• Vie privée : deux tiers des emails reçus contiendraient un « pixel espion »

    C’est le résultat d’une analyse demandée par la BBC à la société Hey, qui fournit pour rappel un service de messagerie qui veut « réinventer l’email ». Le pixel espion – souvent appelé aussi « pixel invisible » – est une pratique courante dans le monde de la publicité, puisqu’il permet de fournir de nombreux renseignements par son simple affichage. Dans un courrier au format web, il renvoie ainsi de précieuses données, comme le type d’appareil utilisé et ses caractéristiques principales, l’emplacement plus (...)

    #BritishAirways #HSBC #TalkTalk #Tesco #Unilever #Vodafone #écoutes #surveillance

  • Virtual 5G sledging, magical lights and the joy of singing together

    Vodafone’s new Christmas campaign for 2020 applies new twists to old traditions to help keep the UK connecting to the magic this Christmas.

    This year, Vodafone’s Christmas campaign celebrates how innovative technology can help people share wonderful experiences even if they are apart.

    The Christmas TV advert, airing today (20 November) during the breaks of ITV’s ‘I’m a Celebrity Get Me Out of Here’ and Channel 4’s ‘Gogglebox’, tells a heart-warming story.

    A young boy can’t go out to play because he has a broken leg; instead, he has to watch his sister enjoying the Christmas snow. His sadness and frustration at missing out is shared by so many of us who’ve not been able to do all the things we’d normally do because of COVID-19 this year.

    But all is not lost.

    His sister has left a very special Christmas present for him under his bed – a virtual reality headset and haptic suit. When he puts them on, the technology enables him to share a magical sledging experience with his sister in real time over Vodafone’s high-speed 5G network.

    He sees what she sees, and the haptic suit simulates what she feels – the cold of the snow, the speed, and the impact of the bumps down the slope. Even a broken leg can’t stop him joining in the fun as if he were right there himself.

    #Publicité #5G #Realité_virtuelle #Vodafone

  • Sandvine ... the surveillance octopus in the Arab region

    Partnership and business agreements between Arab governments and corporates on the one hand, and foreign companies working in the internet and communication surveillance industry (software/hardware) on the other, is currently witnessing an increase in rate and scale. The aim is to manipulate the flow of information, restrain freedom of expression, and control internet and communication systems to curtail the use of free cyber and communication space by activists calling for political and (...)

    #BlueCoat_Systems_Inc. #HackingTeam #AMESys #Ercom #Gamma #Orange #Sandvine/Procera #Vodafone #censure #écoutes #surveillance (...)

    ##BlueCoat_Systems_Inc. ##Sandvine/Procera ##NSO

  • Manipulations numériques en Afrique, par André-Michel Essoungou

    Début juin, Facebook a fermé 446 pages, 96 groupes et plus de 200 comptes Instagram administrés par la société franco-tunisienne URéputation. Celle-ci aurait cherché à influencer, par la diffusion de fausses informations, des élections en Afrique francophone. Laboratoire mondial des manipulations numériques, le continent développe plusieurs types de riposte. Un temps rangées au musée des utopies, les élections démocratiques se sont répandues en Afrique au cours des trois dernières décennies. Mais, à (...)

    #CambridgeAnalytica/Emerdata #ChinaMobile #Huawei #Orange #Vodafone #Facebook #Twitter #WhatsApp #manipulation #données #élections #fraude #censure #microtargeting #SocialNetwork (...)

    ##CambridgeAnalytica/Emerdata ##payement

  • The original Big Tech is working closer than ever with governments to combat coronavirus – with no scrutiny

    Telecom companies are at the core of the world’s communication universe. Since the coronavirus pandemic, they’ve been passing even more sensitive data to governments. It’s time they were held as accountable as Google and Facebook. The texts can arrive at any time. Recipients are told they’ve been exposed to the coronavirus and must immediately begin a two-week period of isolation. For some, the frustration of knowing the routines of daily life must suddenly stop can be exacerbated by the fact (...)

    #Apple #GCHQ #Google #Orange #ShinBet #Telenor #Verizon #Vodafone #FBI #NSA #AT&T #Bluetooth #smartphone #WiFi #5G #contactTracing #géolocalisation #technologisme #consentement #données #FAI #BigData #COVID-19 #DataBrokers #GAFAM #santé (...)

    ##AT&T ##santé ##PrivacyInternational ##PublicKnowledge

  • Aux Pays-Bas, l’opposition à la 5G va jusqu’au sabotage

    Incendies criminels, manifestations, procès contre l’État… Aux Pays-Bas, le déploiement de la 5e génération de la technologie du réseau sans fil (5G) suscite méfiance et réactions de la part de la population. Un bonsaï mort trône sur le rebord de la fenêtre de Jurgen Weber dans son appartement de Rotterdam. L’homme d’une cinquantaine d’années l’observe avec un sourire inquiétant. « Il était à côté du routeur wifi pendant deux mois, il en est mort , annonce-t-il. C’est comme la 5G. Toutes les radiations qui en (...)

    #Vodafone #5G #technologisme #violence #santé #surveillance


  • The tech ‘solutions’ for coronavirus take the surveillance state to the next level

    The role of the digital revolutionaries is to disrupt everything but the central institution of modern life : the market In a matter of weeks, coronavirus has shuttered the global economy and placed capitalism in intensive care. Many thinkers have expressed hope that it will usher in a more humane economic system ; others warn that the pandemic heralds a darker future of techno-totalitarian state surveillance. The dated cliches from the pages of 1984 are no longer a reliable guide to what (...)

    #Apple #Google #Microsoft #Palantir #Tesla #Vodafone #Amazon #algorithme #smartphone #géolocalisation #technologisme #domination #BigData (...)


  • COVID-19 Digital Rights Tracker

    This live tracker documents new measures introduced in response to COVID-19 that pose a risk to digital rights around the world. In response to the outbreak of COVID-19 : Contact Tracing Apps are being used in 29 countries Alternative digital tracking measures are active in 30 countries Physical surveillance technologies are in use in 9 countries COVID-19-related censorship has been imposed by 15 governments Internet shutdowns continue in 3 countries despite the outbreak Introduction (...)

    #Google #Vodafone #GooglePlay #WeChat #algorithme #contactTracing #bracelet #Bluetooth #drone #smartphone #TraceTogether #biopolitique #géolocalisation #technologisme #métadonnées #vidéo-surveillance #BigData #censure #COVID-19 #santé #surveillance #AccessNow (...)

    ##santé ##CitizenLab ##PrivacyInternational

  • Monitoring being pitched to fight Covid-19 was tested on refugees

    The pandemic has given a boost to controversial data-driven initiatives to track population movements

    In Italy, social media monitoring companies have been scouring Instagram to see who’s breaking the nationwide lockdown. In Israel, the government has made plans to “sift through geolocation data” collected by the Shin Bet intelligence agency and text people who have been in contact with an infected person. And in the UK, the government has asked mobile operators to share phone users’ aggregate location data to “help to predict broadly how the virus might move”.

    These efforts are just the most visible tip of a rapidly evolving industry combining the exploitation of data from the internet and mobile phones and the increasing number of sensors embedded on Earth and in space. Data scientists are intrigued by the new possibilities for behavioural prediction that such data offers. But they are also coming to terms with the complexity of actually using these data sets, and the ethical and practical problems that lurk within them.

    In the wake of the refugee crisis of 2015, tech companies and research consortiums pushed to develop projects using new data sources to predict movements of migrants into Europe. These ranged from broad efforts to extract intelligence from public social media profiles by hand, to more complex automated manipulation of big data sets through image recognition and machine learning. Two recent efforts have just been shut down, however, and others are yet to produce operational results.

    While IT companies and some areas of the humanitarian sector have applauded new possibilities, critics cite human rights concerns, or point to limitations in what such technological solutions can actually achieve.

    In September last year Frontex, the European border security agency, published a tender for “social media analysis services concerning irregular migration trends and forecasts”. The agency was offering the winning bidder up to €400,000 for “improved risk analysis regarding future irregular migratory movements” and support of Frontex’s anti-immigration operations.

    Frontex “wants to embrace” opportunities arising from the rapid growth of social media platforms, a contracting document outlined. The border agency believes that social media interactions drastically change the way people plan their routes, and thus examining would-be migrants’ online behaviour could help it get ahead of the curve, since these interactions typically occur “well before persons reach the external borders of the EU”.

    Frontex asked bidders to develop lists of key words that could be mined from platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube. The winning company would produce a monthly report containing “predictive intelligence ... of irregular flows”.

    Early this year, however, Frontex cancelled the opportunity. It followed swiftly on from another shutdown; Frontex’s sister agency, the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), had fallen foul of the European data protection watchdog, the EDPS, for searching social media content from would-be migrants.

    The EASO had been using the data to flag “shifts in asylum and migration routes, smuggling offers and the discourse among social media community users on key issues – flights, human trafficking and asylum systems/processes”. The search covered a broad range of languages, including Arabic, Pashto, Dari, Urdu, Tigrinya, Amharic, Edo, Pidgin English, Russian, Kurmanji Kurdish, Hausa and French.

    Although the EASO’s mission, as its name suggests, is centred around support for the asylum system, its reports were widely circulated, including to organisations that attempt to limit illegal immigration – Europol, Interpol, member states and Frontex itself.

    In shutting down the EASO’s social media monitoring project, the watchdog cited numerous concerns about process, the impact on fundamental rights and the lack of a legal basis for the work.

    “This processing operation concerns a vast number of social media users,” the EDPS pointed out. Because EASO’s reports are read by border security forces, there was a significant risk that data shared by asylum seekers to help others travel safely to Europe could instead be unfairly used against them without their knowledge.

    Social media monitoring “poses high risks to individuals’ rights and freedoms,” the regulator concluded in an assessment it delivered last November. “It involves the use of personal data in a way that goes beyond their initial purpose, their initial context of publication and in ways that individuals could not reasonably anticipate. This may have a chilling effect on people’s ability and willingness to express themselves and form relationships freely.”

    EASO told the Bureau that the ban had “negative consequences” on “the ability of EU member states to adapt the preparedness, and increase the effectiveness, of their asylum systems” and also noted a “potential harmful impact on the safety of migrants and asylum seekers”.

    Frontex said that its social media analysis tender was cancelled after new European border regulations came into force, but added that it was considering modifying the tender in response to these rules.

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    Big Tobacco criticised for ’coronavirus publicity stunt’ after donating ventilators

    The two shutdowns represented a stumbling block for efforts to track population movements via new technologies and sources of data. But the public health crisis precipitated by the Covid-19 virus has brought such efforts abruptly to wider attention. In doing so it has cast a spotlight on a complex knot of issues. What information is personal, and legally protected? How does that protection work? What do concepts like anonymisation, privacy and consent mean in an age of big data?
    The shape of things to come

    International humanitarian organisations have long been interested in whether they can use nontraditional data sources to help plan disaster responses. As they often operate in inaccessible regions with little available or accurate official data about population sizes and movements, they can benefit from using new big data sources to estimate how many people are moving where. In particular, as well as using social media, recent efforts have sought to combine insights from mobile phones – a vital possession for a refugee or disaster survivor – with images generated by “Earth observation” satellites.

    “Mobiles, satellites and social media are the holy trinity of movement prediction,” said Linnet Taylor, professor at the Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society in the Netherlands, who has been studying the privacy implications of such new data sources. “It’s the shape of things to come.”

    As the devastating impact of the Syrian civil war worsened in 2015, Europe saw itself in crisis. Refugee movements dominated the headlines and while some countries, notably Germany, opened up to more arrivals than usual, others shut down. European agencies and tech companies started to team up with a new offering: a migration hotspot predictor.

    Controversially, they were importing a concept drawn from distant catastrophe zones into decision-making on what should happen within the borders of the EU.

    “Here’s the heart of the matter,” said Nathaniel Raymond, a lecturer at the Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs who focuses on the security implications of information communication technologies for vulnerable populations. “In ungoverned frontier cases [European data protection law] doesn’t apply. Use of these technologies might be ethically safer there, and in any case it’s the only thing that is available. When you enter governed space, data volume and ease of manipulation go up. Putting this technology to work in the EU is a total inversion.”
    “Mobiles, satellites and social media are the holy trinity of movement prediction”

    Justin Ginnetti, head of data and analysis at the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre in Switzerland, made a similar point. His organisation monitors movements to help humanitarian groups provide food, shelter and aid to those forced from their homes, but he casts a skeptical eye on governments using the same technology in the context of migration.

    “Many governments – within the EU and elsewhere – are very interested in these technologies, for reasons that are not the same as ours,” he told the Bureau. He called such technologies “a nuclear fly swatter,” adding: “The key question is: What problem are you really trying to solve with it? For many governments, it’s not preparing to ‘better respond to inflow of people’ – it’s raising red flags, to identify those en route and prevent them from arriving.”
    Eye in the sky

    A key player in marketing this concept was the European Space Agency (ESA) – an organisation based in Paris, with a major spaceport in French Guiana. The ESA’s pitch was to combine its space assets with other people’s data. “Could you be leveraging space technology and data for the benefit of life on Earth?” a recent presentation from the organisation on “disruptive smart technologies” asked. “We’ll work together to make your idea commercially viable.”

    By 2016, technologists at the ESA had spotted an opportunity. “Europe is being confronted with the most significant influxes of migrants and refugees in its history,” a presentation for their Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems Programme stated. “One burning issue is the lack of timely information on migration trends, flows and rates. Big data applications have been recognised as a potentially powerful tool.” It decided to assess how it could harness such data.

    The ESA reached out to various European agencies, including EASO and Frontex, to offer a stake in what it called “big data applications to boost preparedness and response to migration”. The space agency would fund initial feasibility stages, but wanted any operational work to be jointly funded.

    One such feasibility study was carried out by GMV, a privately owned tech group covering banking, defence, health, telecommunications and satellites. GMV announced in a press release in August 2017 that the study would “assess the added value of big data solutions in the migration sector, namely the reduction of safety risks for migrants, the enhancement of border controls, as well as prevention and response to security issues related with unexpected migration movements”. It would do this by integrating “multiple space assets” with other sources including mobile phones and social media.

    When contacted by the Bureau, a spokeswoman from GMV said that, contrary to the press release, “nothing in the feasibility study related to the enhancement of border controls”.

    In the same year, the technology multinational CGI teamed up with the Dutch Statistics Office to explore similar questions. They started by looking at data around asylum flows from Syria and at how satellite images and social media could indicate changes in migration patterns in Niger, a key route into Europe. Following this experiment, they approached EASO in October 2017. CGI’s presentation of the work noted that at the time EASO was looking for a social media analysis tool that could monitor Facebook groups, predict arrivals of migrants at EU borders, and determine the number of “hotspots” and migrant shelters. CGI pitched a combined project, co-funded by the ESA, to start in 2019 and expand to serve more organisations in 2020.
    The proposal was to identify “hotspot activities”, using phone data to group individuals “according to where they spend the night”

    The idea was called Migration Radar 2.0. The ESA wrote that “analysing social media data allows for better understanding of the behaviour and sentiments of crowds at a particular geographic location and a specific moment in time, which can be indicators of possible migration movements in the immediate future”. Combined with continuous monitoring from space, the result would be an “early warning system” that offered potential future movements and routes, “as well as information about the composition of people in terms of origin, age, gender”.

    Internal notes released by EASO to the Bureau show the sheer range of companies trying to get a slice of the action. The agency had considered offers of services not only from the ESA, GMV, the Dutch Statistics Office and CGI, but also from BIP, a consulting firm, the aerospace group Thales Alenia, the geoinformation specialist EGEOS and Vodafone.

    Some of the pitches were better received than others. An EASO analyst who took notes on the various proposals remarked that “most oversell a bit”. They went on: “Some claimed they could trace GSM [ie mobile networks] but then clarified they could do it for Venezuelans only, and maybe one or two countries in Africa.” Financial implications were not always clearly provided. On the other hand, the official noted, the ESA and its consortium would pay 80% of costs and “we can get collaboration on something we plan to do anyway”.

    The features on offer included automatic alerts, a social media timeline, sentiment analysis, “animated bubbles with asylum applications from countries of origin over time”, the detection and monitoring of smuggling sites, hotspot maps, change detection and border monitoring.

    The document notes a group of services available from Vodafone, for example, in the context of a proposed project to monitor asylum centres in Italy. The proposal was to identify “hotspot activities”, using phone data to group individuals either by nationality or “according to where they spend the night”, and also to test if their movements into the country from abroad could be back-tracked. A tentative estimate for the cost of a pilot project, spread over four municipalities, came to €250,000 – of which an unspecified amount was for “regulatory (privacy) issues”.

    Stumbling blocks

    Elsewhere, efforts to harness social media data for similar purposes were proving problematic. A September 2017 UN study tried to establish whether analysing social media posts, specifically on Twitter, “could provide insights into ... altered routes, or the conversations PoC [“persons of concern”] are having with service providers, including smugglers”. The hypothesis was that this could “better inform the orientation of resource allocations, and advocacy efforts” - but the study was unable to conclude either way, after failing to identify enough relevant data on Twitter.

    The ESA pressed ahead, with four feasibility studies concluding in 2018 and 2019. The Migration Radar project produced a dashboard that showcased the use of satellite imagery for automatically detecting changes in temporary settlement, as well as tools to analyse sentiment on social media. The prototype received positive reviews, its backers wrote, encouraging them to keep developing the product.

    CGI was effusive about the predictive power of its technology, which could automatically detect “groups of people, traces of trucks at unexpected places, tent camps, waste heaps and boats” while offering insight into “the sentiments of migrants at certain moments” and “information that is shared about routes and motives for taking certain routes”. Armed with this data, the company argued that it could create a service which could predict the possible outcomes of migration movements before they happened.

    The ESA’s other “big data applications” study had identified a demand among EU agencies and other potential customers for predictive analyses to ensure “preparedness” and alert systems for migration events. A package of services was proposed, using data drawn from social media and satellites.

    Both projects were slated to evolve into a second, operational phase. But this seems to have never become reality. CGI told the Bureau that “since the completion of the [Migration Radar] project, we have not carried out any extra activities in this domain”.

    The ESA told the Bureau that its studies had “confirmed the usefulness” of combining space technology and big data for monitoring migration movements. The agency added that its corporate partners were working on follow-on projects despite “internal delays”.

    EASO itself told the Bureau that it “took a decision not to get involved” in the various proposals it had received.

    Specialists found a “striking absence” of agreed upon core principles when using the new technologies

    But even as these efforts slowed, others have been pursuing similar goals. The European Commission’s Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography has proposed a “Big Data for Migration Alliance” to address data access, security and ethics concerns. A new partnership between the ESA and GMV – “Bigmig" – aims to support “migration management and prevention” through a combination of satellite observation and machine-learning techniques (the company emphasised to the Bureau that its focus was humanitarian). And a consortium of universities and private sector partners – GMV among them – has just launched a €3 million EU-funded project, named Hummingbird, to improve predictions of migration patterns, including through analysing phone call records, satellite imagery and social media.

    At a conference in Berlin in October 2019, dozens of specialists from academia, government and the humanitarian sector debated the use of these new technologies for “forecasting human mobility in contexts of crises”. Their conclusions raised numerous red flags. They found a “striking absence” of agreed upon core principles. It was hard to balance the potential good with ethical concerns, because the most useful data tended to be more specific, leading to greater risks of misuse and even, in the worst case scenario, weaponisation of the data. Partnerships with corporations introduced transparency complications. Communication of predictive findings to decision makers, and particularly the “miscommunication of the scope and limitations associated with such findings”, was identified as a particular problem.

    The full consequences of relying on artificial intelligence and “employing large scale, automated, and combined analysis of datasets of different sources” to predict movements in a crisis could not be foreseen, the workshop report concluded. “Humanitarian and political actors who base their decisions on such analytics must therefore carefully reflect on the potential risks.”

    A fresh crisis

    Until recently, discussion of such risks remained mostly confined to scientific papers and NGO workshops. The Covid-19 pandemic has brought it crashing into the mainstream.

    Some see critical advantages to using call data records to trace movements and map the spread of the virus. “Using our mobile technology, we have the potential to build models that help to predict broadly how the virus might move,” an O2 spokesperson said in March. But others believe that it is too late for this to be useful. The UK’s chief scientific officer, Patrick Vallance, told a press conference in March that using this type of data “would have been a good idea in January”.

    Like the 2015 refugee crisis, the global emergency offers an opportunity for industry to get ahead of the curve with innovative uses of big data. At a summit in Downing Street on 11 March, Dominic Cummings asked tech firms “what [they] could bring to the table” to help the fight against Covid-19.

    Human rights advocates worry about the longer term effects of such efforts, however. “Right now, we’re seeing states around the world roll out powerful new surveillance measures and strike up hasty partnerships with tech companies,” Anna Bacciarelli, a technology researcher at Amnesty International, told the Bureau. “While states must act to protect people in this pandemic, it is vital that we ensure that invasive surveillance measures do not become normalised and permanent, beyond their emergency status.”

    More creative methods of surveillance and prediction are not necessarily answering the right question, others warn.

    “The single largest determinant of Covid-19 mortality is healthcare system capacity,” said Sean McDonald, a senior fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, who studied the use of phone data in the west African Ebola outbreak of 2014-5. “But governments are focusing on the pandemic as a problem of people management rather than a problem of building response capacity. More broadly, there is nowhere near enough proof that the science or math underlying the technologies being deployed meaningfully contribute to controlling the virus at all.”

    Legally, this type of data processing raises complicated questions. While European data protection law - the GDPR - generally prohibits processing of “special categories of personal data”, including ethnicity, beliefs, sexual orientation, biometrics and health, it allows such processing in a number of instances (among them public health emergencies). In the case of refugee movement prediction, there are signs that the law is cracking at the seams.
    “There is nowhere near enough proof that the science or math underlying the technologies being deployed meaningfully contribute to controlling the virus at all.”

    Under GDPR, researchers are supposed to make “impact assessments” of how their data processing can affect fundamental rights. If they find potential for concern they should consult their national information commissioner. There is no simple way to know whether such assessments have been produced, however, or whether they were thoroughly carried out.

    Researchers engaged with crunching mobile phone data point to anonymisation and aggregation as effective tools for ensuring privacy is maintained. But the solution is not straightforward, either technically or legally.

    “If telcos are using individual call records or location data to provide intel on the whereabouts, movements or activities of migrants and refugees, they still need a legal basis to use that data for that purpose in the first place – even if the final intelligence report itself does not contain any personal data,” said Ben Hayes, director of AWO, a data rights law firm and consultancy. “The more likely it is that the people concerned may be identified or affected, the more serious this matter becomes.”

    More broadly, experts worry that, faced with the potential of big data technology to illuminate movements of groups of people, the law’s provisions on privacy begin to seem outdated.

    “We’re paying more attention now to privacy under its traditional definition,” Nathaniel Raymond said. “But privacy is not the same as group legibility.” Simply put, while issues around the sensitivity of personal data can be obvious, the combinations of seemingly unrelated data that offer insights about what small groups of people are doing can be hard to foresee, and hard to mitigate. Raymond argues that the concept of privacy as enshrined in the newly minted data protection law is anachronistic. As he puts it, “GDPR is already dead, stuffed and mounted. We’re increasing vulnerability under the colour of law.”

    #cobaye #surveillance #réfugiés #covid-19 #coronavirus #test #smartphone #téléphones_portables #Frontex #frontières #contrôles_frontaliers #Shin_Bet #internet #big_data #droits_humains #réseaux_sociaux #intelligence_prédictive #European_Asylum_Support_Office (#EASO) #EDPS #protection_des_données #humanitaire #images_satellites #technologie #European_Space_Agency (#ESA) #GMV #CGI #Niger #Facebook #Migration_Radar_2.0 #early_warning_system #BIP #Thales_Alenia #EGEOS #complexe_militaro-industriel #Vodafone #GSM #Italie #twitter #détection #routes_migratoires #systèmes_d'alerte #satellites #Knowledge_Centre_on_Migration_and_Demography #Big_Data for_Migration_Alliance #Bigmig #machine-learning #Hummingbird #weaponisation_of_the_data #IA #intelligence_artificielle #données_personnelles

    ping @etraces @isskein @karine4 @reka

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  • Déconfinement : « Il ne faudrait pas que les mesures d’urgence se muent par la suite en mesures ordinaires »

    La consultante en communication Claire Gerardin pointe, dans une tribune au « Monde », le risque que la mise en place d’un tracage des citoyens à l’occasion de la crise sanitaire devienne pérenne. Tribune. En période de crise sanitaire, le gouvernement bénéficie de pouvoirs extraordinaires qui lui permettent de restreindre nos libertés personnelles. En ce moment, c’est le cas pour notre droit d’aller et venir. Et pour vérifier la bonne mise en application de ces restrictions, le gouvernement se dote, (...)

    #surveillance #santé #COVID-19 #BigData #métadonnées #consentement #[fr]Règlement_Général_sur_la_Protection_des_Données_(RGPD)[en]General_Data_Protection_Regulation_(GDPR)[nl]General_Data_Protection_Regulation_(GDPR) #technologisme #géolocalisation #smartphone #Bluetooth (...)

    ##santé ##[fr]Règlement_Général_sur_la_Protection_des_Données__RGPD_[en]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_[nl]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_ ##contactTracing ##algorithme ##Vodafone ##Telefonica ##Orange ##DeutscheTelekom

    • Déconfinement : « Il ne faudrait pas que les mesures d’urgence se muent par la suite en mesures ordinaires »
      Claire Gerardin, Le Monde, le 24 avril 2020

      Tribune. En période de crise sanitaire, le gouvernement bénéficie de pouvoirs extraordinaires qui lui permettent de restreindre nos libertés personnelles. En ce moment, c’est le cas pour notre droit d’aller et venir. Et pour vérifier la bonne mise en application de ces restrictions, le gouvernement se dote, entre autres, d’instruments numériques de surveillance : le « backtracking » (le traçage, en français).

      Le backtracking est la collecte, par les opérateurs télécoms, de nos données de géolocalisation issues de nos smartphones. A la demande de la Commission européenne, huit opérateurs européens (dont Orange, Deutsche Telekom, Vodafone et Telefonica) ont communiqué ces données aux gouvernements de l’Union afin de lutter contre la pandémie de Covid-19, en cartographiant en temps réel les déplacements des populations, ce qui permet d’identifier les lieux où elles se concentrent et l’intensité des interactions entre les personnes. Le but est, à ce jour, de prédire les zones où le virus se déploiera le plus afin d’adapter le système de soins. Ces informations sont anonymisées, et il n’est pour le moment pas autorisé de remonter à un individu et de l’identifier. Cette collecte de données sans le consentement des individus est permise par le Règlement général de la protection des données (RGPD), en cas de nécessité liée à l’intérêt public. Dans le cas de la pandémie actuelle, elle est utilisée pour des motifs de santé publique et de protection des intérêts vitaux.

      Le backtracking va aussi permettre de développer, dans ce même cadre réglementaire, l’application StopCovid. Celle-ci vise à identifier les personnes qui ont été en contact avec des malades afin de juguler la circulation du virus. Au-delà du fait que la technologie au cœur de cette application (le Bluetooth) n’est pas très performante pour le résultat visé, et que la condition d’atteindre 60 % d’utilisateurs pour qu’elle soit effective est quasi inatteignable, ce projet relève d’un choix politique qui ne fait pas l’unanimité.
      Trois niveaux d’information

      Le risque d’une telle mesure est en effet sa pérennisation, alors qu’elle ne doit concerner que des situations extraordinaires, comme celle que nous vivons actuellement. Certains Etats pourraient décider de conserver ce dispositif en invoquant, par exemple, l’incertitude sur la fin de l’épidémie puisque les médecins affirment qu’elle pourrait ressurgir. Ils le feraient pour instaurer des systèmes de surveillance et de contrôle des populations, en vue de leur sécurité, mais aux dépens de leurs libertés. Plus on s’accoutume à ces systèmes de surveillance, plus on les considère comme anodins, et plus ils sont intégrés à notre quotidien. Par exemple, après les attentats de 2015, plusieurs mesures exceptionnelles instaurées durant le régime temporaire de l’état d’urgence ont été transposées dans le droit commun (à titre expérimental jusqu’au 31 décembre 2020). Parmi celles-ci : les perquisitions administratives, la fermeture de lieux de culte, ou encore la création de périmètres de sécurité lors d’événements publics.

      En temps « normal », voici ce qui se passe derrière la collecte de nos données. Ceux qui le font (opérateurs et entreprises) possèdent trois niveaux d’information sur nous.

      Le premier, qui est sous notre contrôle, recense les informations que nous postons sur les réseaux sociaux et applications mobiles (information de profil, publications, messages privés, inscription à des événements, sites web visités, etc.).

      Le deuxième analyse nos comportements. Il est composé de métadonnées, c’est-à-dire des informations qui fournissent, sans que nous en soyons conscients, un contexte à nos profils. Il s’agit, via des informations de géolocalisation, de cartographie de nos relations intimes et sociales et de nos comportements (récurrence et durée des lieux visités, des contenus consultés, de la nature des achats en ligne, et même de la vitesse à laquelle on tape sur le clavier et du mouvement de nos doigts sur les écrans), de construire le canevas de nos habitudes de vie.

      Le troisième niveau interprète les deux premiers, grâce à des algorithmes qui nous comparent avec d’autres profils afin d’opérer des corrélations statistiques. Il ne s’agit plus de savoir ce que nous faisons, mais qui nous sommes.
      Mine d’or

      Dans le secteur privé, cette collecte d’informations est une mine d’or pour le développement de l’intelligence artificielle. Car avec elle vient la promesse d’automatiser, sur la base de nos profils créés par les algorithmes, les décisions des banques, des assureurs, des recruteurs ou encore des administrations publiques.
      Article réservé à nos abonnés Lire aussi Coronavirus : le gouvernement favorable au traçage numérique de la population, une partie de la majorité s’y oppose

      Dans le cadre d’une politique de surveillance de la mise en application de mesures exceptionnelles, la collecte de données par les gouvernements (ou la demande de leur mise à disposition par les collecteurs) pourrait être élargie à tout moment. A ce jour, elle est partielle – elle ne concerne « que » nos déplacements et le fait d’avoir été ou non en contact avec une personne infectée – et anonymisée. Mais la réglementation européenne permet aux Etats, s’ils en font la demande et pour des raisons d’intérêt général, de légiférer afin de désanonymiser ces données ou d’en collecter d’autres (de niveau un, deux ou trois). On pourra alors identifier les individus auteurs de comportements considérés comme transgressifs et les pénaliser. C’est déjà le cas de la Pologne, qui a lancé une application exigeant des personnes malades de prouver quotidiennement qu’elles restent chez elles, sous peine d’intervention policière.

      Il ne faudrait pas que, en en forçant l’acceptation sociale pour cause d’urgence, ces méthodes se muent par la suite en mesures ordinaires. Ce choix d’utilisation des outils technologiques pourrait alors donner lieu à la mise en place d’un mode de gouvernement basé sur la surveillance sécuritaire, ce qui n’est un idéal pour aucun régime démocratique…

      Claire Gerardin est consultante en communication, spécialiste ­des nouvelles technologies

  • Orange recycle son service de géolocalisation pour la pandémie – La Quadrature du Net

    Depuis des années, Orange cherche à commercialiser la mine d’or que sont nos données de géolocalisation (la liste des antennes-relais auxquelles nos téléphones se connectent au fil la journée). La pandémie semble être pour l’entreprise une bonne occasion d’ouvrir son marché. Flux Vision En 2013, Orange a lancé une première offre, Flux Vision, qui propose aux villes et lieux touristiques des statistiques sur les « flux de déplacement » de leurs visiteurs : fréquentation, durée de séjour, provenance, (...)

    #Deutsche_Telekom #Orange #Vodafone #algorithme #smartphone #GPS #géolocalisation #métadonnées #BigData #santé #surveillance #CNIL (...)

    ##santé ##LaQuadratureduNet

  • Pistage, prévention, modélisation : quelle stratégie numérique en France face au coronavirus ? - Société - Numerama

    Quel rôle peut avoir le traçage de la géolocalisation face à l’épidémie de coronavirus en France ? Et surtout, quel type de traçage peut-on envisager et dans quelles conditions ? Alors que plusieurs pays ont opté pour des approches très intrusives, la France et l’Europe empruntent pour l’heure une piste plus modérée. L’annonce a été faite le 24 mars lors de l’installation du Comité Analyse Recherche et Expertise, une nouvelle instance scientifique chargée de conseiller le pouvoir : la France souhaite (...)

    #Deutsche_Telekom #Bouygues #Orange #Telefonica #Telenor #Vodafone #algorithme #smartphone #GPS #géolocalisation #[fr]Règlement_Général_sur_la_Protection_des_Données_(RGPD)[en]General_Data_Protection_Regulation_(GDPR)[nl]General_Data_Protection_Regulation_(GDPR) #métadonnées (...)

    ##[fr]Règlement_Général_sur_la_Protection_des_Données__RGPD_[en]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_[nl]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_ ##santé ##BigData ##surveillance ##CNIL

  • Les données de géolocalisation de nos smartphones mises à profit pour stopper le coronavirus ?

    La France planche sur une « stratégie numérique d’identification des personnes ». Un comité de scientifiques doit se pencher sur la question à compter de ce 24 mars. Après les recommandations de distanciation sociale, la fermeture des écoles et lycées puis le confinement, quels recours reste-t-il au gouvernement pour enrayer l’épidémie de coronavirus ? La surveillance des données télécom, dont celles de géolocalisation, semble être la prochaine piste à suivre. Ce 24 mars, la France a annoncé la mise en (...)

    #Deutsche_Telekom #Orange #Vodafone #smartphone #GPS #géolocalisation #vidéo-surveillance #santé #surveillance (...)

    ##santé ##CNIL

  • Commission tells carriers to hand over mobile data in coronavirus fight – POLITICO

    Thierry Breton held a conference call with telecoms executives to ask for greater access to people’s anonymized information. The European Commission on Monday urged Europe’s telecoms giants including Deutsche Telekom and Orange to share reams of people’s mobile data from across the region to help predict the spread of the coronavirus. In a conference call with telecoms executives, Thierry Breton, Europe’s internal market commissioner, called on the companies to hand over anonymized and (...)

    #Deutsche_Telekom #Orange #Telefonica #Telenor #Vodafone #smartphone #GPS #géolocalisation #métadonnées #BigData #santé #surveillance (...)

    ##santé ##[fr]Règlement_Général_sur_la_Protection_des_Données__RGPD_[en]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_[nl]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_

  • Tracking the Global Response to COVID-19 | Privacy International

    Tech companies, governments, and international agencies have all announced measures to help contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Some of these measures impose severe restrictions on people’s freedoms, including to their privacy and other human rights. Unprecedented levels of surveillance, data exploitation, and misinformation are being tested across the world. Many of those measures are based on extraordinary powers, only to be used temporarily in emergencies. Others use exemptions in (...)

    #BigData #santé #surveillance #géolocalisation #PrivacyInternational #Deutsche_Telekom #Google #Vodafone #Facebook #Twitter #WhatsApp #smartphone #GPS (...)

    ##santé ##[fr]Règlement_Général_sur_la_Protection_des_Données__RGPD_[en]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_[nl]General_Data_Protection_Regulation__GDPR_ ##NHS

  • European mobile operators share data for coronavirus fight - Reuters

    MILAN/BERLIN (Reuters) - Mobile carriers are sharing data with the health authorities in Italy, Germany and Austria, helping to fight coronavirus by monitoring whether people are complying with curbs on movement while at the same time respecting Europe’s privacy laws. The data, which are anonymous and aggregated, make it possible to map concentrations and movements of customers in ‘hot zones’ where COVID-19 has taken hold. That is less invasive than the approach taken by countries like (...)

    #Deutsche_Telekom #Vodafone #smartphone #géolocalisation #BigData #santé


  • Private sector pledges US$250 million in refugee assistance

    #Ikea, #The_Lego_Foundation and #Vodafone lead 30 organizations at the Global Refugee Forum promising education, training, jobs, legal services and #cash_assistance to refugees.

    The growing role of the private sector in mobilizing vital resources to support millions of refugees worldwide went on show today at the Global Refugee Forum in Geneva, where business leaders made US$250 million in pledges.

    The scale and reach of the assistance became clear in a pledge by the IKEA Foundation, Ingka Group and Inter IKEA Group to assist 2,500 refugees through job training and language skills initiatives at 300 IKEA stores and units in 30 countries through 2022.

    The commitment is boosted by the IKEA Foundation’s promise to provide 100 million euros in programme grants over the next five years.

    “It is good business to do good, and we at IKEA have the fortune to think in generations,” Tolga Öncu, retail operations manager at Ingka Group told a joint news conference with executives from The LEGO Foundation and telecoms heavyweight Vodafone.

    Öncu said IKEA sought to shape a positive narrative around refugees: “These are friends and colleagues, and tomorrow it can be myself, it can be you, it can be our children or grandchildren. I think we owe the refugees today to make sure that the narrative throughout the whole world becomes a positive narrative.”

    More than half of the world’s 25.9 million refugees are children. To improve their lives, The LEGO Foundation announced a US$100 million grant for play-based learning through #PlayMatters, an initiative to strengthen resilience and build the social, emotional, cognitive, physical and creative skills of young refugee children.

    “We are particularly focused on the early years of education,” said John Goodwin, CEO of The Lego Foundation. “We feel that it’s imperative that we do all that we can to provide those children with the start that they need, both to overcome the adversity that they have experienced and to put them on a trajectory for a successful, thriving life.”

    Stepping up to the plate, the Vodafone Foundation made a commitment to expand the high-quality digital education it provides throught its #Instant_NetworkSchools programme, from 85,000 young refugees to more than 500,000.

    It aims to boost the number of Instant Network Schools in Kenya, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, connecting students to educational resources and the wider online world. Other countries will follow by 2025.

    “There are four million refugee children who don’t have access to education,” said Joakim Reiter, Group External Affairs Director at Vodafone. “We need to close the education gap to make sure that all children, no matter where you were born, and whether you were unfortunate enough to be born in a refugee camp … have the right to shape their life as best seems appropriate.”

    The first-ever World Refugee Forum is meeting in Geneva through 18 December to find solutions for 70 million children, women and men uprooted from their homes globally by war, conflict, and persecution, including 25.9 million refugees, who have sought safety across international borders.

    “We need to close the education gap.”

    The three-day gathering brings together refugees, heads of state and government, UN leaders, international institutions, development organizations, civil society representatives and business leaders.

    Over 30 other organizations – small and medium enterprises, law firms, multinationals, social enterprises, private foundations, coalitions and investment networks – have come forward with pledges.

    These are centred around the goals of the #Global_Compact_on_Refugees, a framework for more predictable and equitable responsibility-sharing affirmed by the UN General Assembly a year ago. It is set to include specific commitments around education opportunities and training and creating jobs for refugees.

    “As old conflicts continue and new ones erupt, displacing millions of people, we need smart, inspiring, engaging and inclusive ways of helping refugees and host communities, and we can all play a role,” UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi said ahead of the announcement.

    He added: “The private sector, with its creativity, drive and commitment, has already stepped up, making important pledges at the Global Refugee Forum. And companies stand ready to do more.”

    Other pledges are around connectivity, pro-bono legal services, business development services, investment in refugee-led companies, innovative financing and cash assistance, as well as access to clean and safe energy.

    Chobani CEO Hamdi Ulukaya, who founded the #Tent_Partnership_for_Refugees in response to the global refugee crisis, spoke of employing refugees at his operations in upstate New York, and the transformation that wrought in their lives.

    “The minute they started working,” he said, “was the minute they stopped being a refugee.”


    #privatisation #asile #migrations #réfugiés #éducation #Lego #secteur_privé #camps_de_réfugiés

    ping @karine4 @isskein @reka

  • Ce que le Libra raconte du futur de Facebook en 5 scénarios

    Mark Zuckerberg l’a annoncé le 18 juin : Facebook lancera en 2020 sa cryptomonnaie Libra. Un changement de stratégie qui nous a donné envie de réfléchir à ce que pourrait devenir le géant Facebook à horizon 2050. La stratégie de Facebook peut sembler intrépide. Malgré les scandales à répétition sur l’utilisation des données personnelles qui ont visé la plateforme ces dernières années, Mark Zuckerberg rehausse encore ses ambitions. Cette fois-ci, c’est une monnaie qu’il lance avec ses partenaires Uber, eBay, (...)

    #Iliad #MasterCard #Visa #Vodafone #cryptomonnaie #booking.com #eBay #Facebook #Libra #Paypal #Spotify #Uber #domination #BigData #bénéfices (...)


  • Facebook crée son propre écosystème d’affaires avec sa cryptomonnaie Libra

    Face aux attaques internes (leadership, gouvernance, etc.) et menaces externes (concurrence, technologie, etc.), l’emblématique patron de Facebook a choisi de réagir de façon à la fois spectaculaire, technologique et massive. Mark Zuckerberg et ses 27 partenaires prestigieux – Uber, Visa, Booking.com, eBay, Spotify, PayPal ou Iliad (Xavier Niel) ont en effet commencé à communiquer depuis quelques semaines sur la naissance imminente de la fondation Suisse Libra Association qui aura la charge de (...)

    #Iliad #MasterCard #Stripe #Visa #Vodafone #cryptomonnaie #Instagram #WhatsApp #WeChat #eBay #Facebook #booking.com #Libra #LinkedIn #Paypal #Pinterest #Spotify #Twitch #Twitter #Uber #YouTube #domination #BigData #bénéfices #marketing (...)

    ##profiling ##Kiva ##MercadoLibre ##Branch

  • Huawei soupçonné d’un vol massif de données aux Pays-Bas

    Selon la presse néerlandaise, les services de renseignement du royaume jugeraient « non souhaitable » l’ouverture du marché national de la 5G au groupe chinois. De nouveaux soupçons concernant une possible implication du géant chinois des télécoms Huawei dans un vol massif de données existent aux Pays-Bas alors qu’aux Etats-Unis, l’administration Trump bannit officiellement la compagnie du marché américain. Les services de renseignement (AIVD) refusent tout commentaire mais ils auraient, selon diverses (...)

    #Huawei #Nokia_Siemens #Sony #T-Mobile #Vodafone #backdoor #BigData #hacking

  • Monica Lewinsky: ‘The shame sticks to you like tar’

    Nearly 20 years ago, Monica Lewinsky found herself at the heart of a political storm. Now she’s turned that dark time into a force for good


    Lewinsky was once among the 20th century’s most humiliated people, ridiculed across the world. Now she’s a respected and perceptive anti-bullying advocate. She gives talks at Facebook, and at business conferences, on how to make the internet more compassionate.

    Either way, misogyny is still thriving. When the Guardian began researching the online harassment of its own writers, they discovered something bleak: of the 10 contributors who receive the most abuse in the comment threads, eight are women – five white, three non-white – and the other two are black men. Overall, women Guardian writers get more abuse than men, regardless of what they write about, but especially when they write about rape and feminism. I noticed something similar during my two years interviewing publicly shamed people. When a man is shamed, it’s usually, “I’m going to get you fired.” When a woman is shamed it’s, “I’m going to rape you and get you fired.”

    With statistics like these, it’s no surprise that many consider this an ideological issue – that the focus should be on combatting the misogynistic, racist abuse committed by men. But Lewinsky doesn’t see it that way. “A lot of vicious things that happen online to women and minorities do happen at the hands of men,” she says, “but they also happen at the hands of women. Women are not immune to misogyny.”

    “That happened to you,” I say. “With people like Nancy Friday. You found yourself being attacked by ideologues.”

    “Yes,” Lewinsky says. “I think it’s fair to say that whatever mistakes I made, I was hung out to dry by a lot of people – by a lot of the feminists who had loud voices. I wish it had been handled differently. It was very scary and very confusing to be a young woman thrust on to the world stage and not belonging to any group. I didn’t belong to anybody.”

    Her plan after graduating was to get a job and lead “a much more private life, and move towards a more normal developmental path”. But she found that nobody would employ her. The stigma outweighed her qualifications and aptitude. She couldn’t even get volunteer work with a charity. “I was going through such a hard time,” she says, “I felt so shattered, it took me six months to even get up the courage to approach this particular organisation. And when I did, they told me my working there ‘wasn’t a good idea’. It was a very desolate 10 years for me. I was really floundering. I could not find my way.”

    Shame and Survival

  • « Les FAI ne manquent pas d’imagination lorsqu’il s’agit de violer la #neutralité_du_réseau. Un exemple récent est décrit dans l’article de Narseo Vallina-Rodriguez, Srikanth Sundaresan, Christian Kreibich et Vern Paxson, "Header Enrichment or ISP Enrichment ? Emerging Privacy Threats in Mobile Networks", qui consiste à modifier les flux #HTTP automatiquement pour ajouter, à l’insu de l’utilisateur, des informations personnelles qui seront utiles aux publicitaires qui gèrent les sites Web. Et cela se nomme cyniquement l’« enrichissement des en-têtes ».



    #publicité #marketing #vie_privée #Netalyzr

    • la majorité des opérateurs en question sont situés dans les pays du Sud, où la vigilance des citoyens et leurs connaissances techniques sont plus faibles : nettement moins de chances de se faire prendre en Jordanie qu’en Californie ! #Orange #Jordanie fait partie des « enrichisseurs d’en-têtes » et ajoute le numéro de téléphone du client aux en-têtes HTTP qui seront récupérables par les publicitaires sur le site Web visité ! L’en-tête utilisé est msisdn :. (Notez que la documentation de Juniper citée plus haut utilisait exactement cela comme exemple, avec juste le préfixe x- qui indique traditionnellement qu’il s’agit d’un en-tête non standard.)

      Le record appartient apparemment à #Vodafone #Afrique_du_Sud pour publier dans les en-têtes ajoutés le numéro de téléphone et l’#IMEI (depuis la parution de l’article, ils semblent avoir arrêté).

      #surveillance #dnt

  • #Vodafone Australia admits hacking Fairfax journalist’s phone

    En #Australie, l’entreprise Vodafone est accusée d’avoir accédé illégalement aux relevés téléphoniques d’une #journaliste

    En Australie, l’entreprise Vodafone est accusée d’avoir accédé illégalement aux relevés téléphoniques d’une journaliste, qui venait de révéler l’existence d’une faille de sécurité majeure. Un dirigeant de l’entreprise de télécommunications aurait demandé aux enquêteurs d’utiliser « tous les moyens possibles » pour connaître les sources de la journaliste du groupe Fairfax. Vodafone reconnaît que les enquêteurs ont eu accès aux appels et aux textos de la reporter, mais nie avoir demandé quoi que ce soit.

    #surveillance #téléphone #vie_privée

  • Brèches informatiques | Courrier international via @opironet @op

    DAVID McCANDLESS. Ce Britannique, pionnier du datajournalisme, est l’un des principaux contributeurs du datablog du Guardian. Il a travaillé ici avec les enquêteurs Miriam Quick, Ella Hollowood, Christian Miles et Dan Hampson. Ils ont recensé, à partir des données de DataBreaches.net http://www.databreaches.net, du IdTheftCenter http://www.idtheftcenter.org et d’articles de presse, les brèches informatiques qui ont concerné au moins 30 000 personnes. Les fuites continuent : le 12 septembre, l’opérateur de téléphonie mobile #Vodafone a reconnu que les données personnelles de 2 millions de clients allemands, y compris leurs coordonnées bancaires, étaient dans la nature.