• #OGM - Mensonges et vérités

    La #controverse entre pro-OGM (organismes génétiquement modifiés) et anti-OGM rend le débat passionnel et parfois incompréhensible. Ce tour d’horizon mondial démêle le vrai du faux, preuves scientifiques à l’appui.

    Depuis plus de vingt ans, les OGM (organismes génétiquement modifiés), en particulier les plantes, ne cessent de s’étendre sur la planète, dans le but d’améliorer les rendements de soja, maïs, coton, colza, riz, etc. Dix pays, sur les vingt-huit qui en cultivent, représentent, à eux seuls, 98 % de la superficie mondiale des cultures transgéniques – soit 11 % des terres cultivées –, essentiellement sur le continent américain, le sous-continent indien et en Chine. Aux États-Unis, où les premières plantations de soja transgénique ont été introduites en 1996, les OGM représentent environ 90 % des cultures de soja, de maïs et de coton. Selon leurs défenseurs, ils sont indispensables pour répondre aux besoins d’une population en forte croissance. C’est l’argument du géant du secteur, le semencier américain Monsanto, qui produit aussi le célèbre Roundup, un herbicide total dont la substance active, le glyphosate, épargne les plantes OGM.


    https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/057483-000-A/ogm-mensonges-et-verites

    #film #documentaire #reportage #vidéo
    #BT #maïs_BT #rentabilité #TH #soja #Roundup #USA #Etats-Unis #monoculture #agriculture #élevage #Argentine #Monsanto #pommes_De_terre #risques #génie_génétique #toxine_BT #pesticides #industrie_agro-alimentaire #glyphosate #herbicide #super_mauvaises_herbes #darwinisme #soja_roundup_ready #atrazin #business #santé #cancer #Mexique #propriété_intellectuelle #brevets #Percy_Schmeiser #sécurité_alimentaire #Ghana #malformation_congénitale #justice #biodiversité

    #USAID (qui lie #aide_au_développement et utilisation de OGM dans le pays qui va recevoir l’aide)

    #Gates_Foundation (qui finance des tests de plantes OGM au Ghana)

    #biotechnologie_agricole #coton #Bukina_Faso #coton_BT #Sofitex #rendements #Geocoton #Roundup_Ready_Flex_Cotton #néo-colonialisme

    #MON810 #maïs_MON810 #riz_doré #riz #Philippines #golden_rice #Syngenta #technologie #dengue #oxitec #moustiques_transgéniques #AGM #animaux_génétiquement_modifiés

    • Une ONG présentée dans le film, au Ghana :
      #Food_sovereignty_ghana

      Food Sovereignty Ghana is a grass-roots movement of Ghanaians, home and abroad, dedicated to the promotion of food sovereignty in Ghana. Our group believes in the collective control over our collective resources, rather than the control of our resources by multinational corporations and other foreign entities. This movement is a product of Special Brainstorming Session meeting on the 21st of March, 2013, at the Accra Freedom Centre. The meeting was in response to several calls by individuals who have been discussing, writing, or tweeting, about the increasing phenomenon of land grabs, the right to water and sanitation as a fundamental human right, water privatization issues, deforestation, climate change, carbon trading and Africa’s atmospheric space, and in particular, the urgent issue of the introduction of GM food technology into our agriculture, particularly, its implications on food sovereignty, sustainable development, biodiversity, and the integrity of our food and water resources, human and animal health, and our very existence as a politically independent people. These calls insisted that these issues need to be comprehensively addressed in a systematic and an organized manner.

      Foremost in these calls was the need for a comprehensive agricultural policy that respects the multi-functional roles played by agriculture in our daily lives, and resists the avaricious calculations behind the proposition that food is just another commodity or component for international agribusiness. The trade in futures or speculation involving food have pushed food prices beyond the reach of almost a billion of people in the world who go to bed, each day, hungry. Even though we have have doubled the amount of food to feed everybody in the world today, people still don’t have access to food. The primary cause of this is the neo-liberal agenda of the imperialists, such as the SAP, EPA, AGOA, TRIPS, AoA, AFSNA, AGRA, which have the focus on marginalising the small family farm agriculture that continues to feed over 80% of Africa and replacing them with governance structures, agreements and practices that depend on and promote unsustainable and inequitable international trade and give power to remote and unaccountable corporations.

      We came together in order to help turn a new leaf. We see a concerted effort, over the years, to distort our agriculture to such an extent that today, our very survival as a free and independent people crucially depend on how fast we are able to apply the breaks, and to rather urgently promote policies that focus on food for people, and value our local food providers, the arduous role of the resilient small family farm for thousands of years. We need to resist imperialist policies such as the Structural Adjustment Programmes of the World Bank and the IMF which rolled away 30 years of gains towards food sovereignty in the 1970s and 80s. Those African countries that graduated from the SAP were subsequently slammed with HIPIC. In all these years, the imperialist countries fortified their agricultural production with heavy government subsidies, as Africa saw the imposition of stringent conditionality removing all government subsidies on our own agriculture. The effect has been a destruction of our local food production capacity and a dependence on corporations for our daily food needs. This has had a devastating effect on Africa’s agriculture, and our ability to feed ourselves.

      We believe that a proper analysis of the food crisis is a matter that cannot be left with trade negotiators, investment experts, or agricultural engineers. It is essentially a matter of political economy. As Jean Ziegler succinctly puts it, “Every child who dies of hunger in today’s world has been murdered.” Our Food Under Our Control! is determined to make sure that such a crime becomes impossible in Ghana. Our number one mission is to switch the language from food security to food sovereignty as the goal, to repeat the words food sovereignty at every opportunity and say we don’t want food security, that can still be dependence, we want food sovereignty, we need food sovereignty. This is not the same as “food security”. A country can have food security through food imports. Dependence on food imports is precarious and prone to multiple risks — from price risks, to supply risks, to conditionality risks (policy conditions that come with food imports). Food sovereignty, on the other hand, implies ensuring domestic production and supply of food. It means that the nationals of the country (or at the very least nationals within the region) must primarily be responsible for ensuring that the nation and the region are first and foremost dependent on their own efforts and resources to grow their basic foods.

      Aims and objectives:

      1. To help promote the people’s right to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and to generally ensure the priority of domestic food crops produced by small farms over export crops.

      2. To help create mass awareness about the political, economic, health and environmental impacts of genetically modified food technology and defend the right of the people to define their own food and agricultural systems.

      3. To help ensure small farms are sustained by state provision and facilitation of necessary infrastructure: Security of land tenure, Water, Financial credit, Energy, Fertilizers, Transport, Storage, Extension service, Marketing, Technology and Equipment for production, harvesting, storage and transport, and Insurance against crop failures due to climate changes, or other unforeseen circumstances.

      4. To help resist the theft, destruction, and loss of the Commons, our natural and indigenous resources, by means of laws, commercial contracts and intellectual property rights regimes, and to generally serve as the watch-dog over all aspects of agricultural sustainability in Ghana.

      5. To help protect and preserve public access to and ownership of the Commons: Water, Land, Air, Seeds, Energy, Plants, Animals, and work closely with like-minded local, national, and international organisations in the realization of the foregoing objectives.


      http://foodsovereigntyghana.org

    • Un chercheur, #Damián_Verzeñassi de l’#université_de_Rosario, mentionné il y a une année dans un article de Mediapart :

      Argentine : soja transgénique voisine avec maladies

      Avia Terai, ville de 10 000 habitants, est exposée aux pulvérisations incessantes sur ses champs de soja et de coton de glyphosate, le composant de base de l’herbicide de Monsanto. Un pesticide que l’Organisation mondiale pour la santé a étiqueté cancérogène en 2015. Ici, des enfants naissent avec des malformations, des troubles neurologiques sévères et le taux de cancer est trois fois plus élevé que la moyenne nationale, selon l’étude du docteur argentin Damián Verzeñassi de l’université de Rosario. De son côté, Monsanto nie catégoriquement l’authenticité de ces études et considère que la #toxicité de son produit phare Roundup n’a pas encore été prouvée.

      https://www.mediapart.fr/studio/portfolios/argentine-soja-transgenique-voisine-avec-maladies

      Le chercheur a fait une étude dans laquelle il montrait un lien entre le glyphosate et le développement de cancer :
      “Hay una incidencia del glifosato en los nuevos casos de cáncer”

      Desde 2010 se hicieron relevamientos en 32 localidades de la región pampeana y se relevaron más de 110 mil personas. Según Verzeñassi, si se encontró en estas localidades, donde se aplicó el modelo productivo con transgénicos a base de agrotóxicos, un pico muy importante de casos de cáncer, hipotiroidismo y abortos espontáneos.


      https://rosarionuestro.com/hemos-encontrado-un-incremento-en-la-incidencia-del-glifosato-en-los

    • #Red_de_Médicos_de_Pueblos_Fumigados (Argentine)

      La Red Universitaria de Ambiente y Salud (REDUAS) es una coordinación entre profesionales universitarios, académicos, científicos, miembros de equipos de salud humana en sus distintos niveles y demás estudiosos, preocupados por los efectos deletéreos de la salud humana que genera el ambiente degradado a consecuencias de la actividad productiva humana, especialmente cuando esta se da a gran escala y sustentada en una visión extractivista.

      La REDUAS surge como una de las decisiones tomadas en el 1º Encuentro de Médicos de Pueblos Fumigados, realizado en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba y organizado por el Modulo de Determinantes Sociales de la Salud de la Cátedra de Pediatría y por la Cátedra de Medicina I de dicha Facultad; concretado el 26 y 27 de agosto de 2010

      La REDUAS se construye para unir, coordinar y potenciar el trabajo de investigación científica, asistencia sanitaria, análisis epidemiológico y divulgación ,difusión y defensa del derecho a la salud colectiva, que realizan equipos que desarrollan este tipo de actividades en 10 provincias distintas de la Republica Argentina y que se encuentran activados por el problema del daño a la salud que ocasiona la fumigación o aspersión, sistemática de más de 300 millones de litros de plaguicidas sobre casi 12 millones de personas que conviven con los sembradíos de cultivos agroindustriales.

      Para avanzar en ese sentido se propone aportar al debate público por la necesidad de construir prácticas productivas que permitan una supervivencia feliz de la especie humana en la superficie terrestre y de la responsabilidad publica, privada, colectiva e individual en el resguardo de esas condiciones ecológicas.

      Considerando al derecho a la salud, como uno de los valores sociales que debemos tratar de privilegiar en el análisis de las decisiones políticas y económicas que se toman en nuestra sociedad, creemos necesario ampliar la difusión del conocimiento de los datos científicos que se dispone, y que muchas veces se invisibilizan; aportar a la generación de nuevos datos e informaciones experimentales y observacionales – poblacionales; y potenciar la voz de los equipos de salud, investigadores y pobladores en general afectados en sus derechos por agresiones ambiéntales generadas por practicas productivas ecológicamente agresivas.


      http://reduas.com.ar
      #résistance

    • #Madres_de_Ituzaingo_Anexo-Cordoba
      http://madresdeituzaingoanexo.blogspot.fr

      Madres de #Ituzaingó: 15 años de pelea por el ambiente

      En marzo de 2002 salieron a la calle por primera vez para reclamar atención sanitaria ante la cantidad de enfermos en el barrio.Lograron mejorar la zona y alejar las fumigaciones, nuevas normas ambientales y un juicio inédito. Dicen que la lucha continúa. Un juicio histórico


      http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/madres-de-ituzaingo-15-anos-de-pelea-por-el-ambiente
      #Sofia_Gatica

    • Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in #Oaxaca, Mexico

      Concerns have been raised about the potential effects of transgenic introductions on the genetic diversity of crop landraces and wild relatives in areas of crop origin and diversification, as this diversity is considered essential for global food security. Direct effects on non-target species1,2, and the possibility of unintentionally transferring traits of ecological relevance onto landraces and wild relatives have also been sources of concern3,4. The degree of genetic connectivity between industrial crops and their progenitors in landraces and wild relatives is a principal determinant of the evolutionary history of crops and agroecosystems throughout the world5,6. Recent introductions of transgenic DNA constructs into agricultural fields provide unique markers to measure such connectivity. For these reasons, the detection of transgenic DNA in crop landraces is of critical importance. Here we report the presence of introgressed transgenic DNA constructs in native maize landraces grown in remote mountains in Oaxaca, Mexico, part of the Mesoamerican centre of origin and diversification of this crop7,8,9.

      https://www.nature.com/articles/35107068

    • #Gilles-Éric_Séralini

      Gilles-Éric Séralini, né le 23 août 1960 à Bône en Algérie1, est un biologiste français, professeur de biologie moléculaire à l’université de Caen2. Il est cofondateur, administrateur et membre du conseil scientifique du CRIIGEN3, parrain de l’association Générations Cobayes4 et lanceur d’alerte5. Il est aussi membre du conseil scientifique de The Organic Center6, une association dépendant de l’Organic Trade Association (en)7, « le principal porte-parole du business bio aux États-Unis »8, et parrain de la Fondation d’entreprise Ekibio9.

      Il s’est fait notamment connaître du grand public pour ses études sur les OGM et les pesticides, et en particulier en septembre 2012 pour une étude toxicologique portée par le CRIIGEN mettant en doute l’innocuité du maïs génétiquement modifié NK 603 et du Roundup sur la santé de rats10,11. Cette étude, ainsi que les méthodes utilisées pour la médiatiser, ont été l’objet d’importantes controverses, les auteurs étant accusés d’instrumentaliser de la science, ou même suspectés de fraude scientifique12,13. En réalité, les agences de santé européennes et américaines réagissent sur le tard, indiquant les lacunes et faiblesses méthodologiques rédhibitoires de la publication (notamment un groupe de contrôle comportant un nombre d’individus ridiculement bas). Certains dénoncent aussi un manque de déontologie pour s’assurer d’un « coup de communication ». La revue Food and Chemical Toxicology retire l’étude en novembre 2013.


      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilles-%C3%89ric_S%C3%A9ralini

      Dans le documentaire on parle notamment d’un article qu’il a publié dans la revue « Food and chemical toxicology », que j’ai cherché sur internet... et... suprise suprise... je l’ai trouvé, mais le site de Elsevier dit... « RETRACTED »
      Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize
      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691512005637

      Il est par contre dispo sur sci-hub !
      http://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.005

      voici la conclusion :

      In conclusion, it was previously known that glyphosate con- sumption in water above authorized limits may provoke hepatic and kidney failures ( EPA ). The results of the study presented here clearly demonstrate that lower levels of complete agricultural gly- phosate herbicide formulations, at concentrations well below offi- cially set safety limits, induce severe hormone-dependent mammary, hepatic and kidney disturbances. Similarly, disruption of biosynthetic pathways that may result from overexpression of the EPSPS transgene in the GM NK603 maize can give rise to com- parable pathologies that may be linked to abnormal or unbalanced phenolic acids metabolites, or related compounds. Other muta- genic and metabolic effects of the edible GMO cannot be excluded. This will be the subject of future studies, including transgene and glyphosate presence in rat tissues. Reproductive and multigenera- tional studies will also provide novel insights into these problems. This study represents the first detailed documentation of long- term deleterious effects arising from the consumption of a GM R- tolerant maize and of R, the most used herbicide worldwide. Altogether, the significant biochemical disturbances and physi- ological failures documented in this work confirm the pathological effects of these GMO and R treatments in both sexes, with different amplitudes. We propose that agricultural edible GMOs and formu- lated pesticides must be evaluated very carefully by long term studies to measure their potential toxic effects.

    • #RiskOGM

      RiskOGM constitue depuis 2010 l’action de recherche du ministère en charge de l’Écologie, du Développement durable et de l’Énergie pour soutenir la structuration d’une communauté scientifique et le développement de connaissances, de méthodes et de pratiques scientifiques utiles à la définition et à la mise en œuvre des politiques publiques sur les OGM.

      Le programme s’appuie sur un Conseil Scientifique et sur un Comité d’Orientation qui réunit des parties prenantes.

      Les axes de recherche prioritaires identifiés portent sur les plans de surveillance générale des OGM, la coexistence des cultures, la gouvernance, les aspects économiques, éthiques et sociaux ou encore la démarche globale d’analyse de la sécurité des aliments contenant des produits transgéniques,

      3 projets en cours ont été soutenus après un 1er appel à proposition fin 2010. Fin 2013, suite à un deuxième appel, le projet (#PGM / #GMO90plus) a été sélectionné et soutenu à hauteur de 2,5 M€. Il vise à une meilleure connaissance des effets potentiels sur la santé de la consommation sur une longue durée de produits issus des plantes génétiquement modifiées.

      http://recherche-riskogm.fr/fr
      #programme_de_recherche

      Un projet dont fait partie #Bernard_Salles, rattaché à l’INRA, interviewé dans le documentaire.
      Lui, semble clean, contrairement au personnage que je vais un peu après, Pablo Steinberg

    • Projet #G-Twyst :

      G-TwYST is the acronym for Genetically modified plants Two Year Safety Testing. The project duration is from 21 April 2014 – 20 April 2018.

      The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has developed guidance for the risk assessment of food and feed containing, consisting or produced from genetically modified (GM) plants as well as guidance on conducting repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study in rodents on whole food/feed. Nonetheless, the long-term safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) food/feed is a long-standing controversial topic in the European Union. At the present time there are no standardized protocols to study the potential short-, medium- and/or long-term toxicity of GM plants and derived products. Against this backdrop the main objective of the G-TwYST project is to provide guidance on long-term animal feeding studies for GMO risk assessment while at the same time responding to uncertainties raised through the outcomes and reports from recent (long-term) rodent feeding studies with whole GM food/feed.

      In order to achieve this, G-TwYST:

      Performs rat feeding studies for up to two years with GM maize NK603. This includes 90 day studies for subchronic toxicity, 1 year studies for chronic toxicity as well as 2 year studies for carcinogenicity. The studies will be based on OECD Test Guidelines and executed according to EFSA considerations
      Reviews recent and ongoing research relevant to the scope of G-TwYST
      Engages with related research projects such as GRACE and GMO90plus
      Develops criteria to evaluate the scientific quality of long-term feeding studies
      Develops recommendations on the added value of long-term feeding trials in the context of the GMO risk assessment process.
      As a complementary activity - investigates into the broader societal issues linked to the controversy on animal studies in GMO risk assessment.
      Allows for stakeholder engagement in all key steps of the project in an inclusive and responsive manner.
      Provides for utmost transparency of what is done and by whom it is done.

      G-TwYST is a Collaborative Project of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities. The proposal for G-TwYST was established in reponse to a call for proposals on a two-year carcinogenicity rat feeding study with maize NK603 that was launched by he European Commission in June 2013 (KBBE.2013.3.5-03).

      https://www.g-twyst.eu

      Attention : ce projet semble être sous forte influence des lobbys de l’OGM...

      Fait partie de ce projet #Pablo_Steinberg, interviewé dans le documentaire.

      Pablo Steinberg est d’origine argentine, il est également le toxicologue du projet « #GRACE : GMO Risk Assessment and communication evidence », financé par l’UE :

      GRACE was a project funded under the EU Framework 7 programme and undertaken by a consortium of EU research institutes from June 2012 - November 2015. The project had two key objectives:

      I) To provide systematic reviews of the evidence on the health, environmental and socio-economic impacts of GM plants – considering both risks and possible benefits. The results are accessible to the public via an open access database and other channels.

      II) GRACE also reconsidered the design, execution and interpretation of results from various types of animal feeding trials and alternative in vitro methods for assessing the safety of GM food and feed.

      The Biosafety Group was involved in the construction of the central portal and database (CADIMA; Central Access Database for Impact Assessment of Crop Genetic Improvement Technologies) that managed the information gathered in the pursuit of the two objectives and in the dissemination of information.

      http://biosafety.icgeb.org/projects/grace

      La conférence finale de présentation du projet GRACE a été organisée à Potsdam... un 9 novembre... date-anniversaire de la chute du mur...
      Voici ce que #Joachim_Schiemann, coordinateur du projet, dit à cette occasion (je transcris les mots prononcés par Schiemann dans le reportage) :

      « Nous aussi, avec nos activités, nous essayons d’abattre certains murs et de faire bouger certaines positions qui sont bloquées. Je trouve que c’est très symbolique d’avoir organisé cette conférence à Potsdam, à proximité de Berlin et des vestiges du mur »

    • Prof. Potrykus on #Golden_Rice

      #Ingo_Potrykus, Professor emeritus at the Institute of Plant Sciences, ETH Zurich, is one of the world’s most renowned personalities in the fields of agricultural, environmental, and industrial biotechnology, and invented Golden Rice with Peter Beyer. In contrast to usual rice, this one has an increased nutritional value by providing provitamin A. According to WHO, 127 millions of pre-school children worldwide suffer from vitamine A deficiency, causing some 500,000 cases of irreversible blindness every year. This deficiency is responsible for 600,000 deaths among children under the age of 5.

      https://blog.psiram.com/2013/09/prof-potrykus-on-golden-rice
      Ce riz, enrichi de #bêtacarotène pour pallier aux carences de #provitamine_A, a valu, à Monsieur #Potrykus, la couverture du Time, une première pour un botaniste :

    • Golden Illusion. The broken promise of GE ’Golden’ rice

      GE ’Golden’ rice is a genetically engineered (GE, also called genetically modified, GM) rice variety developed by the biotech industry to produce pro-vitamin A (beta-carotene). Proponents portray GE ’Golden’ rice as a technical, quick-fix solution to Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a health problem in many developing countries. However, not only is GE ’Golden’ rice an ineffective tool to combat VAD it is also environmentally irresponsible, poses risks to human health, and compromises food security.

      https://www.greenpeace.org/archive-international/en/publications/Campaign-reports/Genetic-engineering/Golden-Illusion
      #rapport

    • #MASIPAG (#Philippines)

      MASIPAG a constaté que les paysans qui pratiquent la production agricole biologique gagnent en moyenne environ 100 euros par an de plus que les autres paysans, parce qu’ils ne dépensent pas d’argent dans des fertilisants et pesticides chimiques. Dans le contexte local, cela représente une économie importante. En plus, l’agriculture biologique contribue à un milieu plus sain et à une réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Malgré cela, le gouvernement philippin poursuit une politique ambiguë. En 2010, il a adopté une loi sur la promotion de l’agriculture biologique, mais en même temps il continue à promouvoir les cultures génétiquement modifiées et hybrides nécessitant le recours aux intrants chimiques. La loi actuelle insiste également sur une certification couteuse des produits bio par les tiers, ce qui empêche les #petits_paysans de certifier leurs produits.

      http://astm.lu/projets-de-solidarite/asie/philipinnes/masipag
      #paysannerie #agriculture_biologique

    • #AquAdvantage

      Le saumon AquAdvantage (#AquAdvantage_salmon® pour les anglophones, parfois résumé en « #AA_Salmon » ou « #AAS ») est le nom commercial d’un saumon transgénique et triploïde1.

      Il s’agit d’un saumon atlantique modifié, créé par l’entreprise AquaBounty Technologies (en)2 qui est devenu en mai 2016 le premier poisson génétiquement modifié par transgenèse commercialisé pour des fins alimentaires. Il a obtenu à cette date une autorisation de commercialisation (après son évaluation3) au Canada. En juillet 2017, l’entreprise a annoncé avoir vendu 4,5 tonnes de saumon AquAdvantage à des clients Canadiens qui ont à ce jour gardés leur anonymat4. L’entreprise prévoit de demander des autorisations pour des truites5, des tilapias 5 et de l’omble arctique génétiquement modifiés6.

      Selon les dossiers produits par AquaBounty à la FDA, deux gènes de saumons Chinook et deux séquences provenant d’une autre espèce (loquette d’Amérique) ont été introduits7, (information reprise par un article du New-York Times8 et un article scientifique évoquent aussi un gène provenant d’un autre poisson (loquette d’Amérique9). En 2010, AquaBounty, produirait déjà au Canada sur l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard les œufs de poissons destinés à des élevages en bassins enclavés à terre au Panama10 pour des poissons à exporter (alors que l’étiquetage n’est toujours pas obligatoire aux États-Unis)10.

      Ce poisson est controversé. Des préoccupations scientifiques et environnementalistes portent sur les risques d’impacts environnementaux à moyen et long terme, plus que sur le risque alimentaire. La FDA a considéré que la modification était équivalente à l’utilisation d’un médicament vétérinaire (hormone de croissance et modification transgénique)11 et a donc utilisé son processus (dit « NADA12 ») d’évaluation vétérinaire. Dans ce cadre, la FDA a conclu que ce poisson ne présentait a priori pas de risques pour la santé, et pouvait être cultivé de manière sûre. Mais en 2013, l’opportunité d’élever un tel poisson reste très contestée13 notamment depuis au moins 1986 concernant les risques qu’il pourrait poser à l’égard de l’environnement14, l’autorisation de mise sur le marché pourrait être à nouveau repoussée15.


      https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/AquAdvantage
      #saumon #saumon_transgénique #AquaBounty_Technologies

      Aussi appelé...
      #FrankenFish


  • Foreign Aid Makes America Safer – Foreign Policy
    http://foreignpolicy.com/2018/04/11/foreign-aid-makes-america-safer

    Nowhere is that more obvious than in the Trump administration’s drastic action in cutting the once-ambitious efforts of U.S. global diplomacy, international aid, and public health infrastructures. This includes both sweeping budget reductions and replacing leaders with political spin operations. In March, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed a 33 percent cut in the budget for the United States Agency for International Development on the grounds that the president was aiming for “efficiency and effectiveness” in U.S. aid efforts and to prioritize the overarching security and economic needs of American citizens. This rhetoric reveals a profound misunderstanding of how closely foreign aid is intertwined with the security, health, and economic interests of the United States.

    #USAID #Santé #aide #Afrique #Trump


  • NYT Prints Government-Funded Propaganda About Government-Funded Propaganda | FAIR
    https://fair.org/home/nyt-prints-government-funded-propaganda-about-government-funded-propaganda

    An op-ed by the president of the right-wing human rights group Freedom House, published in the #New_York_Times Monday (12/11/17)—later boosted by New York Times chief White House correspondent Peter Baker—warned of the menace of “commentators, trolls, bots, false news sites and propaganda,” and their negative effects on democracy. Missing from its analysis was any account of how the government that funds their organization—86 percent of Freedom House’s budget comes from the US government, primarily the State Department and #USAID—uses social media to stir unrest and undermine governments worldwide.

    #propagande #MSM #Etats-unis


  • The Legacy of Reagan’s Civilian ‘Psyops’ – Consortiumnews
    https://consortiumnews.com/2017/10/13/the-legacy-of-reagans-civilian-psyops

    L’agence de développement, l’agence d’information et la #NED, pseudo ONG et véritable agence civile.

    Declassified records from the Reagan presidential library show how the U.S. government enlisted civilian agencies in psychological operations designed to exploit information as a way to manipulate the behavior of targeted foreign audiences and, at least indirectly, American citizens.

    A just-declassified sign-in sheet for a meeting of an inter-agency “psyops” committee on Oct. 24, 1986, shows representatives from the Agency for International Development (#USAID), the State Department, and the U.S. Information Agency (#USIA) joining officials from the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Department.

    #civil #etats-unis #propagande


  • PIATA : A New Way of Doing Business - The Rockefeller Foundation
    https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/blog/piata-new-way-business

    #Piata, le nouveau partenariat qui veut transformer l’agriculture africaine #Rockfeller, #Fondation_Gates et #Usaid... #agra étant déjà un partenariat impliquant Rockfeller et Gates

    Last week at this year’s African Green Revolution Forum (AGRF), the Rockefeller Foundation, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) and the Alliance for Africa’s Green Revolution (AGRA) launched a new $280 million Partnership for Inclusive Agricultural Transformation in Africa (PIATA).

    PIATA is a five year partnership that will spur an inclusive agricultural transformation for at least 11 countries in Africa, to increase incomes and improve the food security of 30 million smallholder farm households. Countries include Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    Agriculture in Africa is the continent’s heartbeat—its most important sector, and its ticket out of poverty. With rising public investments in agriculture, increasing yields and better prospects for farmers, the past decade has yielded significant progress.

    #agriculture #business #agro-industrie



  • Slik jobbet Aftenposten med « Panama Papers » - NRK Kultur og underholdning - Nyheter og aktuelt stoff

    http://www.nrk.no/kultur/slik-jobbet-aftenposten-med-_panama-papers_-1.12884033

    Donc finalement, Aftenposten, partenaire norvégien des #Panamapapers fera aussi putassier que les autres journaux dont un célèbre quotidien du soir français de référence : ils distilleront un nom ou une info tous les soirs à 20:00 :) pendant X jours. Ils font donc ce qu’un autre journaliste de télé dégoûté m’a dit aujourd’hui : "leurs petits business". Et c’est bien ça le risque : avoir le "privilège" d’être choisi comme partenaire d’un truc aussi énorme et faire de la rétention d’info, entretenir artificiellement le suspens. En gros, un truc bien marketing. Un suplice au compte-goutte.

    #indigne et #naufrage_de_la_presse

    Klokken 20.00 søndag begynte Aftenposten, i samarbeid med journalister fra hele verden, utrullingen av det som ser ut til å være tidenes største dokumentlekkasje.

    • De Pepe Escobar. Je ne mets pas les liens fb ou je vais me faire engueuler par touti.

      “THE ULTIMATE LIMITED HANGOUT LEAK

      Put on your Panama hat and dance the leak.

      And if you believe in the integrity of the ‘International Consortium of Investigative Journalists’ (ICIJ), I got a made in Shenzhen Panama hat to sell ya.

      I never was, and never will be, a member of this racket; well, people asked me, and I’m answering.

      The ICIJ gets its cash and its ‘organizational procedure’ via the Exceptionalistan-based Center for Public Integrity. The money comes from: Ford Foundation, Carnegie Endowment, Rockefeller Faimly Fund, Kellogg Foundation and the Soros racket.

      This alleged most massive leak ever was obtained by - what else - US intel.

      But the REAL leak will never be known. Even the uber-pathetic Grauniad admitted, on the record, that ‘much of the leaked material will remain private’.

      Why? Because it DIRECTLY implicates a gaggle of Western 0.00000000001% multibillionaires and corporations. All of them play the offshore casino game.

      So what next? Messi in jail?”

      ‘THAT PANAMA RACKET UPDATE

      A who’s who of wealthy/powerful players has been DIRECTLY targeted in the Panama Papers leak, from the – demented – King of Saudi Arabia to former Fiat/Ferrari stalwart Luca de Montezemolo, from Lionel Messi to (unnamed) Chinese Communist Party officials and members of President Xi Jinping’s family.

      Quite juicy to also find Alaa Mubarak – the son of the deposed snake; the butcher of Fallujah, Ayad Allawi, former US occupation PM; Pakistani PM Nawaz Sharif (a Saudi protégé, so he gets offshore advice as well); and butcher of Gaza Dov Weisglass, former advisor to PMs Ariel Sharon and Ehud Olmert (this one convicted of corruption)

      Thus we find in the list not only Middle Eastern racketeers but also “respectable” Europeans – including David Cameron’s Dad.

      A particular emphasis is on BRICS members – from those mysterious Chinese to a few Indian companies. As far as Brazil is concerned, there’s a healthy counterpoint; the presence of some notoriously corrupt players targeted by the Car Wash investigation such as Eduardo Cunha and Joaquim Barbosa.

      Lula is NOT on the list – to the despair of the Exceptionalistan-supported regime changers in Brazil, many of them (media barons, bankers, businessmen) part of the previous HSBC leaks. Regime-changers-in-Chief, the Globo media empire, are not on the Panama leaks, although they profit from a certified offshore racket.

      No Americans, either. Isn’t it lovely? Panama may be too obvious, too rakish, too crude. Exceptionalists prefer more refined racket holes, say Luxembourg. Or the rakish Caymans, for that matter.

      So what’s left to spin? Well, the obvious: it’s Putin fault. Virtually every major Western corporate media headline blares that Putin has $2 billion offshore.

      The problem is he doesn’t. Putin is guilty by association because of his “close associates” Arkady and Boris Rotenberg’s ties to money laundering. Yet three “incriminating” emails happen not to “incriminate” them, or Putin.

      And then there’s cellist Sergey Roldugin, a childhood friend of Putin’s. Here’s the spin by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, which, crucially, is financed, among others, by notorious Russophobe George Soros:

      “The records show Roldugin is a behind-the-scenes player in a clandestine network operated by Putin associates that has shuffled at least $2 billion through banks and offshore companies. In the documents, Roldugin is listed as the owner of offshore companies that have obtained payments from other companies worth tens of millions of dollars. … It’s possible Roldugin, who has publicly claimed not to be a businessman, is not the true beneficiary of these riches. Instead, the evidence in the files suggests Roldugin is acting as a front man for a network of Putin loyalists – and perhaps for Putin himself.”

      What about, “the evidence in the files suggests Lionel Messi is acting as a front man for a network of Argentine football loyalists trying to evade the rape of Argentina by US hedge fund vultures”?
      Pathetic.’

      Et
      Corporate Media Gatekeepers Protect Western 1% From Panama Leak par Craig Murray.
      https://www.craigmurray.org.uk/archives/2016/04/corporate-media-gatekeepers-protect-western-1-from-panama-leak

    • J’ajoute que ce qui est marrant aujourd’hui, c’est que les mecs du monde m’ont fait passé pour le pire troll de la toile pour avoir dit en light ce que Escobar dit en lourd + que le Monde à menti de manière totalement obscène sur les raison de ses « rétentions ». Mais bon.

    • @kassem : bien vu ! Et l’Open Society Institue de George Soros connu par les « complotistes » pour financer, avec l’USAID, les préparatifs des révolutions colorées, et Soros lui-même par tout le monde pour être un parangon de transparence et de vertu financière...
      USAID = Agence américaine (gouvernementale) pour le « développement international »

      L’illustration de la Süddeutschezeitung, qui a reçu et distille les infos de ces #panama_papers illustre jusqu’à la caricature le traitement médiatique orienté de ces fuites - elles mêmes probablement organisées :


      D’abord Poutine n’est que très indirectement concerné. Ensuite Assad l’est par deux de ses cousins maternels (Hafez et Rami Makhlouf, et ce n’est pas une surprise...) mais à ce moment là pourquoi pas aussi Cameron qui l’est par son père ?
      Enfin et surtout, que fait là Ahmadinejad ??????

    • @nicolasm : Rami Makhlouf est bien connu pour tremper dans de nombreuses affaires et profiter largement du « capitalisme des copains » (Syriatel par exemple mais aussi nombreux investissements bancaires à l’étranger). Je n’en suis pas sûr mais je suppose que Bachar fait comme son père Hafez, tenir autrui par la connaissance que l’on a de leurs affaires et ne pas s’y mouiller soi même (Hafez comme Bachar sont connus pour leur mode de vie relativement modeste pour des autocrates).
      Par ailleurs il est bien possible qu’en plus de permettre à R. Makhlouf d’échapper aux sanctions et de préserver sa fortune personnelle indue, ces comptes (et d’autres ?) servent aussi à certains secteurs de ce qu’il reste d’Etat syrien.
      On dit de plus que R. Makhlouf financerait al-Mayadeen mais aussi certaines milices pro-régime...
      Le rôle central de ce personnage est conu depuis longtemps et n’est pas une découverte pour les services diplomatiques. Dans #les_chemins_de_Damas, Malbrunot montre que tout ça est bien connu au quai d’Orsay et que l’on n’hésitait pas, avant que certains décident d’un renversement du régime, à passer par lui pour conclure des contrats en Syrie.

    • Angry arab sur les différents types de référencements des panama Papers :
      http://angryarab.blogspot.fr/2016/04/3-kind-of-references-in-panama-papers.html

      3 kind of references in the Panama Papers
      I think that we can categorize three kinds of references to names of people in the Panama Papers:
      1) People who want to hide their wealth or who want to avoid taxation.
      2) people who want to open secret accounts to spend on covert intelligence operations. This may be the case of Gulf rulers. People have been asking me: why would Gulf rulers open up secret accounts to avoid taxes when they don’t have taxes? I say: it is not for the same reason that people open up secret accounts.
      3) People who open up secret accounts to avoid US-imposed sanctions. This is one example: “Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s government used Mossack Fonseca to create shell companies in the Seychelles to buy aviation fuel and avoid international sanctions, the French newspaper Le Monde reported”.
      http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-05/china-pakistan-push-back-on-offshore-revelations-as-syria-named

      @rumor : il y a c’est certain derrière les comptes des cousins d’Assad de l’enrichissement personnel - et peut-être pour Bachar lui-même, ok - mais, ça le confirme, aussi une manière pour le régime de tenter de contourner les sanctions américaines pour les achats de son effort de guerre.



  • SIGAR Asks USAID What Afghan Clinic Is Doing In the Mediterranean Sea
    https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/07/01/watchdog-tries-verify-coordinates-afghan-health-clinics-hilarity-ensues

    When the official watchdog overseeing U.S. spending on Afghanistan asked the U.S. Agency for International Development recently for details about the 641 health clinics it funds there, the agency readily provided a list of geospatial coordinates for them.

    But when the office of the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) went looking for the $210 million worth of clinics, the majority of them weren’t there.

    John Sopko, the special inspector general, sent USAID a letter on June 25 asking about the clinics.

    “Thirteen coordinates were not located within Afghanistan,” the letter reads. Additionally, 13 more were duplicates, 90 clinics had no location data and 189 coordinate locations had no structure within 400 feet.

    One set of coordinates was in the Mediterranean Sea.

    “My office’s initial analysis of USAID data and geospatial imagery has led us to question whether USAID has accurate location information for 510 — nearly 80 percent — of the 641 health care clinics funded by the PCH [Partnership Contracts for Health] program,” wrote Sopko.


  • Take Good News on Afghanistan’s Reconstruction With a ‘Grain of Salt’ | Inter Press Service
    http://www.ipsnews.net/2015/06/take-good-news-on-afghanistans-reconstruction-with-a-grain-of-salt

    Among others, official groups like the United States Agency for International Development (#USAID) say that higher life expectancy outcomes, better healthcare facilities and improved education access represent the ‘positive’ side of U.S. intervention.

    From this perspective, the estimated 26,000 civilian casualties as a direct result of U.S. military action must be viewed against the fact that people are now living longer, fewer mothers are dying while giving birth, and more children are going to school.

    But the diligent work undertaken by the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (#SIGAR) suggests that “much of the official happy talk on [reconstruction] should be taken with a grain of salt – iodized, of course – to prevent informational goiter.”

    Formed in 2008, SIGAR is endowed with the authority to “audit, inspect, investigate, and otherwise examine any and all aspects of reconstruction, regardless of departmental ownership.”

    In a May 5 speech, John F. Sopko, the Special Inspector General, called the reconstruction effort a “huge and far-reaching undertaking” that has scarcely left any part of Afghan life untouched.

    Poured into endless projects from propping up the local army and police, to digging wells and finding alternatives to poppy cultivation, funds allocated to rebuilding #Afghanistan now “exceed the value of the entire Marshall Plan effort to rebuild Western Europe after World War II.”

    “Unfortunately,” Sopko said, “from the outset to this very day large amounts of taxpayer dollars have been lost to waste, fraud, and abuse.

    “These disasters often occur when the U.S. officials who implement and oversee programs fail to distinguish fact from fantasy,” he added.

    #etats-unis


  • #Afghanistan. A Kaboul, la #radio des cœurs brisés
    http://www.courrierinternational.com/article/afghanistan-kaboul-la-radio-des-coeurs-brises

    L’idée de La Nuit des amoureux est née un jour où Sameem Sadat, le PDG d’Arman FM http://arman.fm, première #radio privée du pays (et la plus écoutée aussi), était coincé dans les bouchons en rentrant chez lui. Ville dessinée pour héberger 2 millions d’habitants, Kaboul totalise aujourd’hui plus de 4 millions d’âmes et plus de 650 000 véhicules pour des rues étri- quées conçues pour en accueillir seulement 30 000. (…) Sameem Sadat était dans sa voiture, laissant son esprit vagabonder, lorsqu’il a remarqué que “le type à côté de [lui] passait son temps à envoyer des SMS”, relate-t-il. L’homme d’affaires a constaté qu’il avait un sourire malicieux aux lèvres, comme s’il flir- tait avec son téléphone. Et il n’était pas le seul. La plupart des jeunes gens autour de lui étaient en train de chatter.

    Traduction de : https://medium.com/matter/from-afghanistan-with-love-93a8df828fa8

    https://vimeo.com/118958255

    Sur Radio Arman, née en 2003 :

    One of Afghanistan media’s biggest success stories in recent years has been on the broadcast side. In 2010, The New Yorker described Saad Mohseni, chairman of The Moby Group, as “Afghanistan’s first media mogul.” In addition to Afghan TV and radio holdings, Moby owns a record company, ad agency and production company, and it partnered with News Corp. on the Farsi 1 satellite network beamed into Iran.

    The Mohseni family, which operated businesses in Australia before the war, received $2.7 million in #USAID grants to help launch their diversified media company. The company has claimed it takes in annual revenues of over $20 million, according to The New Yorker profile. In the launch of Arman FM and Tolo TV, USAID was the “biggest contributor” outside of the family, The New Yorker reported.

    “Funding from organizations like USAID was crucial to our decision to invest in Afghanistan,” Zaid Mohseni, a director of Moby Group, said in an email to The Huffington Post. “We certainly had the will to do it, but the funding allowed the project to be feasible commercially. Without the USAID funding, we would never have made those initial investments in the media sector.”

    Mohseni said that his family was told when they first received USAID funding “we should not expect further funding for that project and so we made sure that we made the business sustainable.” He noted that his brothers Saad and Jahid and sister Wajma all gained significant business experience in Australia before starting their company in Afghanistan.

    “We also invested everything we had into the business,” Mohseni said. “All property assets and savings were liquidated to invest in our Afghan business. So we had no choice but to succeed.”

    The Moby Group, which in 2010 launched Tolo News, the country’s only 24-hour satellite news channel, also owns channels focused primarily on entertainment, offering shows like "Afghan Star,” a version of “American Idol.” While the entertainment operation may be able to subsidize Tolo News to an extent, the news side did lay off some staff in the past year due to restructuring.

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/30/afghanistan-media-afghan-war_n_2574818.html

    #médias


  • Carving up Africa - aid donors plot the great agribusiness takeover - The Ecologist
    http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2805343/carving_up_africa_aid_donors_and_agribusiness_plot_the_great_seed_priv

    A secretive conference, co-organised by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), one of the world’s largest donors, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) took place in London on Monday this week.

    The meeting bears the ludicrously long sobriquet ’Multiple Pathways for Promoting the Commercial and Sustainable Production and Delivery of Early Generation Seed of Food Crops in Sub-Saharan Africa.’

    To give it a more succinct description, this was a meeting for free market obsessed ’aid’ donors and corporations to discuss how to increase their control of the global seed sector. The list of invited participants reads like a roll call for some of the most renowned actors in the agribusiness world.

    The invite list is entirely made up of corporations, development agencies and aid donors. Not a single farmer organisation was invited. But then, why invite a farmer organisation when your aim is helping companies sell new seed varieties? Why invite civil society representatives when your aim is to impose a pre-determined profit-driven agenda?

    #semences #aides #usaid #Afrique #agro-technologie


  • ISIS and the war of ideas
    http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2014/october/isis-and-the-war-of-ideas.htm#sthash.UYnfvJqM.STZEhSpn.dpbs

    Certes le #sectarisme est la plaie du monde arabe comme le dit Brian Whitaker, mais il n’est pas du tout sérieux de prendre à témoin un officiel occidental sans prise en compte de l’histoire récente (), et de préconiser une « bataille des idées » sans aborder le versant social et économique ni la pourriture des dirigeants arabes (également pris à témoin !) et leur soutien par les mêmes officiels occidentaux.

    () Quand l’#USAID finançait des livres scolaires afghans préconisant de zigouiller les athées au nom du Djihâd.

    En paywall sur le WaPo :
    From U.S., the ABC’s of Jihad ; Violent Soviet-Era Textbooks Complicate Afghan Education Efforts
    By Joe Stephens and David B. Ottaway
    Washington Post Staff Writers
    Saturday, March 23, 2002 ; Page A01
    http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/doc/409274513.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Mar%2023,%202

    Archivé ici :
    http://supportdanielboyd.wordpress.com/usa-printed-textbooks-support-jihad-in-afghanistan-and-

    In the twilight of the Cold War, the United States spent millions of dollars to supply Afghan schoolchildren with textbooks filled with violent images and militant Islamic teachings, part of covert attempts to spur resistance to the Soviet occupation.

    The primers, which were filled with talk of jihad and featured drawings of guns, bullets, soldiers and mines, have served since then as the Afghan school system’s core curriculum. Even the Taliban used the American-produced books, though the radical movement scratched out human faces in keeping with its strict fundamentalist code.

    As Afghan schools reopen today, the United States is back in the business of providing schoolbooks. But now it is wrestling with the unintended consequences of its successful strategy of stirring Islamic fervor to fight communism. What seemed like a good idea in the context of the Cold War is being criticized by humanitarian workers as a crude tool that steeped a generation in violence.

    Last month, a U.S. foreign aid official said, workers launched a “scrubbing” operation in neighboring Pakistan to purge from the books all references to rifles and killing. Many of the 4 million texts being trucked into Afghanistan, and millions more on the way, still feature Koranic verses and teach Muslim tenets.

    The White House defends the religious content, saying that Islamic principles permeate Afghan culture and that the books “are fully in compliance with U.S. law and policy.” Legal experts, however, question whether the books violate a constitutional ban on using tax dollars to promote religion.

    Organizations accepting funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development must certify that tax dollars will not be used to advance religion. The certification states that AID “will finance only programs that have a secular purpose. . . . AID-financed activities cannot result in religious indoctrination of the ultimate beneficiaries.”

    The issue of textbook content reflects growing concern among U.S. policymakers about school teachings in some Muslim countries in which Islamic militancy and anti-Americanism are on the rise. A number of government agencies are discussing what can be done to counter these trends.

    President Bush and first lady Laura Bush have repeatedly spotlighted the Afghan textbooks in recent weeks. Last Saturday, Bush announced during his weekly radio address that the 10 million U.S.-supplied books being trucked to Afghan schools would teach “respect for human dignity, instead of indoctrinating students with fanaticism and bigotry.”

    The first lady stood alongside Afghan interim leader Hamid Karzai on Jan. 29 to announce that AID would give the University of Nebraska at Omaha $6.5 million to provide textbooks and teacher training kits.

    AID officials said in interviews that they left the Islamic materials intact because they feared Afghan educators would reject books lacking a strong dose of Muslim thought. The agency removed its logo and any mention of the U.S. government from the religious texts, AID spokeswoman Kathryn Stratos said.

    “It’s not AID’s policy to support religious instruction,” Stratos said. “But we went ahead with this project because the primary purpose . . . is to educate children, which is predominantly a secular activity.”

    Some legal experts disagreed. A 1991 federal appeals court ruling against AID’s former director established that taxpayers’ funds may not pay for religious instruction overseas, said Herman Schwartz, a constitutional law expert at American University, who litigated the case for the American Civil Liberties Union.

    Ayesha Khan, legal director of the nonprofit Americans United for Separation of Church and State, said the White House has “not a legal leg to stand on” in distributing the books.

    “Taxpayer dollars cannot be used to supply materials that are religious,” she said.

    Published in the dominant Afghan languages of Dari and Pashtu, the textbooks were developed in the early 1980s under an AID grant to the University of Nebraska-Omaha and its Center for Afghanistan Studies. The agency spent $51 million on the university’s education programs in Afghanistan from 1984 to 1994.

    During that time of Soviet occupation, regional military leaders in Afghanistan helped the U.S. smuggle books into the country. They demanded that the primers contain anti-Soviet passages. Children were taught to count with illustrations showing tanks, missiles and land mines, agency officials said. They acknowledged that at the time it also suited U.S. interests to stoke hatred of foreign invaders.

    “I think we were perfectly happy to see these books trashing the Soviet Union,” said Chris Brown, head of book revision for AID’s Central Asia Task Force.

    AID dropped funding of Afghan programs in 1994. But the textbooks continued to circulate in various versions, even after the Taliban seized power in 1996.

    Officials said private humanitarian groups paid for continued reprintings during the Taliban years. Today, the books remain widely available in schools and shops, to the chagrin of international aid workers.

    “The pictures [in] the texts are horrendous to school students, but the texts are even much worse,” said Ahmad Fahim Hakim, an Afghan educator who is a program coordinator for Cooperation for Peace and Unity, a Pakistan-based nonprofit.

    An aid worker in the region reviewed an unrevised 100-page book and counted 43 pages containing violent images or passages.

    The military content was included to “stimulate resistance against invasion,” explained Yaquib Roshan of Nebraska’s Afghanistan center. “Even in January, the books were absolutely the same . . . pictures of bullets and Kalashnikovs and you name it.”

    During the Taliban era, censors purged human images from the books. One page from the texts of that period shows a resistance fighter with a bandolier and a Kalashnikov slung from his shoulder. The soldier’s head is missing.

    Above the soldier is a verse from the Koran. Below is a Pashtu tribute to the mujaheddin, who are described as obedient to Allah. Such men will sacrifice their wealth and life itself to impose Islamic law on the government, the text says.

    “We were quite shocked,” said Doug Pritchard, who reviewed the primers in December while visiting Pakistan on behalf of a Canada-based Christian nonprofit group. “The constant image of Afghans being natural warriors is wrong. Warriors are created. If you want a different kind of society, you have to create it.”

    After the United States launched a military campaign last year, the United Nations’ education agency, UNICEF, began preparing to reopen Afghanistan’s schools, using new books developed with 70 Afghan educators and 24 private aid groups. In early January, UNICEF began printing new texts for many subjects but arranged to supply copies of the old, unrevised U.S. books for other subjects, including Islamic instruction.

    Within days, the Afghan interim government announced that it would use the old AID-produced texts for its core school curriculum. UNICEF’s new texts could be used only as supplements.

    Earlier this year, the United States tapped into its $296 million aid package for rebuilding Afghanistan to reprint the old books, but decided to purge the violent references.

    About 18 of the 200 titles the United States is republishing are primarily Islamic instructional books, which agency officials refer to as “civics” courses. Some books teach how to live according to the Koran, Brown said, and “how to be a good Muslim.”

    UNICEF is left with 500,000 copies of the old “militarized” books, a $200,000 investment that it has decided to destroy, according to U.N. officials.

    On Feb. 4, Brown arrived in Peshawar, the Pakistani border town in which the textbooks were to be printed, to oversee hasty revisions to the printing plates. Ten Afghan educators labored night and day, scrambling to replace rough drawings of weapons with sketches of pomegranates and oranges, Brown said.

    “We turned it from a wartime curriculum to a peacetime curriculum,” he said

    • L’USAID restait droit dans ses bottes,
      http://www.equip123.net/docs/e1-RoleofNGOsAfghanistan.pdf

      The University of Nebraska at Omaha’s Education Sector Support Project (UNO-ESSP) funded by USAID made a significant contribution to the Afghan education system both in Afghanistan and in refugee camps in Pakistan by developing a curriculum for primary levels (1-12), and training 3,500 teachers (17% females). Though the curriculum was initially Jihad-oriented, a revised version without the war messages became the standard curriculum, which is used to this day.

    • Une partie de l’article du WaPo traduit ici,
      http://www.mondialisation.ca/de-lafghanistan-a-la-syrie-droits-des-femmes-propagande-de-guerre-et-cia/5331097?print=1

      « [D]ans le cadre d’une tentative clandestine visant à stimuler la résistance à l’occupation soviétique, les États-Unis ont dépensé des millions de dollars pour fournir aux élèves afghans des recueils remplis d’images violentes et d’enseignements islamiques militants.

      Les premiers livres, plein de discours djihadistes et de dessins d’armes à feu, de balles, de soldats et de mines servent depuis ce temps de programme de base du système scolaire afghan. Même les talibans ont utilisé les livres produits aux États-Unis.

      La Maison-Blanche défend le contexte religieux en disant que la culture afghane est imprégnée des principes islamiques et que les livres “sont entièrement conformes aux politiques et à la loi des États-Unis”. Des juristes se demandent toutefois si ces livres violent une loi constitutionnelle interdisant que l’argent des contribuables serve à promouvoir la religion.

      [D]es représentants de l’AID ont déclaré qu’ils avaient laissé le matériel islamique intact, craignant que les éducateurs afghans ne rejettent des livres ne contenant pas une forte dose de pensée islamique. L’agence a enlevé son logo et toute mention du gouvernement étasunien des textes religieux, a affirmé la porte-parole de l’AID Kathryn Stratos.

      “L’appui à une éducation religieuse ne fait pas partie des politique de l’AID, mais nous sommes allés de l’avant avec ce projet parce que l’objectif principal […] est d’éduquer les enfants, une tâche principalement laïque”, a déclaré Mme Stratos.

      [P]ublié dans les principales langues Afghanes, le dari et le pachtoune, les recueils ont été conçus au début des années 1980 grâce à une subvention de l’AID à l’Université du Nebraska à Omaha et son Centre d’études afghanes. L’agence a versé 51 millions de dollars aux programmes d’éducation de l’université en Afghanistan de 1984 à 1994. » (Washington Post, 23 mars 2002.)

    • Olivier Roy : « Ce qui se passe en Irak et en Syrie est le prolongement de l’Afghanistan »
      http://www.telerama.fr/monde/olivier-roy-ce-qui-se-passe-en-irak-et-en-syrie-est-le-prolongement-de-l-af

      En 1985, vous voyez arriver les premiers djihadistes algériens et turcs…

      Cette guerre les a fait exister, puisqu’ils étaient considérés par l’#Occident comme des #alliés. Pour les #Américains, s’ils tuaient des Russes, c’était bien, et s’ils se faisaient tuer par les Russes, c’était bien également. Moi, sur le terrain, je voyais qu’ils étaient soutenus par les #Saoudiens et les #Pakistanais, que ce n’était pas qu’une histoire de têtes brûlées, mais le résultat de #politiques_étatiques et religieuses. J’ai compris que cette guerre aurait des effets de long terme, que c’était l’acte de naissance d’un nouveau phénomène social  : le #djihadisme.

    • Winning “Hearts and Minds” | Jacobin
      https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/03/terrorism-america-isis-obama

      Consider some of the terrorist groups Obama mentions in his op-ed. While much has already been written about the US role in the growth of al-Qaeda and the Islamic State, the TTP in Pakistan also owes much of its success to US policy in the region (along with America’s unsavory ally, Saudi Arabia).

      Militant groups in Pakistan have long benefitted from state patronage and alliances with the Afghan Taliban and al-Qaeda. The former is perhaps the defining theme in mainstream media coverage of Pakistan’s ostensible “double game.” What is less often emphasized is the infrastructure established during the Afghan Jihad by the ISI, Pakistan’s intelligence agency, with US and Saudi funding, which produced thousands of militants.

      According to an estimate by US officials, some fifteen thousand fighters were trained in “bomb-making, sabotage and urban guerrilla warfare” in Afghan camps that the CIA helped set up. As one American official told journalist Jason Burke in 1999, “we created a whole cadre of trained and motivated people who turned against us. It’s a classic Frankenstein’s monster situation.” The shared CIA and ISI strategy during the Afghan Jihad resulted in flooding the region “not only with all kinds of weapons but also with the most radical Islamist recruits.”

      Already well established by the time the US invaded Afghanistan, militant groups in Pakistan were jolted into action by the war and its subsequent spread into the country. The militant landscape changed significantly after the Pakistani government’s decision to support the US war in Afghanistan.


  • America’s infuriating response to the #Ebola crisis
    http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-partisan/wp/2014/09/12/americas-infuriating-response-to-the-ebola-crisis

    Dans le cadre de la lutte contre Ebola au Libéria, les #Etats-Unis prévoient 22 millions USD pour le personnel de #santé, mais seulement étranger.

    Liberia is bearing the full brunt of the Ebola scourge, which has also hit Guinea and Sierra Leone in West Africa. Liberia alone has seen 2,000 cases of infection and almost 1,000 deaths. While the outbreak of Ebola has been steadily punishing West Africa for the better part of this year, what the world is seeing from developed nations is an outbreak of complacency, half-measures, sensationalism and stigmatization toward Africa, which is only serving to exacerbate the problem. With this latest move by the Pentagon to help only foreign workers in Liberia, the message from the United States, intended or not, rings loud and clear: African health-care workers and their patients are not our priority.

    Twenty-five beds is nowhere near enough to begin meeting the needs of the countries facing the disease. In one county alone in Liberia, there is a need for 1,000 treatment beds. The county only has 240. How would anyone see 25 beds as a generous donation?

    This move to construct facilities only for foreign health workers comes barely a month after President Obama hosted more than 50 African heads of state, a summit that was aimed at highlighting “the depth and breadth of the United States’ commitment to the African continent.” Global health was on the agenda and with regards to the Ebola outbreak, the White House assured all that the United States “is responding rapidly and effectively.”

    Treating African health-care workers as anything less than indispensable is inexcusable. It is worth noting that the U.S. military command in Africa, or #Africom, has supposedly been working with #USAID since 2008 to improve the capacity of African militaries and governments to prepare for pandemics. While the focus of the Pandemic Response Program (PRP) has been on influenza, it’s a fair question to ask if any of those exercises have proved fruitful in combating Ebola thus far. Africom was established to help in counterterrorism efforts but has been met with a large amount of suspicion from Africans. If Africom appears to be lackadaisical in its approach to containing Ebola in West Africa, it risks squandering the possibility of building trust between itself and the African governments and people.

    #aide


  • Climate Change and Conflict in the Sahel: A Policy Brief on Findings from Niger and Burkina Faso

    http://www.ecc-platform.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=5064:climate-change-and-conflict-

    This policy brief produced by the Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability (FESS) for USAID analyses the potential linkages of conflict and climate change in Niger and Burkina Faso. The brief presents specific vulnerabilities that result from the complex setting of institutional, social and environmental factors in both countries. Recommendations for conflict-sensitive action round off the paper, which is available for download.

    http://community.eldis.org/.5be245a5

    #climat #afrique #sahel #usaid


  • Handmaiden to Africa’s Generals
    By ALEX DE WAAL and ABDUL MOHAMMED
    AUG. 15, 2014
    http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/16/opinion/handmaiden-to-africas-generals.html

    Très bon article qui malheureusement et comme trop souvent et malgré des décennies de recul, présente les choses comme si les intentions des #Etats-Unis, bien que pavant le chemin de l’enfer, étaient bonnes. Sans compter l’énormité consistant à réclamer plus de rôle pour l’#USAID.

    Because Mr. Obama is committed to scaling back the deployment of United States troops to combat terrorism, America’s security strategy in Africa translates largely into training and equipping African armies. Although this approach rightly gives African governments the lead in tackling their own security problems, it is misguided nonetheless. It is, in effect, providing foreign tutelage to the militarization of Africa’s politics, which undermines peace and democracy throughout the continent. America’s diplomacy is becoming a handmaiden to Africa’s generals.

    Consider two countries riven by different kinds of conflict and ask yourself what they have in common. On the one hand, there is South Sudan. By African standards, it is not a poor country. It has vast oil resources, and as soon it became independent from Sudan, three years ago, government spending per capita was about $350, four times the average for East African states. It also received the most generous international aid package of any country in East Africa — the equivalent of another $100 per capita. But the government spent about half of its budget on its huge army. And many of its 745 generals proceeded to make fortunes thanks to payroll fraud and procurement scams.

    According to President Salva Kiir of South Sudan, $4 billion in public funds were plundered by government ministers. When Mr. Kiir shut out his political rivals from the club of kleptocrats, fighting broke out. Various commanders and party bosses then mobilized supporters through ethnic militias, bringing a sectarian dimension to a conflict that was inherently about the distribution of public resources.

    Then there is #Nigeria. Its political leaders, generals and businessmen — who are often all those things at once — have grown wealthy on oil money, while much of the population lives in deep poverty. Health and education services are inadequate, and the government faces widespread outrage about corruption. Small wonder that the Islamist militants of Boko Haram, who espouse austere forms of Shariah justice, are able to recruit disaffected young men and that the Nigerian army struggles to find combat-ready units to counter them.

    One thing South Sudan and Nigeria have in common is systemic #corruption and a military #elite that controls politics and business. The civil strife in South Sudan and the jihadist insurgency in Nigeria are largely symptoms of those deeper governance problems. Another thing South Sudan and Nigeria have in common is vast American support. In 2006-2013, the United States government spent up to $300 million to support the South Sudanese army. Nigeria has long been one of Washington’s biggest defense-cooperation partners.

    Even as conventional military threats have declined throughout Africa, overall military spending on the continent has grown faster than anywhere else in the world. And these military budgets often hide big black holes. In Uganda, according to local journalists, some funds officially dedicated to the salary of army personnel who turned out not to exist have been used by President Yoweri #Museveni to reward generals loyal to him.

    When political crises occur, the American government’s response is to privilege military measures, and local governments know it. For example, the ongoing peace talks in South Sudan have focused more on dispatching Ethiopian, Kenyan and Rwandan troops under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional organization, and less on addressing the root causes of the conflict. In the absence of a durable political solution to the underlying crisis, this is a high-risk move; it could suck the whole of northeast Africa into South Sudan’s war.

    The overall approach violates the first principle of peacekeeping: Never send a peace mission where there is no peace to keep. The risks of getting embroiled are especially high when the troops deployed come from a neighboring country. What’s more, the very governments that propose to serve as mediators may have a conflict of interest: They stand to gain from dispatching their soldiers, especially if the mission is funded by contributions from United Nations members.

    Counterterrorism assistance has a better track record reinforcing bad government than rooting out extremists. Repression by dictators like #Idriss_Déby in Chad or #Blaise_Compaoré in #Burkina_Faso has been tolerated because their governments have supplied combat troops for operations against jihadists in the #Sahara. Meanwhile, #Kenya has experienced more terrorist attacks since its army moved into Somalia in 2011 to fight the radical Islamist group Al Shabab. After the attack on the Westgate Mall in Nairobi last year, Kenya’s army and police indiscriminately targeted Muslim communities — generating resentment among those groups and potentially more recruits for the militants.

    Fifteen years ago, when African leaders set up their own peace and security system within what later became the African Union, they tried to balance diplomacy and armed enforcement. In case of a conflict, they would hold negotiations with all parties; sending in peacekeeping troops would only be a fallback option. But Western countries like the United States and France have tended to favor military approaches instead. During the civil war in Libya in 2011, a panel of five African presidents, established by the African Union and chaired by Jacob Zuma of South Africa, proposed letting Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi go into exile in an African country and then setting up an interim government. But the plan was spurned by NATO, which preferred regime change by way of foreign intervention.

    The Obama administration is aware of the dangers of supporting armed forces in Africa. At the U.S.-Africa summit in Washington, Mr. Obama announced a new Security Governance Initiative to help professionalize six African militaries and promote their being subjected to civilian oversight. This is a step in the right direction, but it is a very small step. Only $65 million has been earmarked for that program, compared with $5 billion for counterterrorism cooperation.

    Washington has the means to do much more. A single aircraft carrier has a crew as large as the entire American diplomatic service posted abroad. The cost of developing the fleet of F-35 stealth fighter planes could fund the State Department, the #U.S._Agency_for_International_Development and all United Nations peacekeeping operations for nearly 20 years. Security in Africa will not be achieved by giving more power and money to African military forces. It will be achieved by supporting diplomacy, democracy and development.

    Alex de Waal is the executive director of the World Peace Foundation at Tufts University. Abdul Mohammed is the chairman of InterAfrica Group, an Ethiopian civil society organization.

    #militarisation #Afrique #sécurité #diplomatie #développement #démocratie #Sud_Soudan #Ouganda #OTAN #France


  • Ebola, polio, HIV: it’s dangerous to mix healthcare and foreign policy | Sophie Harman
    http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2014/aug/14/ebola-polio-hiv-healthcare-foreign-policy

    recent revelations from Cuba – where it was revealed that the US Agency for International Development (#USAid) had used #HIV_prevention work as a smokescreen for fomenting political opposition – should ignite a debate about the necessity of keeping the work of public health agencies, security services and foreign policy separate. (...)

    The so-called “#securitisation” of healthcare is not new. (...)

    In #Pakistan, #CIA operatives masqueraded as #polio vaccinators to gain greater access to Osama bin Laden’s compound. (...)

    The ability of western governments and agencies to act as emergency providers of healthcare, and as honest brokers, will be increasingly reduced unless we agree that the provision of healthcare should be sacrosanct and protected from motives best realised by other means.

    The “blue water” between global health and international security continues to narrow, as the UK foreign and commonwealth office encroaches further on the Department for International Development. Meanwhile, the US state department continues to treat USAid as an extension of its operations.

    #santé


  • Tu m’étonnes qu’après ça la lutte contre le SIDA aura une bien meilleure efficacité à Cuba. (Mais jusqu’à quel niveau de bassesse peuvent descendre ces gens ?) USAID programme used young Latin Americans to incite Cuba rebellion
    http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/04/usaid-latin-americans-cuba-rebellion-hiv-workshops?CMP=twt_gu

    An Obama administration programme secretly dispatched young Latin Americans to Cuba using the cover of health and civic programs to provoke political change, a clandestine operation that put those foreigners in danger even after a US contractor was sent to a Cuban jail.

    Beginning as early as October 2009, a project overseen by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) sent Venezuelan, Costa Rican and Peruvian young people to Cuba in hopes of ginning up rebellion. The travelers worked undercover, often posing as tourists, and traveled around the island scouting for people they could turn into political activists.

    In one case, the workers formed an HIV-prevention workshop that memos called “the perfect excuse” for the programme’s political goals – a gambit that could undermine America’s efforts to improve health globally.

    Bon sang cette dernière phrase… ah oui, les sincères efforts américains pour améliorer la santé dans le monde…


  • #US_army manual details plan to co-opt NGOs
    http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/us-army-manual-details-plan-co-opt-ngos

    An Afghan civilian looks on as a US soldier patrols the streets in Ghazni, on May 19, 2013/. (Photo: AFP) An Afghan civilian looks on as a US soldier patrols the streets in Ghazni, on May 19, 2013/. (Photo: AFP)

    In the never-ending era of the Global War on Terrorism, with its insurgencies and counter-insurgencies, the thin line between military and humanitarian objectives has exceedingly been blurred – both sectors have found themselves aligned, at times uncomfortably so for humanitarian workers. Last month, the release of an updated US army field manual that outlines the Americans’ doctrine for #counter-insurgency continues that trend.

    Yazan al-Saadi

    read (...)

    #Series_and_Features #David_Petraeus #Doctors_Without_Borders #Features #NGO’s #pakistan #polio #syria #Syrian_Arab_Red_Crescent #Syrian_regime #USAID


  • In Russian-ruled Crimea, a crackdown on journalists and activists who don’t toe Kremlin line
    http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/in-russian-ruled-crimea-a-crackdown-on-journalists-and-activists-who-dont-

    The center, financed through grants from the U.S. Agency for International Development and other foreign donors, was one of the first media organizations to receive such unwanted attention in Russia-controlled Crimea. If Russian President Vladimir Putin remains in control of Ukraine’s peninsula and follows the same policy for Crimea that he does with the rest of the Russian Federation, then foreign-funded projects — in particular those with USAID funding - will be targets for shutdown.
    (…)
    The only other independent agencies left, the Center for Investigative Journalism and the Radio Liberty-supported project Crimean Reality, both have regular problems with the self-defense militias.

    #censure (aussi) avec quelques pincées de #USAID et #RFE-RL (Radio Free Europe - Radio Liberty)…


  • Beware of aid agencies bearing gifts
    http://gulfnews.com/opinions/columnists/beware-of-aid-agencies-bearing-gifts-1.1322393

    In a documentary, filmmaker John Pilger made the case that the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are “The New Rulers of the World” on behalf of their largest donor countries — the US, the UK, Germany, France and Japan. But some less powerful nations are alleging that one agency — the US Agency for International Development (#USAID) — is acting as a front for the #CIA.


  • How a tiny nonprofit grew into a giant that paid its top staffers millions
    http://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/doing-well-by-doing-good-the-high-price-of-working-in-war-zones/2014/05/04/2d5f7ca8-c715-11e3-9f37-7ce307c56815_story.html

    In doing so, International Relief and Development increased its annual revenue from $1.2 million to $706 million, most of it from one corner of the federal government — the U.S. Agency for International Development. IRD has received more grants and cooperative agreements from USAID in recent years than any other nonprofit relief and development organization in the nation — $1.9 billion.

    Along the way, the nonprofit rewarded its employees with generous salaries and millions in bonuses. Among the beneficiaries: the minister, Arthur B. Keys, and his wife, Jasna Basaric-Keys, who together earned $4.4 million in salary and bonuses between 2008 and 2012.

    #ong #humanitaire



  • Les Etats-Unis auraient financé un réseau social pour déstabiliser Cuba
    http://www.lemonde.fr/ameriques/article/2014/04/03/comment-washington-a-cree-un-reseau-social-a-cuba_4394739_3222.html

    L’administration américaine a secrètement financé ZunZuneo, un réseau social pour alimenter la contestation et miner de l’intérieur le pouvoir du Parti communiste cubain, rapporte l’agence Associated Press, jeudi 3 avril.

    Des milliers de Cubains ont utilisé ce réseau, sans avoir conscience qu’il était soutenu par l’Agence des Etats-Unis pour le développement international (Usaid). A Cuba, l’accès à Internet se réalise à travers les entités d’Etat et nationales autorisées et les salles de navigation d’Etecsa, le monopole d’Etat des télécommunications.

    AVOIR UNE INFLUENCE

    Pour réussir leur coup, les promoteurs de ce réseau social ont monté une société-écran en Espagne et dissimulé les fonds l’alimentant dans les îles Caïmans. ZunZuneo devait se développer sans attirer l’attention des autorités cubaines, en diffusant des informations relatives au football, la musique ou les tempêtes tropicales, jusqu’au point où il aurait atteint une masse critique lui permettant d’avoir une influence sur la société et la politique cubaine. Le réseau devait aussi permettre aux Etats-Unis de collecter des informations sur les utilisateurs cubains, tout en restant le plus discrets possible.

    La création de ce système est entourée de mystères : personne ne sait qui l’a autorisé – les actions secrètes à l’étranger doivent avoir l’aval du président des Etats-Unis –, ni comment ses participants ont obtenu les coordonnées téléphoniques auprès de l’opérateur de téléphonie mobile Cubacell de près de 500 000 Cubains.

    40 000 UTILISATEURS

    Seul certitude : leprojet a été lancé en 2010, quelques mois après l’arrestation à Cuba d’Alan Gross, un sous-traitant du département d’Etat américain alors qu’il remettait du matériel de communication par satellite à des opposants. Il avait été condamné en mars 2011 à quinze ans de prison pour « atteinte à l’indépendance et la sûreté de l’Etat » cubain.

    Les autorités américaines, qui ont reconnu qu’il travaillait pour un sous-traitant de l’USAID, ont toujours estimé que sa condamnation était « injuste » et réclamé sa libération immédiate. Le réseau s’est développé au moment où Hillary Clinton, secrétaire d’Etat de l’administration Obama, mettait en garde contre d’éventuelles barrières pour les développement d’Internet.

    Pourtant, en septembre 2012, ZunZuneo qui a réussi jusqu’à 40 000 utilisateurs, a disparu, en raison de problèmes d’organisation entre ses différents participants mais surtout quand le financement a cessé.

    #réseaux-sociaux
    #Cuba
    #États-Unis
    #çavousétonne ?


  • US secretly created ‘Cuban Twitter’ to stir unrest
    By Associated Press, April 3 2014
    http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/us-secretly-created-cuban-twitter-to-stir-unrest/2014/04/03/8a2dc77c-bafa-11e3-80de-2ff8801f27af_story.html

    Documents show the U.S. government planned to build a subscriber base through “non-controversial content”: news messages on soccer, music, and hurricane updates. Later when the network reached a critical mass of subscribers, perhaps hundreds of thousands, operators would introduce political content aimed at inspiring Cubans to organize “smart mobs” — mass gatherings called at a moment’s notice that might trigger a Cuban Spring, or, as one USAID document put it, “renegotiate the balance of power between the state and society.”

    At its peak, the project drew in more than 40,000 Cubans to share news and exchange opinions. But its subscribers were never aware it was created by the U.S. government, or that American contractors were gathering their private data in the hope that it might be used for political purposes.

    #twitter #infoguerre #cuba