• Thread by UssamaMakdisi: Some historical context for #Lebanon and its sectarian system. 1. The initial sectarian system was introduced in mid-19th century in Mount L…
    https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1293292258528198658.html

    1. The initial sectarian system was introduced in mid-19th century in Mount Lebanon when the Arab East was under Ottoman rule. The Ottomans regarded the novel sectarian system as a concession to European power.

    2.European powers, however, regarded it as the key to “reforming” the Ottoman state. For Western powers, religious diversity in the Orient = sectarianism that had to be managed by “civilized” European powers.

    3. Needless to say, these same Western powers did not view religious diversity in their own countries a problem that had to be managed by others, despite a long history of racism, antisemitism, and segregation in France, England, the United States etc.

    4. After the Ottoman defeat in WWI, France and Britain awarded themselves “mandates” and partitioned the Arab East into various weak states, often along sectarian lines. Britain supported Zionist colonization of Palestine that eventually led to the Nakba of 1948.

    5. Lebanon was thus created as a separate sectarian state by French colonialism in 1920—with the aid of local (mostly Maronite) elites and in the face of a rival project of secular nationalism in Syria that enjoyed considerable support of Arab Christians and Arab Muslims.

    6. In other words, being Christian did not make one automatically support the separation of Lebanon from Syria. Religious affiliations are not and have never been automatic indicators of political ideology.

    7. The original Lebanese constitution of 1926—unveiled against the backdrop the massive anti-colonial revolt in Syria that had begun in 1925—included an infamous Article 95.

    8. Article 95 legitimated for a temporary period a limited sectarian formula for politics with the proviso that this formula did not trump the constiutional equality of all Lebanese irrespective of religious affiliation.

    9. Virtually every Lebanese government after independence in 1943 paradoxically pledged to abolish political sectarianism at the same time as they entrenched sectarianism further and further across all branches of government.

    10. From its outset, the sectarian system was unequal in distribution of resources and systematically privileged the elites of each of the “major” communities at the expense of ordinary people. Thus sectarian patronage networks were consolidated.

    11. This unequal system was the major cause of the Lebanese civil war in Lebanon between 1975 and 1990. The war involved a struggle between rightwing Phalangists and leftwing forces allied with the PLO. Syria and Israel both intervened in the civil war.

    12. Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 with tacit U.S. support. Despite U.S. assurance to protect refugee camps after PLO withdrawal, Palestinian civilians in Sabra and Shatila were massacred by Israeli-backed militiamen. Hizbullah was formed after this invasion backed by Iran.

    13. Sectarianism was entrenched after civil war. Warlords become politicians. They amnestied themselves. Maronite elites lost some power; Sunni and Shi‘i elites gained—yet they all conspired together to dominate postwar Lebanon with Syrian, Saudi, and US. support. #Lebanon lost.

    #Liban #sectarisme #confessions #histoire

  • Deux articles sur le Liban dans la revue Période (Marxiste). Je ne les ai pas lus, mais je me disais que ça pouvait intéresser du monde ici...

    Classes et confessionnalisme au Liban
    Fawwaz Traboulsi, Période, le 8 juin 2015
    http://revueperiode.net/classes-et-confessionnalisme-au-liban

    De l’antifascisme au socialisme : stratégie révolutionnaire dans la guerre civile libanaise
    Mahdi Amil, Période, le 21 juin 2015
    http://revueperiode.net/de-lantifascisme-au-socialisme-strategie-revolutionnaire-dans-la-guerr

    #Liban #Marxisme #classe #religions #confessions #guerre #guerre_civile #socialisme #révolution

  • Classes et confessionnalisme au #Liban
    http://revueperiode.net/classes-et-confessionnalisme-au-liban

    Les luttes confessionnelles constituent l’un des axes centraux de la vie politique au Liban. Comment rendre compte de cette forme d’antagonisme en termes marxistes ? Fawwaz Traboulsi propose ici une reconstruction théorique qui fait un sort aux conception économicistes – pour lesquelles les #confessions appartiendraient à une dimension purement idéologique (de l’ordre de la superstructure) tandis que les classes existeraient par elles mêmes. Pour Traboulsi, à l’inverse, le défi posé par les confessions, leurs luttes, est précisément de comprendre en quoi ces conflits sont constitutifs de la formation des classes sociales au (...)

    #Uncategorized #composition_de_classe

  • #Confessions of a white Oxbridge male
    Simon Kuper
    http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/82ce89ec-5967-11e4-9546-00144feab7de.html#axzz3HTWMLu00

    I feel very little sense of achievement. I didn’t get here on merit. I was born to be a minor establishment functionary

    (...)

    My #caste produces the #opinions that most British people are expected to swallow. However, the one topic we seldom discuss honestly is our own rule. So let me try to describe how it looks from up here.

    (...)

    Perry quotes the American writer John Scalzi, who “thought that being a straight white male was like playing the computer game called Life with the difficulty setting on ‘Easy’”.

    (...)

    Our basic ideology is: trust in the system. (...)

    Our caste is always changing, just enough to make sure that everything stays the same. Lately we’ve learnt to lament the suffering of the disadvantaged. (I’m told that even younger members of the kleptocratic Angolan #elite have mastered this rhetoric.) Indeed, many of the most stirring attacks on inequality and sexism are now produced by Oxbridge males – but then we produce most attacks on most things in Britain.

  • Le script de la vraie-fausse confession d’Armstrong déjà connu | Rue89 Sport
    http://www.rue89.com/rue89-sport/2013/01/11/voici-le-script-de-la-vraie-fausse-confession-darmstrong-238504

    Ceux qui connaissent Armstrong se doutent bien qu’il n’entrera pas dans les détails. Les conclusions de l’enquête de l’agence américaine antidopage (Usada) ayant été largement diffusées aux Etats-Unis, il passerait pour fou s’il récitait son mantra « Didn’t dope - Never tested positive - Most tested athlete in the world » (« Je ne me suis jamais dopé, je n’ai jamais été contrôlé positif, je suis le sportif le plus contrôlé dans le monde »). Toutefois, personne n’a de grandes attentes.

    #dopage #Oprah_Winfrey #confessions #Louis_Armstrong #script