the extensive surveillance of public Universities are “a means of closing the door to violence and opening the way to freedom” and an assertion that “it is not the police who enter universities, but democracy”.

    Conclusion

    It occurs to me that those public figures who feel deprived of a platform to express controversial views may well be outnumbered by the scholars whose universities allow their work to be suppressed by targeted intellectual purges, academic totalitarianism and metric surveillance. It is telling that assaults on academic freedom in the UK have not attracted comment or action from the organisations which might be well placed to defend this defining and essential principle of universities. I hereby call on Universities UK, the Office for Students and the freedom of speech champion to insist on an independent audit of academic freedom and autonomy for each higher education institution.

    We now know where intervention into the rights of academics to teach and research autonomously may lead. We also know that many of the candidates targeted for redundancy are UCU trade union officials; this has happened at University of East London and the University of Hull. Make no mistake, this is a PATCO moment (https://www.politico.com/story/2017/08/05/reagan-fires-11-000-striking-air-traffic-controllers-aug-5-1981-241252) for higher education in the UK as management teams try to break union support and solidarity in order to exact greater control in the future.

    Universities are the canary down the mine in an era of right-wing authoritarianism. We must ensure that they can maintain their unique responsibility to protect against the rise of populism and the dismantling of democracy. We must be assertive in protecting the rights of academics whose lawful and reasoned opinions are increasingly subject to some very sinister threats. Academic freedom needs to be fought for, just like the right to protest and the right to roam. That leaves a heavy responsibility for academics if the abolition of autonomy and academic freedom is not to be complete.

    http://cdbu.org.uk/academic-freedom-is-in-crisis-free-speech-is-not
    #liberté_académique #liberté_d'expression #UK #Angleterre #université #facs #justice_sociale #black_studies #races #race #approches_critiques #études_critiques #privilège_blanc #économie_politique #Leicester_Business_School #pandémie #crise_sanitaire #Birmingham #Liverpool #Janet_Beer #concurrence #Grèce #Etats-Unis #métrique #attaques #éducation_supérieure #populisme #démocratie #autonomie #canari_dans_la_mine

    ping @isskein @cede

    • The Campaign to Cancel Wokeness. How the right is trying to censor critical race theory.

      It’s something of a truism, particularly on the right, that conservatives have claimed the mantle of free speech from an intolerant left that is afraid to engage with uncomfortable ideas. Every embarrassing example of woke overreach — each ill-considered school board decision or high-profile campus meltdown — fuels this perception.

      Yet when it comes to outright government censorship, it is the right that’s on the offense. Critical race theory, the intellectual tradition undergirding concepts like white privilege and microaggressions, is often blamed for fomenting what critics call cancel culture. And so, around America and even overseas, people who don’t like cancel culture are on an ironic quest to cancel the promotion of critical race theory in public forums.

      In September, Donald Trump’s Office of Management and Budget ordered federal agencies to “begin to identify all contracts or other agency spending related to any training on ‘critical race theory,’” which it described as “un-American propaganda.”

      A month later, the conservative government in Britain declared some uses of critical race theory in education illegal. “We do not want teachers to teach their white pupils about white privilege and inherited racial guilt,” said the Tory equalities minister, Kemi Badenoch. “Any school which teaches these elements of critical race theory, or which promotes partisan political views such as defunding the police without offering a balanced treatment of opposing views, is breaking the law.”

      Some in France took up the fight as well. “French politicians, high-profile intellectuals and journalists are warning that progressive American ideas — specifically on race, gender, post-colonialism — are undermining their society,” Norimitsu Onishi reported in The New York Times. (This is quite a reversal from the days when American conservatives warned darkly about subversive French theory.)

      Once Joe Biden became president, he undid Trump’s critical race theory ban, but lawmakers in several states have proposed their own prohibitions. An Arkansas legislator introduced a pair of bills, one banning the teaching of The Times’s 1619 Project curriculum, and the other nixing classes, events and activities that encourage “division between, resentment of, or social justice for” specific groups of people. “What is not appropriate is being able to theorize, use, specifically, critical race theory,” the bills’ sponsor told The Arkansas Democrat Gazette.

      Republicans in West Virginia and Oklahoma have introduced bills banning schools and, in West Virginia’s case, state contractors from promoting “divisive concepts,” including claims that “the United States is fundamentally racist or sexist.” A New Hampshire Republican also proposed a “divisive concepts” ban, saying in a hearing, “This bill addresses something called critical race theory.”

      Kimberlé Crenshaw, a pioneering legal scholar who teaches at both U.C.L.A. and Columbia, has watched with alarm the attempts to suppress an entire intellectual movement. It was Crenshaw who came up with the name “critical race theory” when organizing a workshop in 1989. (She also coined the term “intersectionality.”) “The commitment to free speech seems to dissipate when the people who are being gagged are folks who are demanding racial justice,” she told me.

      Many of the intellectual currents that would become critical race theory emerged in the 1970s out of disappointment with the incomplete work of the civil rights movement, and cohered among radical law professors in the 1980s.
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      The movement was ahead of its time; one of its central insights, that racism is structural rather than just a matter of interpersonal bigotry, is now conventional wisdom, at least on the left. It had concrete practical applications, leading, for example, to legal arguments that housing laws or employment criteria could be racist in practice even if they weren’t racist in intent.

      Parts of the critical race theory tradition are in tension with liberalism, particularly when it comes to issues like free speech. Richard Delgado, a key figure in the movement, has argued that people should be able to sue those who utter racist slurs. Others have played a large role in crafting campus speech codes.

      There’s plenty here for people committed to broad free speech protections to dispute. I’m persuaded by the essay Henry Louis Gates Jr. wrote in the 1990s challenging the movement’s stance on the first amendment. “To remove the very formation of our identities from the messy realm of contestation and debate is an elemental, not incidental, truncation of the ideal of public discourse,” he wrote.

      Disagreeing with certain ideas, however, is very different from anathematizing the collective work of a host of paradigm-shifting thinkers. Gates’s article was effective because he took the scholarly work he engaged with seriously. “The critical race theorists must be credited with helping to reinvigorate the debate about freedom of expression; even if not ultimately persuaded to join them, the civil libertarian will be much further along for having listened to their arguments and examples,” he wrote.

      But the right, for all its chest-beating about the value of entertaining dangerous notions, is rarely interested in debating the tenets of critical race theory. It wants to eradicate them from public institutions.

      “Critical race theory is a grave threat to the American way of life,” Christopher Rufo, director of the Center on Wealth and Poverty at the Discovery Institute, a conservative think tank once known for pushing an updated form of creationism in public schools, wrote in January.

      Rufo’s been leading the conservative charge against critical race theory. Last year, during an appearance on Tucker Carlson’s Fox News show, he called on Trump to issue an executive order abolishing “critical race theory trainings from the federal government.” The next day, he told me, the White House chief of staff, Mark Meadows, called him and asked for his help putting an order together.

      Last month, Rufo announced a “new coalition of legal foundations and private attorneys that will wage relentless legal warfare against race theory in America’s institutions.” A number of House and Senate offices, he told me, are working on their own anti-critical race theory bills, though none are likely to go anywhere as long as Biden is president.

      As Rufo sees it, critical race theory is a revolutionary program that replaces the Marxist categories of the bourgeois and the proletariat with racial groups, justifying discrimination against those deemed racial oppressors. His goal, ultimately, is to get the Supreme Court to rule that school and workplace trainings based on the doctrines of critical race theory violate the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

      This inversion, casting anti-racist activists as the real racists, is familiar to Ian Haney López, a law professor at the University of California, Berkeley, who specializes in critical race theory. “There’s a rhetoric of reaction which seeks to claim that it’s defending these higher values, which, perversely, often are the very values it’s traducing,” he said. “Whether that’s ‘In the name of free speech we’re going to persecute, we’re going to launch investigations into particular forms of speech’ or — and I think this is equally perverse — ‘In the name of fighting racism, we’re going to launch investigations into those scholars who are most serious about studying the complex forms that racism takes.’”

      Rufo insists there are no free speech implications to what he’s trying to do. “You have the freedom of speech as an individual, of course, but you don’t have the kind of entitlement to perpetuate that speech through public agencies,” he said.

      This sounds, ironically, a lot like the arguments people on the left make about de-platforming right-wingers. To Crenshaw, attempts to ban critical race theory vindicate some of the movement’s skepticism about free speech orthodoxy, showing that there were never transcendent principles at play.

      When people defend offensive speech, she said, they’re often really defending “the substance of what the speech is — because if it was really about free speech, then this censorship, people would be howling to the high heavens.” If it was really about free speech, they should be.

      https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/26/opinion/speech-racism-academia.html

      #droite #gauche #censure #cancel_culture #micro-agressions #Trump #Donald_Trump #Kemi_Badenoch #division #critical_race_theory #racisme #sexisme #Kimberlé_Crenshaw #Crenshaw #racisme_structurel #libéralisme #Richard_Delgado #Christopher_Rufo #Ian_Haney_López

    • No ‘Social Justice’ in the Classroom: Statehouses Renew Scrutiny of Speech at Public Colleges

      Blocking professors from teaching social-justice issues. Asking universities how they talk about privilege. Analyzing students’ freedom of expression through regular reports. Meet the new campus-speech issues emerging in Republican-led statehouses across the country, indicating potential new frontiers for politicians to shape campus affairs.

      (paywall)
      https://www.chronicle.com/article/no-social-justice-in-the-classroom-new-state-scrutiny-of-speech-at-public

  • #Melania_Trump, cet obscur objet du pouvoir

    La #First_Lady, chantre des valeurs familiales, assure-t-elle le rôle de femme-objet ou influence-t-elle #Donald_Trump dans ses choix politiques, ainsi qu’une partie de l’électorat américain – surtout féminin  ? Pour répondre à cette interrogation, Laurence Haïm, ancienne correspondante à Washington, a arpenté l’Amérique conservatrice dont Melania est devenue l’icône, dressant en creux le portrait de la Première dame la plus mystérieuse de toute l’histoire des États-Unis.

    https://boutique.arte.tv/detail/melania-trump-cet-obscur-objet-du-pouvoi

    #film #film_documentaire #documentaire
    #Trump #Sevnica #Slovénie #mannequin #mode #femme-trophée #femme-objet #USA #Etats-Unis

  • #Ku_Klux_Klan - Une #histoire américaine. Naissance d’un empire invisible (1/2)

    L’histoire méconnue du plus ancien groupe terroriste et raciste des États-Unis.

    Le Ku Klux Klan, société secrète née en 1865, a traversé les décennies et a toujours su renaître de ses cendres. Son histoire a défrayé la chronique. 150 ans de haine, de racisme et d’horreur. 150 ans d’exclusion, de violence et de fureur.

    Pour retracer en détail les quatre vies successives du Ku Klux Klan, David Korn-Brzoza a rassemblé un impressionnant fonds d’archives, alimenté en partie par celles du mouvement lui-même, et rencontré une dizaine d’interlocuteurs : un membre repenti de l’organisation, des vétérans de la lutte pour les droits civiques, le juge pugnace qui, quatorze ans après l’attentat de Birmingham, a poursuivi et condamné ses auteurs, ainsi que différents chercheurs et analystes. En montrant ainsi combien le mouvement et ses crimes incarnent une histoire et des valeurs collectives, il jette une lumière crue sur cette part d’ombre que l’Amérique blanche peine encore à reconnaître.

    https://boutique.arte.tv/detail/ku-klux-klan-une-histoire-americaine

    #film #documentaire #film_documentaire
    #USA #Etats-Unis #KKK #plantation #esclavage #afro-américains #citoyenneté #Pulaski #société_secrète #violence #White_League #meurtres #lynchages #coups_de_fouet #terrorisme #intimidation #soumission #Nathan_Bedford_Forrest #politicide #assassinats #droits_civiques #Ku-Klux_Bill #loi_martiale #ségrégation #domination_raciale #milices_armées #ordre_social #The_birth_of_a_nation (#Griffith) #William_Joseph_Simmons #Woodrow_Wilson #business #Hiram_Wesley_Evans #Harry_Truman #Truman #Immigration_bill (1924) #The_Fiery_Cross #The_Search_Light #mouvement_social #David_Stephenson #Madge_Oberholtzer #Edward_Young_Clark #Bund #racisme #Stone_Mountain #Samuel_Green #suprématie_blanche #cérémonie_de_naturalisation #superman #Stetson_Kennedy #organisation_subversive #Afro-descendants

  • ‘A system of #global_apartheid’ : author #Harsha_Walia on why the border crisis is a myth

    The Canadian organizer says the actual crises are capitalism, war and the climate emergency, which drive mass migration.

    The rising number of migrant children and families seeking to cross the US border with Mexico is emerging as one of the most serious political challenges for Joe Biden’s new administration.

    That’s exactly what Donald Trump wants: he and other Republicans believe that Americans’ concerns about a supposed “border crisis” will help Republicans win back political power.

    But Harsha Walia, the author of two books about border politics, argues that there is no “border crisis,” in the United States or anywhere else. Instead, there are the “actual crises” that drive mass migration – such as capitalism, war and the climate emergency – and “imagined crises” at political borders, which are used to justify further border securitization and violence.

    Walia, a Canadian organizer who helped found No One Is Illegal, which advocates for migrants, refugees and undocumented people, talked to the Guardian about Border and Rule, her new book on global migration, border politics and the rise of what she calls “racist nationalism.” The conversation has been edited for length and clarity.

    Last month, a young white gunman was charged with murdering eight people, most of them Asian women, at several spas around Atlanta, Georgia. Around the same time, there was increasing political attention to the higher numbers of migrants and refugees showing up at the US-Mexico border. Do you see any connection between these different events?

    I think they are deeply connected. The newest invocation of a “border surge” and a “border crisis” is again creating the spectre of immigrants and refugees “taking over.” This seemingly race neutral language – we are told there’s nothing inherently racist about saying “border surge”– is actually deeply racially coded. It invokes a flood of black and brown people taking over a so-called white man’s country. That is the basis of historic immigrant exclusion, both anti-Asian exclusion in the 19th century, which very explicitly excluded Chinese laborers and especially Chinese women presumed to be sex workers, and anti-Latinx exclusion. If we were to think about one situation as anti-Asian racism and one as anti-Latinx racism, they might seem disconnected. But both forms of racism are fundamentally anti-immigrant. Racial violence is connected to the idea of who belongs and who doesn’t. Whose humanity is questioned in a moment of crisis. Who is scapegoated in a moment of crisis.

    How do you understand the rise of white supremacist violence, particularly anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim violence, that we are seeing around the world?

    The rise in white supremacy is a feedback loop between individual rightwing vigilantes and state rhetoric and state policy. When it comes to the Georgia shootings, we can’t ignore the fact that the criminalization of sex work makes sex workers targets. It’s not sex work itself, it’s the social condition of criminalization that creates that vulnerability. It’s similar to the ways in which border vigilantes have targeted immigrants: the Minutemen who show up at the border and harass migrants, or the kidnapping of migrants by the United Constitutional Patriots at gunpoint. We can’t dissociate that kind of violence from state policies that vilify migrants and refugees, or newspapers that continue to use the word “illegal alien”.

    National borders are often described as protecting citizens, or as protecting workers at home from lower-paid workers in other countries. You argue that borders actually serve a very different purpose.

    Borders maintain a massive system of global apartheid. They are preventing, on a scale we’ve never seen before, the free movement of people who are trying to search for a better life.

    There’s been a lot of emphasis on the ways in which Donald Trump was enacting very exclusionary immigration policies. But border securitization and border controls have been bipartisan practices in the United States. We saw the first policies of militarization at the border with Mexico under Bill Clinton in the late 90s.

    In the European context, the death of [three-year-old Syrian toddler] Alan Kurdi, all of these images of migrants drowning in the Mediterranean, didn’t actually lead to an immigration policy that was more welcoming. Billions of euros are going to drones in the Mediterranean, war ships in the Mediterranean. We’re seeing the EU making trade and aid agreements it has with countries in the Sahel region of Africa and the Middle East contingent on migration control. They are relying on countries in the global south as the frontiers of border militarization. All of this is really a crisis of immobility. The whole world is increasingly becoming fortified.

    What are the root causes of these ‘migration crises’? Why is this happening?

    What we need to understand is that migration is a form of reparations. Migration is an accounting for global violence. It’s not a coincidence that the vast number of people who are migrants and refugees in the world today are black and brown people from poor countries that have been made poor because of centuries of imperialism, of empire, of exploitation and deliberate underdevelopment. It’s those same fault lines of plunder around the world that are the fault lines of migration. More and more people are being forced out of their land because of trade agreements, mining extraction, deforestation, climate change. Iraq and Afghanistan have been for decades on the top of the UN list for displaced people and that has been linked to the US and Nato’s occupations of those countries.

    Why would governments have any interest in violence at borders? Why spend so much money on security and militarization?

    The border does not only serve to exclude immigrants and refugees, but also to create conditions of hyper exploitation, where some immigrants and refugees do enter, but in a situation of extreme precarity. If you’re undocumented, you will work for less than minimum wage. If you attempt to unionize, you will face the threat of deportation. You will not feel you can access public services, or in some cases you will be denied public services. Borders maintain racial citizenship and create a pool of hyper-exploitable cheapened labor. People who are never a full part of the community, always living in fear, constantly on guard.

    Why do you choose to put your focus on governments and their policies, rather than narratives of migrants themselves?

    Border deaths are presented as passive occurrences, as if people just happen to die, as if there’s something inherently dangerous about being on the move, which we know is not the case. Many people move with immense privilege, even luxury. It’s more accurate to call what is happening to migrants and refugees around the world as border killings. People are being killed by policies that are intended to kill. Literally, governments are hoping people will die, are deliberating creating conditions of death, in order to create deterrence.

    It is very important to hold the states accountable, instead of narratives where migrants are blamed for their own deaths: ‘They knew it was going to be dangerous, why did they move?’ Which to me mimics the very horrible tropes of survivors in rape culture.

    You live in Canada. Especially in the United States, many people think of Canada as this inherently nice place. Less racist, less violent, more supportive of refugees and immigrants. Is that the reality?

    It’s totally false. Part of the incentive of writing this second book was being on a book tour in the US and constantly hearing, ‘At least in Canada it can’t be as bad as in the US.’ ‘Your prime minister says refugees are welcome.’ That masks the violence of how unfree the conditions of migration are, with the temporary foreign worker program, which is a form of indentureship. Workers are forced to live in the home of their employer, if you’re a domestic worker, or forced to live in a labor camp, crammed with hundreds of people. When your labor is no longer needed, you’re deported, often with your wages unpaid. There is nothing nice about it. It just means Canada has perfected a model of exploitation. The US and other countries in Europe are increasingly looking to this model, because it works perfectly to serve both the state and capital interests. Capital wants cheapened labor and the state doesn’t want people with full citizenship rights.

    You wrote recently that ‘Escalating white supremacy cannot be dealt with through anti-terror or hate crime laws.’ Why?

    Terrorism is not a colorblind phenomena. The global war on terror for the past 20 years was predicated around deeply Islamophobic rhetoric that has had devastating impact on Black and Brown Muslims and Muslim-majority countries around the world. I think it is implausible and naive to assume that the national security infrastructure, or the criminal legal system, which is also built on racialized logics, especially anti-black racism – that we can somehow subvert these systems to protect racialized communities. It’s not going to work.

    One of the things that happened when the Proud Boys were designated as a terrorist organization in Canada is that it provided cover to expand this terror list that communities have been fighting against for decades. On the day the Proud Boys were listed, a number of other organizations were added which were part of the Muslim community. That was the concern that many of us had: will this just become an excuse to expand the terrorist list rather than dismantle it? In the long run, what’s going to happen? Even if in some miraculous world the Proud Boys and its members are dismantled, what’s going to happen to all the other organizations on the list? They’re still being criminalized, they’re still being terrorized, they’re still being surveilled.

    So if you don’t think the logics of national security or criminal justice will work, what do you think should be done about escalating white supremacist violence?

    I think that’s the question: what do we need to be doing? It’s not about one arm of the state, it’s about all of us. What’s happening in our neighborhoods, in our school systems, in the media? There’s not one simple fix. We need to keep each other safe. We need to make sure we’re intervening whenever we see racial violence, everything from not letting racist jokes off the hook to fighting for systemic change. Anti-war work is racial justice work. Anti-capitalist work is racial justice work.

    You advocate for ending border imperialism, and ending racial capitalism. Those are big goals. How do you break that down into things that one person can actually do?

    I actually found it harder before, because I would try things that I thought were simple and would change the world, and they wouldn’t. For me, understanding how violences are connected, and really understanding the immensity of the problem, was less overwhelming. It motivated me to think in bigger ways, to organize with other people. To understand this is fundamentally about radical, massive collective action. It can’t rely on one person or even one place.

    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/apr/07/us-border-immigration-harsha-walia
    #apartheid #inégalités #monde #migrations #frontières #réfugiés #capitalisme #guerres #conflits #climat #changement_climatique #crises #crise #fermeture_des_frontières #crises_frontalières #violence #racisme #discriminations #exclusion #anti-migrants #violence_raciale #suprématisme_blanc #prostitution #criminalisation #vulnérabilité #minutemen #militarisation_des_frontières #USA #Mexique #Etats-Unis #politique_migratoire #politiques_migratoires #Kurdi #Aylan_Kurdi #Alan_Kurdi #impérialisme #colonialisme #colonisation #mourir_aux_frontières #décès #morts

    ping @isskein @karine4

  • Early Release - Epidemiologic Evidence for Airborne Transmission of #SARS-CoV-2 during Church Singing, Australia, 2020 - Volume 27, Number 6—June 2021 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
    https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/6/21-0465_article

    An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred among church attendees after an infectious chorister sang at multiple services. We detected 12 secondary case-patients. Video recordings of the services showed that case-patients were seated in the same section, >15 m from the primary case-patient, without close physical contact, suggesting airborne transmission.

    #covid-19 #aérosols

  • Contre les syndicats, Amazon mobilise des employés sur les réseaux sociaux
    https://www.lemonde.fr/pixels/article/2021/03/31/contre-les-syndicats-amazon-mobilise-des-employes-sur-les-reseaux-sociaux_60

    Des comptes tenus par des employés rémunérés pour dire du bien d’Amazon participent à l’offensive du géant du Web contre la création d’un syndicat. Le site d’information américain The Intercept a publié, mercredi 31 mars, plusieurs documents internes confidentiels d’Amazon. Ils décrivent la mise en place d’un système d’« influenceurs » payés par le géant de la distribution pour prendre la défense de leur employeur sur les réseaux sociaux. Baptisé « Veritas », vérité en latin, ce programme, lancé en 2018, (...)

    #Amazon #manipulation #GigEconomy #lobbying #syndicat #travail

  • In the Sonoran Desert, #GIS Helps to Map Migrant Deaths

    GIS technology lends insight into why some undocumented migrants perish while crossing international borders.

    Last year geographer #Sam_Chambers published an unusual map of the Sonoran Desert. He wasn’t interested in marking roads, mountains, and cities. Instead, the University of Arizona researcher wanted to show the distance a young male can walk in various regions of the desert before the high temperature and physical exertion put him at risk of dying from heat exposure or hyperthermia.

    On the resulting map, red and purple correspond with cooler, mountainous terrain. Yellow and white, which dominate the image, indicate a remote, hot valley. It’s here where migrants seeking to cross between Mexico and the United States are at greatest risk of dying from the desert’s relentless sun.

    Chambers’ map relies on geographical information system (GIS) modeling, a digital technology that allows geographers to perform spatial, data-driven analysis of landscapes. Chambers’ chosen topic represents a burgeoning effort to use GIS to understand the risk undocumented migrants face while crossing international borders, according to Jonathan Cinnamon, a geographer at Ryerson University in Toronto. According to Chambers’ analysis, migrants began crossing through hotter, more rugged parts of the desert after the U.S. government increased the number of Border Patrol agents and installed new surveillance technologies, including underground motion sensors and radar-equipped watchtowers.

    The Sonoran covers roughly 100,000 square miles in Arizona, California, and Mexico, and includes major cities such as Phoenix and Tucson, as well as vast swathes of empty public and private lands. The effort to funnel migrants into this desert began in 1994 under the Clinton administration. That’s when the wave of increased migration that had started in the 1980s prompted the U.S. government to embrace the policy of “prevention through deterrence.” The idea was that would-be migrants from Mexico and Central America would be deterred from illegally crossing the U.S. border if their routes were too treacherous. With this goal in mind, Border Patrol erected new infrastructure and stepped up enforcement in border cities like Tijuana and El Paso, leaving the harsh unpopulated borderlands as the only option.

    In an email to Undark, John Mennell, a public affairs specialist with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) — the agency that oversees Border Patrol — in Arizona, said that people crossing the border illegally are at risk from the predations of smugglers and criminal organizations, who, he says, encourage migrants to ride on train tops or to shelter in packed houses with limited food and water. Mennell says the agency has installed rescue beacons in the desert, which migrants can use to call for help. According to CBP, Border Patrol rescued roughly 5,000 migrants on the Southwest border from October 2019 through September 2020.

    Yet according to data compiled by the nonprofit group Humane Borders, the prevention through deterrence approach has failed to stop migrants from attempting the border crossing. “There continues to be a shift in migration into more remote and difficult areas,” said Geoff Boyce, a geographer at Earlham College in Indiana, and one of Chambers’ collaborators. Migrants have a much higher chance of dying in the desert today than they did 15 years ago, he said, and the numbers continue to rise, from 220 deaths per 100,000 apprehensions in 2016 to 318 deaths per 100,000 apprehensions in 2020. Last year, 227 migrants died in the Pima County Medical Examiner’s jurisdiction, in southern Arizona, although activists say that the number is likely much higher because of the way bodies disappear in the desert.

    Chambers and Boyce source mortality data from the Pima County Medical Examiner’s Office. They have gotten information on migrant activity from No More Deaths, one of many humanitarian groups in the Tucson area that maintains desert water and supply stations for migrants. No More Deaths, which supports the decriminalization of undocumented migration, has set up supplies in the mountains and other hard-to-reach areas. Humane Borders also maintains stations in areas accessible by car. These organizations maintain meticulous records — the raw data that launched Chambers’ and Boyce’s first desert mapping collaboration.

    On a cool November morning, Rebecca Fowler, administrative manager with Humane Borders, climbed into a truck armed with a list of 53 water stations. She was joined by two volunteers who chatted on the street next to a truck bed bearing yards of hoses and 55-gallon blue barrels that the organization purchases at a discount from soda companies.

    Fowler was leading the Friday morning water run to seven stations off State Route 286, which runs south from Tucson to an isolated border town called Sasabe. Each week, Fowler and her volunteers check to be sure that the water is potable and plentiful. They change out dirty barrels and make notes of any vandalism. (In the past, some of the group’s barrels have been found with bullet holes or with the spigots ripped off.)

    Among other data points, Fowler and her team gather data on water usage, footprints, and clothes found near their sites. Using the county’s medical examiner data, they have also created an interactive map of migrant deaths. A search of their website reveals a spread of red dots on the Southwestern United States, so many between Phoenix and Tucson that the map turns black. The organization has charted more than 3,000 deaths in the past two decades.

    In her years in the desert, Fowler has noticed the same kind of changes pointed to in Boyce’s and Chambers’ research. “Migrants have been increasingly funneled into more desolate, unforgiving areas,” she said.

    GIS modeling, which is broadly defined as any technique that allows cartographers to spatially analyze data and landscapes, has evolved alongside computers. The U.S. military was an early developer and adopter of this technology, using it to understand terrain and plan operations. In those early days, few activists or academics possessed the skills or the access needed to use GIS, said Cinnamon. But in the last decade, more universities have embraced GIS as part of their curricula and the technology has become more readily available.

    Now, the kind of GIS modeling employed by Chambers, who uses ArcGIS and QGIS software, is commonplace in archaeology and landscape design. It allows modelers to understand how factors like terrain, weather, and manmade features influence the way people move through a given physical environment.

    An architect might employ GIS technology to decide where to put sidewalks on a college campus, for example. Chambers used these techniques to study elk migration during his doctoral studies at the University of Arizona. But after Boyce connected him to No More Deaths, he started using his skills to study human migration.

    No More Deaths tracks data at their water stations, too — including acts of vandalism, which they asked Boyce and Chambers to assist in analyzing via GIS. That report, released in 2018, spatially examines the time of year and location of the vandalism and uses its results to postulate that Border Patrol agents are primarily responsible, while acknowledging that rogue actors, such as hunters and members of militia groups, may contribute as well. (CBP did not respond to Undark’s questions on water station vandalism.)

    When Boyce and Chambers finished analyzing the information, they asked themselves: What else could this data reveal? Previous attempts to understand the desert’s hostility had relied on the prevalence of human remains or statistics on capture by Border Patrol agents, but both of those are imperfect measures.

    “It’s very hard to get any type of reliable, robust information about undocumented migration, particularly in remote desert areas,” said Boyce. “The people who are involved, their behavior is not being methodically recorded by any state actor.”

    Most of the water stations on Fowler’s route were set back from the highway, off bumpy roads where mesquite scraped the truck. By 11 a.m., heavy-bellied clouds had rolled in and the temperature was in the 80s and rising. The fingers of saguaro cacti pointed at the sky and at the Quinlan Mountains jutting over the horizon; on the other side lay the Tohono O’odham Nation. Fowler says Border Patrol’s policies increasingly shunt migrants into treacherous lands within the reservation.

    Humane Borders’ water barrels are marked by long poles capped by tattered blue flags, fluttering above the brush. Each barrel features a combination lock, preventing vandals from opening the barrel and pouring anything inside. Each is also marked by a Virgin of Guadalupe sticker, a symbol for migrants passing through the desert.

    At each stop, Fowler and that day’s volunteers, Lauren Kilpatrick and Isaiah Ortiz, pulled off the lock and checked the water for particulates and pH levels. They picked up nearby trash and kept an eye out for footprints. At the third station, the water harbored visible black dots — an early sign of algae — so the group dumped all 55 gallons and set up a new barrel. At a later station, Fowler found a spigot that had been wrenched off and flung among the mesquite. Later still, the group came upon a barrel full of decaying, abandoned backpacks.

    This was the third water run for Kilpatrick and Ortiz, a couple from Nevada now living in Arizona. Kilpatrick had read books and listened to podcasts about the borderlands, and Ortiz had wanted to get involved because the crisis felt personal to him — some of his family are immigrants, some of his friends and their relatives undocumented.

    “I just think about their journey — some of them are from Central America and Mexico,” he said. “Their lives were in real danger coming through areas like this.”

    GIS modeling simplifies this complex landscape into a grid. To analyze the grid, Chambers uses a standard modeling software; so far, he has published five papers with Boyce about the desert. For the first they worked on together, the team took No More Deaths’ data on visits to water sites from 2012 to 2015 and looked at changes in water usage at each site. Once they’d determined which routes had fallen out of favor and which had risen in popularity, they looked at whether those newer routes were more treacherous, using a ruggedness index that Chambers developed with his colleagues by looking at the slope and jaggedness of terrain, along with vegetation cover and temperature. They concluded that official United States policy is increasingly shunting migrants into more rugged areas.

    From CBP’s perspective, “Walking through remote inhospitable terrain is only one of many dangers illegal immigrants face during their dangerous journey into the United States,” said Mennell. And installing new technology and increased patrol on popular migration routes is actually a good thing, he says, because it contributes to the goal of securing the border against smugglers shepherding in so-called “illegal immigrants.”

    In another paper, Chambers studied whether migrants took new routes to avoid increased surveillance, and whether those new routes put them at higher risk of heat exposure and hyperthermia. To map out which areas were toughest to cross — as measured by caloric expenditure — Chambers factored in such variables as slope, terrain, and average human weight and walking speed, borrowing both military and archaeological formulas to measure the energy expenditures of different routes. He used viewshed analysis, which tells a mapmaker which areas are visible from a certain point — say, from a surveillance tower — and, using his slope calculations and the formulae, compared the energy costs of walking within sight of the towers versus staying out of sight.

    Chambers tested his findings against the maps of recovered human remains in the area before and after increased surveillance. To map risk of heat exposure, Chambers used formulae from sports medicine professionals, military physicians, and physiologists, and charted them onto the desert. And he found, just as with the ruggedness index, that people are taking longer, more intense routes to avoid the towers. Now they need more calories to survive the desert, and they’re at higher risk of dying from heat.

    Caloric expenditure studies had been done before in other contexts, said Chambers. But until this map, no one had ever created a detailed spatial representation of locations where the landscape and high temperatures are deadliest for the human body.

    GIS mapping is also being used to track migration into Europe. Lorenzo Pezzani, a lecturer in forensic architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London, works with artists, scientists, NGOs, and politicians to map what they see as human rights violations in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Compared with the group conducting research in Arizona, Pezzani and his team are at a distinct disadvantage. If a body drops into the sea, it’s unlikely to be recovered. There’s just not as much data to study, says Pezzani. So he and his team study discrete disasters, and then they extrapolate from there.

    Pezzani disseminates his group’s work through a project called Forensic Oceanography, a collaborative research effort consisting of maps, visualizations, and reports, which has appeared in art museums. In 2018, information gathered through their visualizations was submitted to the European Court of Human Rights as evidence showing the Italian government’s role in migrant drowning deaths.

    The goal is to make migrant deaths in the Mediterranean more visible and to challenge the governmental narrative that, like the deaths in the Sonoran, these deaths are unavoidable and faultless. Deaths from shipwrecks, for example, are generally blamed on the criminal networks of human traffickers, said Pezzani. He wants to show that the conditions that draw migrants into dangerous waters are the result of “specific political decisions that have been taken by southern European states and by the European Union.”

    Pezzani, Chambers, and Boyce all intend for their work to foster discussion about government policy on immigration and borderlands. Boyce, for one, wants the U.S. government to rethink its policy of “prevention through deterrence” and to demilitarize the border. He believes the current policy is doomed to fail and is inhumane because it does not tackle the underlying issues that cause people to try to migrate in the first place. Ryan Burns, a visiting scholar at University of California, Berkeley, said he wants to see more research like this. “We need more scientists who are saying, ‘We can produce knowledge that is sound, that is actionable, that has a very well-established rigor to it, but is also politically motivated,’” Burns said.

    Cinnamon said that GIS, by its nature, tends to involve approaching a project with a viewpoint already in mind. “If the U.S. government decided to do the same study, they might approach it from a very different perspective,” he said. As long as the authors are overt about their viewpoints, Cinnamon sees no issue.

    Burns, however, did sound one cautionary note. By drawing attention to illegal crossings, he said, researchers “could be endangering people who are taking these paths.” In other words, making a crisis more visible can be politically powerful, but it can also have unintended consequences.

    Before their last water station visit, the group from Humane Borders drove into Sasabe. A helicopter chopped overhead, probably surveilling for migrants, Fowler said. Border Patrol vehicles roamed the streets, as they do throughout this part of the country.

    Once, Fowler said, a 12-foot wall spread for miles across the mountains here. In recent months, it’s been replaced by the U.S. government’s latest effort to stop migrants from venturing into the desert: a 30-footer, made of steel slats, undulating through the town and across the mountains in either direction. It’s yet another factor to consider when mapping the Sonoran and envisioning how its natural and manmade obstacles will shape its migration routes.

    “There’s so much speculation” about what will happen to migrants because of this wall, said Fowler. She suspects they will cross through the Tohono O’odham Nation, where there’s no wall. But they won’t have access to water dropped by Humane Borders. “What I worry about, obviously, is more people dying,” said Fowler. She’s certain the migrants “will continue to come.”

    Chambers and Boyce plan to keep making maps. They recently published a paper showing the stress that internal border checkpoints place on migrants crossing the desert, the latest step in their quest to create empirical evidence for the increasing treacherousness of the border.

    “It’s an important thing for people to know,” said Boyce.

    https://undark.org/2021/03/31/mapping-migrant-deaths-sonoran-desert
    #SIG #désert_du_Sonora #asile #migrations #frontières #morts_aux_frontières #décès #morts #USA #Mexique #Etats-Unis #cartographie #visualisation #contre-cartographie

    ping @reka

    • Developing a geospatial measure of change in core temperature for migrating persons in the Mexico-U.S. border region

      Although heat exposure is the leading cause of mortality for undocumented immigrants attempting to traverse the Mexico-U.S. border, there has been little work in quantifying risk. Therefore, our study aims to develop a methodology projecting increase in core temperature over time and space for migrants in Southern #Arizona using spatial analysis and remote sensing in combination with the heat balance equation—adapting physiological formulae to a multi-step geospatial model using local climate conditions, terrain, and body specifics. We sought to quantitatively compare the results by demographic categories of age and sex and qualitatively compare them to known terrestrial conditions and prior studies of those conditions. We demonstrated a more detailed measure of risk for migrants than those used most recently: energy expenditure and terrain ruggedness. Our study not only gives a better understanding of the ‘#funnel_effect’ mechanisms, but also provides an opportunity for relief and rescue operations.

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1877584520300411
      #risques #risque #analyse_spatiale

  • –-
    #Relations_Internationales #Etats-Unis
    Les Etats-Unis sont fatigués du monde, par Benoît Bréville (Le Monde diplomatique, mai 2016)
    http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2016/05/BREVILLE/55468

    Les USA avaient planifié une guerre informatique contre l’Iran - Politique - Numerama
    http://www.numerama.com/politique/146207-les-usa-avaient-planifie-une-guerre-informatique-contre-liran.html
    #Relations_Internationales #Orient #Iran #Etats-Unis #Documentaires

    À Washington, scénarios pour un conflit majeur, par Michael Klare (Le Monde diplomatique, septembre 2016)
    http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2016/09/KLARE/56193


    #Russie #Etats-Unis #Chine #Asie

    La Russie installe des missiles à capacité nucléaire aux portes de l’Otan | Courrier international
    http://www.courrierinternational.com/depeche/la-russie-installe-des-missiles-capacite-nucleaire-aux-portes
    #Russie #OTAN

    « La Russie a de nouveau installé ses missiles Iskander capables d’emporter des têtes nucléaires dans son enclave de Kaliningrad, frontalière de deux pays de l’Otan, a annoncé samedi Vilnius, tout en notant que l’objectif de Moscou est d’obtenir de l’Occident des concessions sur la Syrie et l’Ukraine. »

    « Depuis le début de la crise ukrainienne en 2014, la Russie a multiplié les démonstrations de force avec une série d’exercices militaires dsans des régions bordant les Etats baltes, membres de l’Otan.

    L’Otan a réagi en décidant de déployer dès l’année prochaine quatre bataillons multinationaux en Pologne et dans les trois pays baltes pour renforcer son flanc oriental. »

    Les premiers chars américains débarquent en Europe pour se déployer à l’est
    http://www.rtbf.be/info/monde/detail_les-premiers-chars-americains-debarquent-en-europe-pour-se-deployer-a-l-

    CADTM - Comment Washington tente de déstabiliser les gouvernements progressistes
    LES DOSSIERS DE WIKILEAKS SUR L’AMÉRIQUE LATINE
    2 novembre par Alexander Main , Dan Beeton
    http://cadtm.org/Comment-Washington-tente-de

    -"Source : Jacobin, 29 septembre 2015.
    Jacobin est une revue trimestrielle américaine de gauche. (...)

    Traduction : Mireille Azzoug

    Révision et édition : Mémoire des luttes"

    –"En recourant à la contrainte (les conditionnalités attachées aux prêts du FMI) et à l’endoctrinement (en formant les Chicago boys de la région), les Etats-Unis ont réussi, dès le milieu des années 1980, à répandre l’évangile de l’austérité fiscale, de la déréglementation, du prétendu « libre-échange », de la privatisation et de la réduction draconienne du secteur public à l’échelle de tout le continent.

    Le résultat fut étonnamment semblable à ce que l’on a pu voir en Grèce" ;

    –"Une bonne partie de l’histoire des efforts du gouvernement américain pour contenir et faire refluer la vague anti-néolibérale est accessible à travers les dizaines de milliers de câbles diplomatiques de WikiLeaks en provenance des missions diplomatiques américaines de la région, du début des années 2000 à 2010. Les câbles – que nous analysons dans le livre The WikiLeaks Files : The World According to U.S. Empire publié par Verso Books – révèlent jour après jour les mécanismes d’intervention politique des Etats-Unis en Amérique latine" ;

    –"Certaines des méthodes d’intervention déployées en Bolivie eurent leur pendant dans d’autres pays dirigés pas des gouvernements de gauche ou abritant de forts mouvements de gauche. Par exemple, après le retour au pouvoir de la gauche sandiniste en 2007, l’ambassade américaine à Managua se mobilisa pour doper le soutien au parti d’opposition de droite, l’Alliance libérale nicaraguayenne (ANL)" ;

    –"De tels câbles devraient être lus par tous ceux qui étudient la diplomatie américaine ou qui sont curieux de comprendre comment fonctionne dans la réalité le système américain de « promotion de la démocratie ». A travers l’USAID, la Fondation nationale pour la démocratie (National Endowment for Democracy- NED), le NDI, l’IRI et autres entités paragouvernementales, Washington apporte une aide considérable aux mouvements politiques soutenant les objectifs politiques et économiques des Etats-Unis." ;

    –"Deux mois avant ce scrutin, le conseiller politique de l’ambassade avait alerté Washington sur le fait que Correa allait sans aucun doute « rejoindre le groupe Chavez-Morales-Kirchner des dirigeants nationalistes-populistes sud-américains ». " ;

    –"En avril 2007, 80% des électeurs équatoriens ratifièrent la proposition d’assemblée constituante et, en 2008, 62% d’entre eux se prononcèrent en faveur d’une nouvelle constitution. Ce texte consacrait une série de principes progressistes, dont la souveraineté alimentaire, les droits au logement, à la santé, à l’emploi et le contrôle de l’exécutif sur la banque centrale (un véritable interdit dans la feuille de route néolibérale).

    Au début 2009, Correa annonça que l’Equateur ferait défaut sur une partie de sa dette extérieure. Cette mesure, avec d’autres, récentes, provoqua la fureur de l’ambassade, tout comme la décision du président de rapprocher l’Equateur des pays membres de l’Alliance bolivarienne pour les peuples de notre Amérique (ALBA), créée à l’initiative du Venezuela et de Cuba en 2004 pour faire échec à la Zone de libre échange des Amériques, ALCA), à l’époque fortement promue par l’administration Bush. Mais l’ambassadeur avait aussi conscience que les Etats-Unis n’avaient que peu de prise sur Correa" ;

    –"En avril 2002, le gouvernement américain soutint publiquement un coup d’Etat militaire de courte durée qui éloigna Chavez du pouvoir pendant 48 heures. Les documents de la NED auxquels on a pu avoir accès grâce à la loi sur la liberté de l’information montrent que les Etats-Unis fournissaient des fonds, ainsi qu’une formation à la « promotion de la démocratie » à des groupes qui avaient soutenu le coup d’Etat et furent ultérieurement impliqués dans la « grève » des managers" ;

    –"On ne doit pas oublier que les câbles de WikiLeaks n’offrent aucun aperçu sur les activités des services de renseignement américains qui agissent de façon plus secrète (...) Néanmoins, ils apportent amplement la preuve des efforts continus et déterminés des diplomates américains pour intervenir contre les gouvernements indépendants de gauche en Amérique latine, en utilisant l’octroi de subsides, les multiples instruments disponibles dans la boîte à outils de la « promotion de la démocratie » – et parfois en soutenant (y compris financièrement) des méthodes violentes et illégales." ;

    –"En juin 2014, le vice-président américain Joe Biden lançait l’Initiative pour la sécurité énergétique des Caraïbes (Caribbean Energy Security Initiative), considérée comme un « antidote » à PetroCaribe" ;

    –"la gauche est largement devenue majoritaire en Amérique latine. A l’exception du Honduras et du Paraguay, où des coups d’Etat de droite ont chassé les présidents élus, presque tous les mouvements de gauche arrivés au pouvoir au cours des 15 dernières années sont aujourd’hui toujours aux commandes. Largement grâce à l’action de ces gouvernements, entre 2002 et 2013 le taux de pauvreté a fortement baissé dans la région, passant de 44 à 28%, après avoir empiré au cours des deux décennies précédentes. Ces succès et la détermination des dirigeants de gauche à prendre des risques pour se débarrasser du diktat néolibéral devraient aujourd’hui servir de modèle à la gauche anti-austérité européenne." ;

    –"Il y a beaucoup d’autres choses que l’on peut apprendre des câbles de WikiLeaks. Pour les chapitres « Amérique latine » et « Caraïbes » de notre livre The WiliLeaks Files, nous avons passé en revue des centaines de câbles et nous sommes en mesure d’identifier des modes distincts d’intervention américaine que nous décrivons plus amplement dans l’ouvrage (certains ont déjà été exposés par ailleurs). D’autres auteurs ont fait la même chose que nous pour d’autres régions du monde. Mais il y a plus de 250 000 câbles (35 000 rien que pour l’Amérique latine) et il reste sans aucun doute encore bien d’autres aspects notables de la diplomatie américaine en action qui attendent d’être dévoilés.

    Malheureusement, après l’excitation initiale provoquée par la mise à disposition des câbles, peu de journalistes et de chercheurs ont montré un réel intérêt pour eux."

    #Relations_internationales #Etats-unis #Bolivie #Evo_Morales #Nicaragua #Equateur #Rafael_Correa #Vénézuela #Hugo_Chavez #ONG #Wikileaks #Amérique_latine #Guerre_Froide #Haïti #PetroCaribe #Ingérence #USAID #OTI_Office_for_Transition_Initiatives #Amérique_du_Sud

    Le monde selon Donald Trump, par Michael Klare (Le Monde diplomatique, janvier 2017)
    http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2017/01/KLARE/56966

    « Elle tranche avec celle de la plupart des experts ou responsables politiques cotés à Washington.
    Ceux-ci, comme s’en aperçoit vite quiconque séjourne dans la capitale, voient des cercles concentriques qui se déploient à partir de la Maison Blanche. »
    « Pendant des décennies, la politique étrangère américaine a visé à renforcer les liens avec et entre les pays amis, et à affaiblir ou à isoler les exclus. »
    « il est étranger à toute conception structurée attribuant des rôles définis aux alliés, amis et ennemis. Il se retrouve donc dans l’approche de M. Rex Tillerson, le patron d’ExxonMobil, qu’il a choisi comme secrétaire d’État. Les deux hommes perçoivent le monde comme une vaste jungle »

    La Constitution contre Donald Trump, par Anne Deysine (Le Monde diplomatique, avril 2017) #Institutions
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2017/04/DEYSINE/57384

    Donald Trump s’épanouit en chef de guerre, par Michael Klare (Le Monde diplomatique, mai 2017)
    http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2017/05/KLARE/57462

    –-La CIA publie en ligne 12 millions de pages de documents déclassifiés - Libération Par Martina Castigliani — 18 janvier 2017 #Relations_Internationales_Histoire
    #Histoire_Relations_Internationales
    http://www.liberation.fr/planete/2017/01/18/la-cia-publie-en-ligne-12-millions-de-pages-de-documents-declassifies_154

    [11/09/2001] Terrorisme, l’arme des puissants, par Noam Chomsky
    http://www.les-crises.fr/11092001-terrorisme-larme-des-puissants-par-noam-chomsky

    -"Un cas, celui du Nicaragua, n’est pas discutable : il a en effet été tranché par la Cour internationale de justice de La Haye et par les Nations unies. Interrogez-vous pour savoir combien de fois ce précédent indiscutable d’une action terroriste à laquelle un Etat de droit a voulu répondre avec les moyens du droit a été évoqué par les commentateurs dominants. Il s’agissait pourtant d’un précédent encore plus extrême que les attentats du 11 septembre : la guerre de l’administration Reagan contre le Nicaragua provoqua 57 000 victimes, dont 29 000 morts, et la ruine d’un pays, peut-être de manière irréversible." ;

    –"Ce précédent ne fait aucun doute. Combien de fois en avons-nous parlé à l’université, dans les journaux ?" ;

    –"on a tort de penser que le terrorisme serait l’instrument des faibles. Comme la plupart des armes meurtrières, le terrorisme est surtout l’arme des puissants. Quand on prétend le contraire, c’est uniquement parce que les puissants contrôlent également les appareils idéologiques et culturels qui permettent que leur terreur passe pour autre chose que de la terreur.

    L’un des moyens les plus courants dont ils disposent pour parvenir à un tel résultat est de faire disparaître la mémoire des événements dérangeants ; ainsi plus personne ne s’en souvient." ;

    –"tout cela eut lieu dans un climat idéologique marqué par les proclamations enthousiastes des intellectuels occidentaux. Il y a quelques années, l’autocongratulation faisait fureur : fin de l’histoire, nouvel ordre mondial, Etat de droit, ingérence humanitaire, etc. C’était monnaie courante alors même que nous laissions se commettre un chapelet de tueries. Pis, nous y contribuions de façon active. Mais qui en parlait ? L’un des exploits de la civilisation occidentale, c’est peut-être de rendre possible ce genre d’inconséquences dans une société libre. Un Etat totalitaire ne dispose pas de ce don-là." ;

    –"Certes, d’autres pays avaient soutenu la guerre d’Ankara contre les Kurdes, mais aucun avec autant de zèle et d’efficacité que les Etats-Unis. Ce soutien bénéficia du silence ou – le mot est peut-être plus juste – de la servilité des classes éduquées américaines. Car elles n’ignoraient pas ce qui se passait. Les Etats-Unis sont un pays libre après tout ; les rapports des organisations humanitaires sur la situation au Kurdistan appartenaient au domaine public. A l’époque, nous avons donc choisi de contribuer aux atrocités." ;

    –"Lutter contre le terrorisme impose de réduire le niveau de la terreur, pas de l’accroître. Quand l’IRA commet un attentat à Londres, les Britanniques ne détruisent ni Boston, ville dans laquelle l’IRA compte de nombreux soutiens, ni Belfast. Ils cherchent les coupables, puis ils les jugent."

    #Etats_Unis #Relations_internationales #Terrorisme #Nicaragua #Noam_Chomsky

    –Les cabotages diplomatiques de Donald Trump, par Olivier Zajec (Le Monde diplomatique, janvier 2018)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/01/ZAJEC/58242

    « Idiots utiles » du Pentagone, par Serge Halimi (Le Monde diplomatique, février 2018)
    https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2018/02/HALIMI/58393

    "le Pentagone vient d’achever une étude qui préconise un emploi plus généreux de l’arme nucléaire (1). Celle-ci étant actuellement trop destructrice pour que son utilisation soit imaginable, et ne jouant donc pas son rôle de dissuasion, il conviendrait de la miniaturiser davantage afin de pouvoir y recourir contre un éventail plus étendu d’agressions. Y compris « non nucléaires »"

    Retrait américain de #Syrie : Paris et Londres inquiets, Moscou jubile | Courrier international
    https://www.courrierinternational.com/depeche/trump-se-desengage-du-moyen-orient-poutine-se-rejouit.afp.com

  • The Ride Réal. Stéphanie Gillard, FR, 2018, Coul., 87’, 12/14, vo st fr

    Chaque hiver, une troupe de cavaliers Sioux traverse les grandes plaines du Dakota pour commémorer le massacre de leurs ancêtres à Wounded Knee. Sur ces terres qui ne leur appartiennent plus, les aînés tentent de transmettre aux plus jeunes leur culture, ou ce qu’il en reste. Un voyage dans le temps pour reconstruire une identité perdue qui confronte l’Amérique à sa propre histoire.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ynqFuYo4BVg

    #peuples_autochtones #sioux #Wounded_Knee #usa #nations_premières #amériques #etats-unis #résistance #racisme #peuples_premiers #droit_à_la_terre #accès_à_l'eau #histoire

  • These 3D printed homes are helping tackle homelessness in the US

    - In America, 3D-printed houses are starting to be used as an affordable alternative to traditional builds.
    - The process builds homes faster, cheaper and with less labor, and its structures are more resilient to natural disasters.
    – It’s being used an an innovative way to tackle homelessness.
    – It’s estimated that the 3D-construction market could be worth $1.5 billion by 2024.

    After years of homelessness and hard living, Tim Shea has swapped the sharp corners in his life for the round, flowing design of his new 3D-printed home in Austin, Texas.

    In August, Shea became the first person in the United States to move into a 3D-printed home, according to Austin-based developer ICON, in what advocates say is a milestone in efforts to boost the national supply of affordable housing.

    This month New York-based firm SQ4D listed what is purported to be the country’s first 3D-printed house to go up for sale, while ICON completed the largest 3D-printed structure in North America – a military barracks.

    Shea, 70, said his new house - which he moved into for free and is located in a community of formerly homeless people - has saved his life.

    “It’s just phenomenally beautiful ... it just wraps around and gives me a feeling of life security,” Shea told the Thomson Reuters Foundation by phone from his 400-sq-ft (46-sq-m) home.

    The house’s high ceilings, large windows and skylights make it feel larger than it looks from the outside, he added.

    Shea got to watch his home being built on site by a large new “printer”, developed and operated by #ICON, a process which the company said took about 48 hours and is being reduced further as the technology improves.

    Large-scale 3D printing is gaining steam around the world as a quicker, cheaper and more efficient way of building housing, with some projects producing a home in 24 hours of printing time for just a few thousand dollars.

    ICON constructed the first permitted 3D-printed building in the United States in 2018 and is one of the few 3D construction firms focusing specifically on affordable housing.

    Last year, Habitat for Humanity’s Terwilliger Center for Innovation in Shelter helped an Indian company called Tvasta build India’s first 3D-printed home, which brought construction times down by more than a third and reduced waste by about 65%.

    “3D printing technology has huge potential to boost the affordable housing sector,” said Patrick Kelley, the center’s vice president, in emailed comments.

    https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2021/02/3d-printed-homes-affordable-housing-homelessness-united-state

    #logement #impression_3D #3D #SDF #sans-abris #USA #Etats-Unis #technologie