• Arbres et champignons. Détail people amusant, Francis Martin est un ancien bon copain de classe de mon père quand ils faisaient leurs études de bio, qu’il a redécouvert le mois dernier justement en l’entendant à la radio, puis en allant le voir à une rencontre sur son livre. :D

    Sous la forêt, de Francis Martin

    Les alliances entre les arbres et les champignons

    Sous la forêt : pour survivre il faut des alliés

    #arbres #forêt #champignons #biologie #microbiologie #sol #agronomie #INRA #radio #France_Inter #audio

  • The superbug that doctors have been dreading just reached the U.S. | The Washington Post

    For the first time, researchers have found a person in the United States carrying bacteria resistant to antibiotics of last resort, an alarming development that the top U.S. public health official says could mean “the end of the road” for antibiotics.

    The antibiotic-resistant strain was found last month in the urine of a 49-year-old Pennsylvania woman. Defense Department researchers determined that she carried a strain of E. coli resistant to the antibiotic colistin, according to a study published Thursday in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a publication of the American Society for Microbiology. The authors wrote that the discovery “heralds the emergence of a truly pan-drug resistant bacteria.”

  • Fecal Transplants Made (Somewhat) More Palatable

    Two years ago, Catherine Duff, then 57, tearfully described eight debilitating bouts of antibiotic-resistant #Clostridium_difficile infection to a government panel in Washington. She grew better, she said, only after treating the gastrointestinal infection at home with her husband’s feces, a blender and an enema bag.

    Mark B. Smith, a young doctoral student in microbiology, was in the audience, almost as teary as Ms. Duff. Resolving to help patients like her, he started a nonprofit called OpenBiome, the first stool bank in the country, which distributes fecal samples from healthy donors to help cure people with tenacious C. difficile infections.

    Now OpenBiome has made the process, called fecal microbiota transplantation, far simpler. The bank has come up with a capsule containing fecal #microbes that can be taken much like any other drug — poop in a pill.

    #microbiologie #selles #microbiote

  • Des bactéries intestinales du nourrisson protégeraient contre l’asthme

    Certaines pathologies respiratoires comme l’#asthme se jouent dès l’enfance. Il se pourrait même que les dés soient jetés tout bébé. Brett Finlay, professeur de #microbiologie à l’Université de Colombie-Britannique au Canada, suggère que la présence de certaines #bactéries intestinales chez le nouveau-né influencerait la survenue ou non de l’asthme.

    Les travaux publiés dans la revue médicale américaine Science Translational Medicine avancent que les trois premiers mois de la vie pourraient être décisifs pour être immunisé toute sa vie contre le risque asthmatique. Autrement dit, il suffirait que quatre types de bactéries soient présents chez les nouveaux-nés dans le premier trimestre d’existence pour être protégé.

    « Cette étude montre que quatre types de bactéries intestinales jouent un rôle dans la prévention de l’asthme mais seulement très tôt dans la vie, au moment de la formation du système immunitaire du nouveau-né », précise Brett Finlay, cité par l’AFP.

    Ce constat a été réalisé à partir de l’analyse des prélèvements de matière fécale chez 319 enfants. Celle-ci a montré que les enfants de trois mois plus exposés au risque de souffrir d’asthme affichaient une déficience de quatre types de bactéries intestinales. En revanche, chez les enfants âgés d’un an, la #flore_intestinale montrait moins de différences, ce qui tend à suggérer que les trois premiers mois sont déterminants face au risque de déclarer plus tard l’#allergie respiratoire.

    ’Good bacteria’ key to stopping asthma

    One of the researchers, Dr Stuart Turvey, said: "Our longer-term vision would be that children in early life could be supplemented with Flvr [Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, Veillonella, and Rothia] to look to prevent the ultimate development of asthma

    “I want to emphasise that we are not ready for that yet, we know very little about these bacteria, [but] our ultimate vision of the future would be to prevent this disease.”

    #asthme #santé

  • Resolving Social Conflict Is Key to Survival of Bacterial Communities

    The conflict is essentially this: Bacteria at the outer edges of the biofilm are the most vulnerable within their community to chemical and antibiotic attacks. At the same time, they also provide protection to the interior cells. But the bacteria at the outer edge are the closest to nutrients necessary for growth. So if they grow unchecked, they can consume all the food and starve the sheltered interior cells.

    But that doesn’t happen, because the biofilm develops an ingenious solution to this problem that the scientists call “metabolic codependence.” Essentially, the interior cells produce a metabolite necessary for the growth of the bacteria on the outside. This provides the inner cells with the ability to periodically put the brakes on the growth of outer cells, which otherwise would consume all the food and starve the cells they are protecting from attack. By periodically preventing the growth on the periphery, inner cells ensure that they have sufficient access to nutrients. By keeping the protected inner cells alive, the biofilm has a much higher chance of surviving antibiotic treatment.

    #microbiologie #bactérie #resistance #antibiotique

    • Gratos en passant par google,

      After dismantling its antibiotics team in 1999, Switzerland’s Roche Holding AG RO.EB -2.10% is recruiting a head of anti-infectives to rebuild its in-house expertise. Last year, Roche licensed an experimental new antibiotic from Polyphor Ltd., a biotechnology company, and is investing as much as $111 million in antibiotic-focused RQX Pharmaceuticals Inc.

      GlaxoSmithKline GSK.LN -1.69% PLC of the U.K. recently said it will receive as much as $200 million in U.S. government funding for its antibiotic program.

      Those companies join just a handful of major pharmaceutical competitors, including AstraZeneca AZN.LN -1.74% PLC and Novartis AG NOVN.VX -2.99% , that are now active in antibiotic discovery and development.

      Pharmaceutical companies moved out of antibiotic development en masse in the past 15 years, citing high research costs, poor returns and onerous regulations. Consequently, the pipeline for new antibiotics dried up. In the 1980s, 30 new antibiotics gained approval in the U.S. Between 2010 and 2012, only one did.

      Pfizer Inc., PFE -2.97% one of the pioneers of penicillin mass production, shut its antibiotic-research facility in 2011, along with Johnson & Johnson. JNJ -2.30% In 2002, Eli Lilly LLY -1.87% & Co. left the field to focus on chronic illnesses. Sanofi SA SAN.FR -4.19% shed its anti-infectives unit Novexel in 2004.

      “We were not having success developing novel approaches for difficult-to-treat bacterial infections,” says Pfizer’s vice president of clinical research, Charles Knirsch. “After a great deal of consideration, we decided that enhancing our focus on infection prevention would represent a more prudent return on investment.”

      Luckily for public health, the unfavorable economics are changing. Regulators in the U.S. and Europe recently have moved to clear roadblocks that have impeded antibiotic development, with the U.S. granting priority review for innovative new drugs.

      Research funding is beginning to flow as well. The European Union funds antibiotic research projects with industry and universities. U.S. government funding is available to companies developing promising new molecules.

      Alternative commercial models are being discussed that get around the problem of low sales volumes: selling new drugs in bulk to health-care providers for use when needed, or charging a fixed license fee for access to them.

      There is an acute medical need for new antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant infections now kill around 50,000 people a year in the U.S. and Europe, and that number is rising, according to the World Health Organization. In the U.S., two million people a year will contract a drug-resistant infection, with direct health-care costs of as much as $20 billion, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      Overuse of antibiotics has built up bacterial resistance to them, making current drugs less effective. Their widespread use in animals farmed for meat introduces more antibiotics into the food chain, undercutting their efficacy.

      With few new drugs to prescribe, and the old standbys frequently failing against drug-resistant strains, doctors are sometimes forced to reach for older, more-toxic drugs.

      Finding new ones has become a huge scientific challenge. “Gram-negative” bacteria, including superbugs such as carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, are particularly hard to target. A kind of double cell wall makes it hard to get antibiotics into the organism, and if they make it inside, “pumps” inside the bacteria often push the drug out.

      “The low-hanging fruit of antibiotics that were easy to discover has been picked,” says Brad Spellberg, infectious-disease expert at the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute.

      Even if antibiotics make it to market, oncology drugs are on average three times as profitable, and musculoskeletal drugs produce more than 10 times the returns, according to estimates from a 2009 London School of Economics report.

      For example, ceftaroline fosamil, an antibiotic approved in the U.S. in 2010, costs around $600 for a seven-day course. Contrast that to yervoy, a new drug to treat melanoma, that costs $120,000 for a 12-week course.

      “Society values antibiotics wrongly,” says David Payne, head of antibacterial research at GlaxoSmithKline. “These are lifesaving drugs—they don’t just give patients a few extra months.”

      John Rex, head of infection at AstraZeneca—which has one of the stronger current antibiotic pipelines—concedes that his unit isn’t as big an economic driver as areas such as oncology. “The math is clear,” he says. “It’s hard for the whole anti-infective industry.”

      Unlike a drug to treat a chronic condition, antibiotics are usually taken for a week or two, limiting sales. The most commonly prescribed ones, including azithromycin and amoxicillin, are now available as low-cost generics.

      Charging higher prices could help spur development. In a recent paper in Nature, Drs. Spellberg and Rex argue a hypothetical new drug to treat Acinetobacter baumannii, a cause of hospital-acquired infections, could offer value for health-care providers even if priced at as much as $30,000 a course.

      U.S. health insurers Aetna and Cigna declined to comment on the hypothetical price, but the U.K.’s pricing-advisory body NICE already recommends the use of two cancer drugs that cost more relative to the additional lifespan they offer patients.

      While most big drug makers continue to invest elsewhere, some smaller companies are stepping into the antibiotics breach. Small and medium-size companies are now responsible for 73% of antibiotics in development, according to BioPharma statistics.

      Boston-based Cubist Pharmaceuticals CBST -1.21% was formed in 1992 and now has two approved antibiotics and a $5 billion market capitalization.

      Another Boston startup, Enbiotix, is in discussions with multiple big drug makers interested in a deal, including those without active anti-infectives divisions, according to its chief executive, Jeff Wager.

      “Antibiotics are never going to be huge blockbusters,” Mr. Wager says. “And yet the short answer is, we need these drugs. I don’t think big pharma can call themselves good corporate citizens without them.”

    • ah oui merci @kassem ; j’avais essayé par google et ça ne le faisait pas, mais en prenant un autre navigateur, la même astuce a marché — les heuristiques des #paywall sont parfois étranges :)

    • Avec l’histoire personnelle de Quinn Norton qui illustre bien le problème de fond. Une femme exposée régulièrement à une infection urinaire qui devient peu à peu résistante à tous les antibiotiques

      Infection, Watching Life and Death Evolve in the World

      A few years later I finally got insurance and a regular doctor that I saw more than once. He would culture the infection from time to time to decide what to give me. My little E. coli were resistant to Amoxicillin, which I found hilarious, because I wasn’t — I am allergic to it. At some point, my E. coli had evolved resistance to a drug that could very well kill me. “My bug is stronger than me!” I joked with my doctor.

      Then one day Keflex stopped working. On a report from the culture the little resistance box had flipped from no to yes. “No problem,” my doctor told me, “Cipro will work fine,” and it did, for a long time.

      Over the years I kept losing drugs. I would get infections, take a drug for a while that killed it, but then one day I would take the drug and it wouldn’t work anymore.

  • Antibiotics: Precision strike | The Economist


    cc fil

    IN THE last 100 years antibiotics have saved millions of lives. However, they are indiscriminate weapons: they kill useful bacteria, such as those in the human gut which extract nutrients, as efficiently as they kill the nasty disease-causing sort. Ben Feringa, of the University of Groningen, in the Netherlands, and his colleagues have devised a method to make antibiotics more selective.


  • MRSA : Farming up trouble : Nature News & Comment

    Microbiologists are trying to work out whether use of antibiotics on farms is fuelling the human epidemic of drug-resistant bacteria.

    But the meat and agricultural industries are fighting those restrictions. They claim that #MRSA and other drug-resistant bacteria that cause human infections arise in hospitals, and that meat production includes safety measures, such as sanitation rules in slaughterhouses, that prevent resistant bacteria from spreading to and infecting people. “There’s a long way between the farm and the table,” says Ron Phillips, a representative for the Animal Health Institute, a trade organization based in Washington DC that represents veterinary-medicine companies.

    The major problem has been lack of data. Many farmers are reluctant to allow scientists access to their facilities, and farmworkers — many of whom, in the United States, are undocumented immigrants — are wary of anyone who might want to sample them.

    But [Tara] Smith, [an epidemiologist at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, who has since launched one of the most comprehensive investigations yet of where MRSA lives and how it spreads into and out of agricultural settings] and a small group of researchers are starting to fill the void.

    #antibiotiques #résistance_aux_antibiotiques #microbiologie #sarm

  • Breeding Bacteria on Factory Farms - NYTimes.com

    La dernière étude en date montrant la dangerosité de l’antibiothérapie préventive dans l’élevage « industriel »

    The latest study concerning antibiotic resistance was published last week in the journal PLoS One. It looked at livestock workers in North Carolina (the nation’s second biggest hog-producing state, after Iowa), including those in what the study’s authors called “industrial” livestock production and those on farms where the animals were raised without antibiotics and grown on pasture. In this study, the S. aureus bacteria with genetic markers most closely linked to livestock were found in far greater numbers in workers on the industrial farms.

    La FDA traîne les pieds pour remédier à cette situation..

    The F.D.A., which is under court order to do something about the routine use of antibiotics, has come up with a lame voluntary reduction scheme — “Guidance 213,” it’s called — acting as if it will save its real regulatory muscle for after this scheme flops. (Which it will — flop, that is.) Worse, despite repeated promises that the voluntary guidelines were imminent, they haven’t issued even those. And now, “Guidance 213 is currently in the clearance process, but we cannot predict a timeline on its release,” an agency spokeswoman wrote me in an e-mail. Period.

    .. et, quelques exceptions mises à part, l’Etat aussi

    That’s simply insulting. Of course, almost no one is pushing the F.D.A. to do its job. There are a handful of people in Congress; certainly some well-meaning NGOs like Pew Charitable Trusts, Natural Resources Defense Council and others; and dedicated individuals like the lawyer Bill Marler. Against them are arrayed not only Big Pharma — which is providing four times as many antibiotics to animals as it is to humans — but industrial ag, which cares only about raising animals “efficiently” and profitably.

    #santé #microbiologie #résistance_aux_antibiotiques #pharma #bigpharma #agroindustrie #lobbying