• More than a quarter of people with Covid infection develop Long Covid, new research reveals

    A new study carried out by researchers at the University of York suggests 28% of people who catch #COVID-19 will go on to suffer from Long Covid.

    The study also reveals that one in four people with Long Covid will experience brain fog and one in three to four will develop anxiety or depression.

    However, the findings of the study, published in the journal General Hospital Psychiatry, suggest that full Covid vaccination makes sufferers four times less likely to have #brain_fog – a term used to describe symptoms including poor concentration, feeling confused and cognitive impairment.

    Long-term sickness

    With Long COVID a key factor in the record 2.8 million people off work in the UK due to long-term sickness, the researchers are calling for yearly COVID-19 vaccinations to be rolled out and should include all working-age people.

    The study reviewed 17 studies from around the world involving more than 40,000 Long COVID patients. It was carried out in collaboration with the STIMULATE-ICP project, which is a £6.8 million NIHR-funded national research project led by University College London.


    Lead author, Professor Christina van der Feltz—Cornelis, Chair of Psychiatry and Epidemiology at the Department of Health Sciences and at the University of York and Hull Medical School (HYMS), said: “I was struck by the figures that emerged from our study because they make it clear just how many people around the world are being affected by this debilitating condition.”

    “The discovery of a significant reduction in the risk of brain fog after Covid vaccination is particularly important in this context and provides support for continuation and extension of vaccination programmes, particularly to working-age people.

    “There is a societal tendency in the UK to think Covid is over, but Long Covid is having a profound and lasting effect on individuals and society as a whole, with many people leaving the workplace due to the condition. This is placing a heavy burden on the economy.”


    Long Covid is a chronic condition following a Covid infection which affects an estimated 1.9 million people in the UK. Symptoms can include breathlessness, heart palpitations, joint pain and concentration problems.

    The findings of the research also indicate that the mental health symptoms and brain fog experienced by people with Long Covid can actually get worse for many people over time. 24 months after acute infections, people were three to four times more likely to develop brain fog compared to during the peak of their Covid infection. The risk of developing depression or anxiety rose approximately 1.5 times in the same timeframe.


    Professor van der Feltz - Cornelis added: “This finding indicating that the condition often gets worse over time is concerning. It could be due to a decline in people’s mental health as living with Long Covid and the uncertainty that comes with the condition takes its toll. However, some early evidence suggests that living with Long Covid affects nerve cells in the brain so that might play a role as well.

    “With so many people suffering from the severe effects of this condition, our study clearly points to the need for greater support, in addition to sustained vaccination programmes. We are very lucky to be one of the only countries to have dedicated Long Covid centres, but we need more joined-up treatment of the mental and physical symptoms of the condition and greater resources for effective treatments, rehabilitation and occupational therapy so that people are able to recover and avoid losing their careers and livelihoods. ”

    #long_covid #covid_long #chronicité #vaccination #vaccins #dépression #anxiété #concentration

  • La prise d’une association prébiotiques/probiotiques a amélioré les symptômes du #post-covid

    A synbiotic preparation (SIM01) for post-acute #COVID-19 syndrome in Hong Kong (RECOVERY) : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - The Lancet Infectious Diseases


    In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre in Hong Kong, patients with PACS according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were randomly assigned (1:1) by random permuted blocks to receive SIM01 (10 billion colony-forming units in sachets twice daily) or placebo orally for 6 months. Inclusion criterion was the presence of at least one of 14 PACS symptoms for 4 weeks or more after confirmed #SARS-CoV-2 infection, including fatigue, memory loss, difficulty in concentration, insomnia, mood disturbance, hair loss, shortness of breath, coughing, inability to exercise, chest pain, muscle pain, joint pain, gastrointestinal upset, or general unwellness. Individuals were excluded if they were immunocompromised, were pregnant or breastfeeding, were unable to receive oral fluids, or if they had received gastrointestinal surgery in the 30 days before randomisation. Participants, care providers, and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was alleviation of PACS symptoms by 6 months, assessed by an interviewer-administered 14-item questionnaire in the intention-to-treat population. Forward stepwise multivariable logistical regression was performed to identify predictors of symptom alleviation. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04950803.


    Between June 25, 2021, and Aug 12, 2022, 463 patients were randomly assigned to receive SIM01 (n=232) or placebo (n=231). At 6 months, significantly higher proportions of the SIM01 group had alleviation of fatigue (OR 2·273, 95% CI 1·520–3·397, p=0·0001), memory loss (1·967, 1·271–3·044, p=0·0024), difficulty in concentration (2·644, 1·687–4·143, p<0·0001), gastrointestinal upset (1·995, 1·304–3·051, p=0·0014), and general unwellness (2·360, 1·428–3·900, p=0·0008) compared with the placebo group. Adverse event rates were similar between groups during treatment (SIM01 22 [10%] of 232 vs placebo 25 [11%] of 231; p=0·63). Treatment with SIM01, infection with omicron variants, vaccination before COVID-19, and mild acute COVID-19, were predictors of symptom alleviation (p<0·0036).


    Treatment with SIM01 alleviates multiple symptoms of PACS. Our findings have implications on the management of PACS through gut microbiome modulation. Further studies are warranted to explore the beneficial effects of SIM01 in other chronic or post-infection conditions.

    #covid_long #long_covid

    • Sont gentils les probiotiques c’est cher et pas remboursé. La généraliste et la gynéco sont très fan, en plus tous les jours tu gobes leur truc et t’as le sentiment d’être une pharmacie sur jambes.

  • Des milliers d’infirmières souffrent de COVID Long, et cela n’est toujours pas reconnu comme une maladie professionnelle

    Selon une étude réalisée au niveau européen, le nombre moyen de professionnels de santé souffrant aujourd’hui des séquelles de l’infection est d’environ un sixième du nombre total de personnes infectées. En Italie, le chiffre est d’au moins 20 000 infirmières. Il est clair que les infirmières dans cet état ne peuvent plus exercer leur profession de manière appropriée, et il est clair que tout cela a un impact sur la santé des patient·es et sur la charge de travail des soignant·es en général. Pourquoi ce syndrome n’est-il pas reconnu comme une maladie professionnelle ? Source : Nursing Up via Cabrioles

  • #Long_COVID: answers emerge on how many people get better

    For a study2 published in May, researchers followed 1,106 adults who caught SARS-CoV-2 before vaccines were available. After six months, 22.9% of them still had symptoms. This fell to 18.5% at one year and 17.2% after two years.

    “As soon as it’s 12 months, it plateaus,” says study co-author Tala Ballouz, an epidemiologist at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. “You have a higher chance of recovery during the first year, and after one year it really becomes more of a chronic condition.”

    In another study3 published in May, biostatistician Andrea Foulkes at Massachusetts General Hospital Biostatistics in Boston and her colleagues reported that one-third of people who had long COVID six months after infection no longer had it at nine months



    • one-third of people who had long COVID six months after infection no longer had it at nine months

      ce qui en laisse 2/3 qui l’ont toujours après 9 mois s’ils l’ont eu :-)

  • Robbie Williams mist energie en worstelt zich naar het einde op Pinkpop

    Al na drie liedjes steunt Robbie Williams zaterdagavond met beide handen op zijn knieën. De band heeft net het vierde nummer ingezet, maar de baas maant zijn collega’s tot stoppen. ,,I’m fucked", zegt hij buiten adem. Met een kwajongensblik naar het publiek: ,,Het is long covid. Niet mijn leeftijd, rotzakken!”


  • #Long_COVID exercise trials proposed by NIH raise alarm

    Patients and patient advocates are calling on the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) to reconsider its decision to include exercise trials in its RECOVER initiative, which aims to study and find treatments for long COVID.

    They argue that a large proportion of people with long COVID have reported experiencing post-exertional malaise (PEM) — a worsening of symptoms such as fatigue, difficulty regulating body temperature and cognitive dysfunction, after even light exercise — and worry that putting certain RECOVER participants through exercise trials could cause them harm. In a petition and multiple letters, the advocates request that the NIH and affiliated physicians explain their rationale for this testing and share the trial protocols.

    #covid_long #post_covid

  • Cinq femmes parlent du COVID Long et de misogynie médicale | Donna Lu

    Alors que le COVID Long a été officiellement reconnue par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé en octobre 2021, nombreux·ses sont celleux qui font encore état d’un scepticisme généralisé et d’une minimisation de leurs symptômes. Selon les épidémiologistes Dr Stephen Phillips et Prof. Michelle Williams de Harvard, ce mépris est en partie attribuable au fait que les femmes sont touchées de manière disproportionnée. Source : The Guardian via Cabrioles

    • « Notre système médical a une longue histoire de minimisation des symptômes des femmes, de rejet ou de mauvais diagnostic de leurs troubles comme étant psychologiques », ont-iels écrit dans le New England Journal of Medicine l’année dernière. « Les femmes de couleur avec un COVID Long, en particulier, ne sont pas crues et se voient refuser des tests que leurs homologues blanc·hes reçoivent. »

      (La race et la richesse jouent également un rôle ; aux États-Unis, les médecins attirent maintenant l’attention sur le fait que les hommes noirs et latinos, qui ont été les plus durement touchés par le Covid, sont peut-être sous-représentés dans la recherche sur le COVID Long et rencontrent des obstacles importants dans l’accès aux soins).

      La misogynie médicale n’est pas une surprise pour de nombreuses patientes qui ont déjà été confrontées à ce mépris par le passé. La médecine a longtemps traité les femmes comme des citoyens de seconde zone. La prédominance historique des hommes dans ce domaine a eu des répercussions durables : ces biais dans les essais cliniques ont conduit à des traitements et des résultats moins bons pour les femmes, et à des diagnostics tardifs chez les femmes pour des maladies qui n’ont été étudiées que chez les hommes. Les lacunes dans les connaissances sur les affections qui touchent les femmes, comme l’endométriose, ont donné lieu au mépris de leurs symptômes et à des récits évoquant l’hystérie.

  • Saboteur Immunitaire - Cabrioles - #AutodéfenseSanitaire face au #Covid-19.

    Il y a un an commençait le lancement de la campagne de désinformation “Omicron est une chance”, qui - grâce à l’efficacité vaccinale - allait faire passer pour moins virulent un variant qui de par son extrême contagiosité faisait déjà plusieurs centaines de morts par jour. Les infections sont montées à plus de 500 000 par jour, et dans les mois qui ont suivis, les #réinfections se sont multipliées. Parfois à quelques semaines d’intervalles seulement. On nous a dit que c’était une bonne chose.

    Que nous serions, enfin, tous·tes immunisé·es.

    Des médecins sont même allé jusqu’à affirmer que le Covid-19 était devenu “une virose banale et répétitive” et nous ont invité à nous rendre au travail en étant infecté·es.

    Pourtant, au printemps 2020 un immunologiste américain nommé Anthony J Leonardi, spécialiste des #cellules_T, avait tenté d’alerter sur l’impact potentiel du Covid-19 sur nos systèmes immunitaires. Il émettait l’hypothèse que l’infection au Covid-19 puisse entrainer une hyperactivation des cellules T qui provoquerait leur épuisement, et donc une dysrégulation et un affaiblissement générale du #système_immunitaire. Il appelait donc à la prudence.

    Il a été décrédibilisé et moqué par des médecins et des journalistes qui ont acquis de l’audience en vendant un optimisme trompeur. Un commerce qui a eu, et continu d’avoir, des conséquences criminelles.

    Depuis janvier 2022 nous avons connu 5 vagues épidémiques. Il a rapidement été établi qu’avoir été contaminé par Omicron ne produit pas d’#immunité qui protègerait d’une réinfection. Et l’infection de masse génère régulièrement de nouveaux variants à fort échappement immunitaire.

    Depuis le printemps 2020, les études venant confirmer ce qui avait été avancé par Anthony Leonardi s’accumulent.

    • Que se passera-t-il si les réinfections du COVID affaiblissent notre immunité ? | Andrew Nikiforuk

    • 12 études sur le dysfonctionnement immunitaire après le COVID-19 | Andrew Ewing

    • Comment le SARS-CoV-2 combat notre système immunitaire | Science

    • « Vivre avec » le Covid-19… sauf à Davos

      Et alors qu’aux quatre coins de la planète, l’injonction à « vivre avec » le Covid est répétée dans la majorité des médias (le New York Times raillait encore récemment les derniers porteurs de masque considérés comme des attardés), alors que nombre de chefs d’Etat, dont le nôtre, professent que le Covid est derrière nous, le Forum économique mondial entoure de précautions les puissants de ce monde. La vaccination est évidemment recommandée à tous les participants, qui bénéficient d’un test PCR à leur arrivée. Leur badge électronique permettant l’accès au Forum est désactivé si le résultat revient positif. Des autotests antigéniques et des masques sont distribués gratuitement, et les salles sont ventilées, aérées (on peut voir sur les photographies que de nombreux participants portent des doudounes, à l’intérieur) et pourvues de filtres HEPA, tandis qu’au plafond sont installées des lumières UV pour désactiver le virus. De plus, tous les conducteurs de taxi et de transport sur les lieux doivent être masqués en permanence. En résumé, tout se passe comme si, pour ceux qui nous gouvernent, le Covid constituait toujours une menace réelle, nécessitant « un effort massif de purification de l’air » comme celui qu’avait promis Emmanuel Macron en avril 2022 « dans nos écoles, nos hôpitaux, nos maisons de retraite, et dans tous les bâtiments publics ».

      En France, nous avions déjà eu un magnifique exemple de cette dissonance cognitive en apprenant que les enfants du ministre de l’Education Pap Ndiaye, scolarisés à l’Ecole Alsacienne, pouvaient bénéficier d’une protection renforcée contre le Covid incluant vaccination, tests, capteurs de CO2 dans les salles de classe, filtration de l’air dans les lieux de restauration, tandis que le protocole sanitaire à l’Education nationale est inexistant. « Faites ce que je dis, pas ce que je fais. »

    • COVID-19
      Study reveals how long COVID stems from mild cases in most people, World Economic Forum, 10 janvier 2022

      Even mild COVID-19 cases can have major and long-lasting effects on people’s health. That is one of the key findings from our recent multicountry study on long COVID-19 – or long COVID – recently published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

      #Long_COVID is defined as the continuation or development of symptoms three months after the initial infection from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. These symptoms last for at least two months after onset with no other explanation.


  • #Long_COVID: major findings, mechanisms and recommendations | Nature Reviews Microbiology

    The incidence is estimated at 10–30% of non-hospitalized cases, 50–70% of hospitalized cases and 10–12% of vaccinated cases.

    Long COVID is associated with all ages and acute phase disease severities, with the highest percentage of diagnoses between the ages of 36 and 50 years, and most long COVID cases are in non-hospitalized patients with a mild acute illness, as this population represents the majority of overall COVID-19 cases.

    #post_covid #covid_long

  • #Long_COVID Added to List of Autoimmune Diseases — The Autoimmune Registry

    The Autoimmune Registry has determined that biomarkers of immune system activity similar to those seen in many autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases justify the inclusion of Long COVID on its list of diseases.

    #post_covid #covid_long #maladies_auto_immunes

  • Persistence of somatic symptoms after COVID-19 in the Netherlands: an observational cohort study - The Lancet

    Patients often report various symptoms after recovery from acute #COVID-19. Previous studies on post-COVID-19 condition have not corrected for the prevalence and severity of these common symptoms before COVID-19 and in populations without #SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to analyse the nature, prevalence, and severity of long-term symptoms related to COVID-19, while correcting for symptoms present before SARS-CoV-2 infection and controlling for the symptom dynamics in the population without infection.


    This study is based on data collected within #Lifelines, a multidisciplinary, prospective, population-based, observational cohort study examining the health and health-related behaviours of people living in the north of the Netherlands. All Lifelines participants aged 18 years or older received invitations to digital COVID-19 questionnaires. Longitudinal dynamics of 23 somatic symptoms surrounding COVID-19 diagnoses (due to SARS-CoV-2 alpha [B.1.1.7] variant or previous variants) were assessed using 24 repeated measurements between March 31, 2020, and Aug 2, 2021. Participants with COVID-19 (a positive SARS-CoV-2 test or a physician’s diagnosis of COVID-19) were matched by age, sex, and time to COVID-19-negative controls. We recorded symptom severity before and after COVID-19 in participants with COVID-19 and compared that with matched controls.


    76 422 participants (mean age 53·7 years [SD 12·9], 46 329 [60·8%] were female) completed a total of 883 973 questionnaires. Of these, 4231 (5·5%) participants had COVID-19 and were matched to 8462 controls. Persistent symptoms in COVID-19-positive participants at 90–150 days after COVID-19 compared with before COVID-19 and compared with matched controls included chest pain, difficulties with breathing, pain when breathing, painful muscles, ageusia or anosmia, tingling extremities, lump in throat, feeling hot and cold alternately, heavy arms or legs, and general tiredness. In 12·7% of patients, these symptoms could be attributed to COVID-19, as 381 (21·4%) of 1782 COVID-19-positive participants versus 361 (8·7%) of 4130 COVID-19-negative controls had at least one of these core symptoms substantially increased to at least moderate severity at 90–150 days after COVID-19 diagnosis or matched timepoint.


    To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the nature and prevalence of #post-COVID-19 condition, while correcting for individual symptoms present before COVID-19 and the symptom dynamics in the population without SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. Further research that distinguishes potential mechanisms driving post-COVID-19-related symptomatology is required.

    #covid_long #long_covid

  • Millions of Americans have long COVID. Many of them are no longer working

    Survey data suggests millions of people aren’t working because of long COVID
    As the number of people with post-COVID symptoms soars, researchers and the government are trying to get a handle on how big an impact long COVID is having on the U.S. workforce. It’s a pressing question, given the fragile state of the economy. For more than a year, employers have faced staffing problems, with jobs going unfilled month after month.

    Now, millions of people may be sidelined from their jobs due to long COVID. Katie Bach, a senior fellow with the Brookings Institution, drew on survey data from the Census Bureau, the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and the Lancet to come up with what she says is a conservative estimate: 4 million full-time equivalent workers out of work because of long COVID.

    That is just a shocking number,” says Bach. “That’s 2.4% of the U.S. working population.

  • #Long_Covid: U.S. scientists to enroll 40,000 in high-stakes, $1.2 billion Recover study


    The U.S. government is rolling out a massive study of long Covid in an effort to understand the mysterious condition.

    The study, Recover, aims to complete enrollment of nearly 40,000 people by year-end.

    The National Institutes of Health also plans to launch clinical trials on potential treatments in coming months.

    However, critics say the study’s rollout is moving too slowly.

    Scientists, physicians and public health officials are worried millions of Americans may have long-term health complications from #Covid-19.


  • 55% of Hospitalized COVID Patients Still Had Symptoms at 2 Years | MedPage Today

    “Regardless of initial disease severity, #COVID-19 survivors had longitudinal improvements in physical and mental health, with most returning to their original work within 2 years; however, the burden of symptomatic sequelae remained fairly high,” the group wrote. “COVID-19 survivors had a remarkably lower health status than the general population at 2 years.”


    Study limitations included the lack of a control group of hospital survivors with a respiratory infection other than COVID, so there was no way to tell if these abnormalities are specific to COVID. There may have also been participation bias, where participants with fewer symptoms might have been less likely to participate. Finally, the data came from a single center early in the pandemic, which may limit its generalizability.


  • Predicting #Long_COVID at Initial Point of #COVID-19 Diagnosis : Institute for Systems Biology-Led Study Finds Several Warning - Bloomberg

    […] researchers have identified several factors that can be measured at the initial point of COVID-19 diagnosis that anticipate if a patient is likely to develop long COVID. These “PASC factors” are the presence of certain autoantibodies, pre-existing Type 2 diabetes, #SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in the blood, and #Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels in blood.

    “Identifying these PASC factors is a major step forward for not only understanding long COVID and potentially treating it, but also which patients are at highest risk for the development of chronic conditions,” said IS President, Dr. Jim Heath, co-corresponding author of a research paper published online by the journal Cell “These findings are also helping us frame our thinking around other chronic conditions, such as post-acute Lyme syndrome, for example.”

    Additionally, researchers found that mild cases of COVID-19, not just severe cases, are associated with long COVID . They also suggest that administering antivirals very early in the disease course may potentially prevent some PASC.


    Researchers collected blood and swab samples from 309 COVID-19 patients at different time points to perform comprehensive phenotyping which was integrated with clinical data and patient-reported symptoms to carry out a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation.

    A key finding from the study deals with viral load, which can be measured near diagnosis to predict long COVID symptoms. “We found that early blood viral measurements are strongly associated with certain long COVID symptoms that patients will develop months later,” said Dr. Yapeng Su, a co-first and co-corresponding author of the paper.

    In addition, researchers found the Epstein-Barr virus (#EBV) – a virus that infects 90 percent of the human population and is normally inactive in the body after infection – is reactivated early on after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is significantly associated with future long COVID symptoms. “This may be related to immune dysregulation during COVID-19 infection,” Su added.

    The team also found that PASC is anticipated by autoantibodies (which associate with autoimmune diseases like lupus) at diagnosis, and that as autoantibodies increase, protective SARS-CoV-2 antibodies decrease. This suggests a relationship between long COVID, autoantibodies and patients at elevated risk of re-infections.

    “Many patients with high autoantibodies simultaneously have low (protective) antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, and that’s going to make them more susceptible to breakthrough infections,” said Daniel Chen, a co-first author of the paper.

    Source :
    Multiple Early Factors Anticipate Post-Acute COVID-19 Sequelae https://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-8674(22)00072-1.pdf

    We had several major findings. First, we observed that patients with autoAbs at T3 (44%) already exhibited mature (class-switched) autoAbs as early as at diagnosis (56%) (Figure 2A), indicating the autoAbs may predate COVID-19 , as reported elsewhere (Paul et al., 2021). Analysis of EHR data confirmed that only 6% of autoAb-positive patients had documented autoimmune conditions before COVID-19, suggesting that the autoAbs may reflect subclinical conditions .

    #covid-long #post-covid #auto-anticorps

    Les auto-anticorps seraient donc corrélés non seulement aux formes graves mais aussi aux covid-long ; de plus ce type d’anticorps (un sous-type ?) semble pouvoir se rencontrer dans les formes légères de Covid-19.

    L’âge ne semble pas être un facteur de risque.

  • Long Covid: nearly 2m days lost in NHS staff absences in England | Long Covid | The Guardian

    “Thousands of frontline workers are now living with an often debilitating condition after being exposed to the virus while protecting this country,” she said. “They cannot now be abandoned.”

  • Long COVID could become Finland’s largest chronic disease, warns minister | Reuters

    “Long COVID”, where symptoms of COVID-19 persist for months after an initial infection, could be emerging as a chronic disease in Finland, Minister of Family Affairs and Social Services Krista Kiuru said on Friday.

    Speaking at a news conference, she referred to a Finnish expert panel’s summary of more than 4,000 international studies which showed one in two adults and around 2% of children may experience prolonged symptoms connected to COVID-19.


  • COVID-19 isn’t just a cold

    This thread is long, and hard to read - not just because of the technical language, but because “it’s just a cold,” “the vaccine protects me,” and “at least our children are safe” are comforting fairy tales.

    I wish they were true.

    This virus is like measles and polio: a virus with long-term impact.

    Even a “mild” case in a vaccinated individual can lead to long-term issues which cause a measurable uptick in all-cause mortality in the first 6 months, and get progressively worse with time.

    SARS-CoV-2 is a systemic disease which has multiple avenues to induce long-term impairment, attacking the brain, heart, lungs, blood, testes, colon, liver, and lymph nodes, causing persistent symptoms in more than half of patients by six months out.

    The CoVHORT study, limited to non-hospitalized patients in Arizona - “mild” cases - found a 68% prevalence of 1 or more Covid symptom after 30 days, rising to 77% after 60 days. (We will explore an explanation later).


    To prevent panic, @CDCgov has been using the term “mild” to describe any case of COVID-19 which does not require hospitalization.

    #LongCOVID, however, is anything but “mild”, as the replies to @ahandvanish’s thread make heartbreakingly clear.


    A University of Washington study found that 30% of Covid patients had reduced Health Related Quality of Life, with 8% of the patients limited in routine daily activities.


    These patients are struggling with real physical issues.

    This Yale study demonstrated reduced aerobic capacity, oxygen extraction. and ventilatory efficiency in “mild” COVID patients even after recovery from their acute infection.


    It’s also a vascular disease. A Columbia study found “significantly altered lipid metabolism” during acute disease, which “suggests a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on red blood cell structural membrane homeostasis.”


    Oregon Health & Science University found that “symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with increased risk of [fatal] cardiovascular outcomes and has causal effect on all-cause mortality.”


    Let’s review: SARS-CoV-2 causes an increase in mortality and reduced aerobic capacity even after asymptomatic cases, and remains in the body months after the initial infection.

    No, it’s not “just a cold.”

    But we’re just getting started. It gets worse. Way worse.

    The virus appears to be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and cause significant neurological damage.

    The ability of the spike protein to cross the blood-brain barrier was demonstrated in mice at the University of Washington.


    A joint study by Stanford and Germany’s Saarland University found inflammation in the brain, and “show[ed] that peripheral T cells infiltrate the parenchyma.”


    For context, the parenchyma is the functional tissue of the brain - your neurons and glial cells. It isn’t normally where T cells are:

    “In the brain of healthy individuals, T cells are only present sporadically in the parenchyma.”


    The Stanford study also discovered microglia and astrocytes which displayed “features .. that have previously been reported in human neurodegenerative disease.”

    Post-mortem neuropathology in Hamburg, Germany found “Infiltration by cytotoxic T lymphocytes .. in the brainstem and cerebellum, [with] meningeal cytotoxic T lymphocyte infiltration seen in 79% [of] patients.”


    An autopsy of a 14-month-old at Brazil’s Federal University of Rio de Janeiro found that “The brain exhibited severe atrophy and neuronal loss.”


    The UK Biobank COVID-19 re-imaging study compared before and after images of “mild” cases, and found “pronounced reduction in grey matter” and an “increase of diffusion indices, a marker of tissue damage” in specific regions of the brain.


    That seems to explain why there is evidence of persistent cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from SARS-CoV2 infection in Great Britain.


    Also worrisome are syncytia, where an infected cell extrudes its own spike protein and takes over its neighbors, fusing together to create a large multi-nucleus cell.

    Delta’s particular aptitude for this may partly explain its severity.


    And, yes, syncytia formation can happen in neurons. For our visual learners, here is video of syncytia and apoptosis (cell death) in a (bat) brain:


    Luckily, the University of Glasgow found that “Whilst Delta is optimised for fusion at the cell surface, Omicron .. achieves entry through endosomal fusion. This switch .. offers [an] explanation for [its] reduced syncytia formation.”


    If you’re interested in further understanding the host of neurological symptoms and the mechanisms underlying them, this Nature article is an excellent primer:


    Let’s review: SARS-CoV-2 can cross the blood-brain barrier, and even “mild” or asymptomatic cases can cause loss of neurons and persistent cognitive defects?

    That doesn’t sound “mild” to me; I like my brain.

    But it keeps getting worse.

    The brain isn’t the only organ affected: Testicular pathology has found evidence of “SARS-Cov-2 antigen in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and fibroblasts” in post-morten examination.


    A Duke pathology study in Singapore “detected SARS-CoV-2 .. in the colon, appendix, ileum, haemorrhoid, liver, gallbladder and lymph nodes .. suggesting widespread multiorgan involvement of the viral infection.”


    The same study found “evidence of residual virus in .. tissues during the convalescent phase, up to 6 months after recovery, in a non-postmortem setting,” suggesting that “a negative swab result might not necessarily indicate complete viral clearance from the body.”

    It also causes microclots: “Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation [were] observed in [Long COVID] patients,” in this work by Stellenbosch University of South Africa, which also explored potential treatments.


    Let’s review - SARS-CoV2 attacks our veins, blood, heart, brain, testes, colon, appendix, liver, gallbladder and lymph nodes?

    No, it’s not “just a respiratory virus”.

    Not even close.

    There are also immunology implications:

    Johns Hopkins’ @fitterhappierAJ found that “CD95-mediated [T cell] differentiation and death may be advancing T cells to greater effector acquisition, fewer numbers, and immune dysregulation.”


    This Chinese military study of the initial Wuhan outbreak concluded that “T cell counts are reduced significantly in COVID-19 patients, and the surviving T cells appear functionally exhausted.”


    The study authors went on to warn, “Non-ICU patients with total T cells counts lower than 800/μL may still require urgent intervention, even in the immediate absence of more severe symptoms due to a high risk for further deterioration in condition.”

    Those warnings have since been proven by discovery of autoimmune features.

    This study of 177 Los Angeles healthcare workers found that all had persistent self-attacking antibodies at least 6 months after infection, regardless of illness severity.


    In the words of T-cell immunologist Dr. Leonardi (@fitterhappierAJ)


    This Kaiser Permanente S.California study found that, although natural immunity provided substantial protection against reinfection, “Hospitalization was more common at suspected reinfection (11.4%) than initial infection (5.4%).”


    In fact, remember those cytokine storms? It turns out that even that even severe COVID-19 may not be a viral pneumonia, but an autoimmune attack of the lung.


    Let’s review - it’s autoimmune: SARS-CoV2 convinces our body to attack itself.

    That might explain why the Arizona study saw more symptoms after 60 days than at 30 days.

    It also means “natural immunity” isn’t something to count on.

    But if you’re counting on vaccination to feel safe, there’s even more bad news.

    A study of Israel healthcare workers found that “Most breakthrough cases were mild or asymptomatic, although 19% had persistent symptoms (>6 weeks).”


    Perhaps the most terrifying study is from Oxford University, which examined the effects of vaccination on long COVID symptoms, because not only did it find that vaccination does not protect against Long Covid, but that Long Covid symptoms become more likely over time:

    In the words of the study authors, “vaccination does not appear to be protective against .. long-COVID features, arrhythmia, joint pain, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, sleep disorders, and mood and anxiety disorders."


    “The narrow confidence intervals rule out the possibility that these negative findings are merely a result of lack of statistical power. The inclusion of death in a composite endpoint with these outcomes rules out survivorship bias as an explanation.”

    That finding contradicts the findings from the UK Zoe app study, which found that “the odds of having symptoms for 28 days or more after post-vaccination infection were approximately halved by having two vaccine doses.”


    However, the structural limitations of the Zoe study - discussed in detail by @dgurdasani1 in the linked thread - may explain why it is particularly susceptible to bias against detecting a progressive degenerative condition.


    Let’s review: we’ve now shown that vaccination appears to offer no protection against the long-term autoimmune effects of COVID - which we know causes T-cells to attack the lungs, and can cause T-cells to enter the brain.

    Why are we letting this run wild?!

    You may think, at least our children are safe.

    They are not.

    The CDC is tracking incidence of a life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children following an acute COVID-19 infection, with 5,973 cases as of November 30, 2021.


    Children also suffer from Long Covid.

    “More than half [of pediatric patients] reported at least one persisting symptom even 120 days [after] COVID-19, with 42.6% impaired by these symptoms during daily activities.”


    Focusing exclusively on pediatric deaths is vastly underselling the danger to children.

    Anybody telling you that SARS-CoV-2 is “just a cold” or “safe for children” is lying to you. They are ignoring the massive body of research that indicates that it is anything but.

    Since our vaccines don’t stop transmission, and don’t appear to stop long-term illness, a “vaccination only” strategy is not going to be sufficient to prevent mass disability.

    This isn’t something we want to expose our kids to.

    Let’s review: even for children and vaccinated people, a “mild” case of COVID causes symptoms that point to long-term autoimmune issues, potentially causing our own body to attack our brains, hearts, and lungs.

    Scared? Good.

    Now we’re ready to get to work.

    “This is the virus most Americans don’t know. We were born into a world where a virus was a thing you got over in a few weeks.” — @sgeekfemale, to whom I owe a “thank you” for her editing assistance on this thread.

    The viruses they know in Kolkota, Kinshasa, and Wuhan are different: dangerous, lethal beasts.

    Since 2020, the field has been leveled. Willing or no, we’ve rejoined the rest of the world. We are, all of us, vulnerable in the face of an unfamiliar threat.

    The first step is acknowledging the threat.

    That means acknowledging that our response has been woefully inadequate, and that is going to be uncomfortable.

    The thought that we could have prevented this, but didn’t, will feel unconscionable to some.

    The knowledge that we could start preventing this today, but haven’t, is unconscionable to me.


    It’s time to quit pretending “it’s just a cold,” or that there is some magical law of viruses that will make it evolve to an acceptable level.

    There’s no such law of evolution, just wishful thinking, easily disproven by:

    Ebola. Smallpox. Marburg. Polio. Malaria.

    There are things we can do to reduce our individual risk, immediately.

    That starts with wearing a good mask - an N95 or better - and choosing to avoid things like indoor dining and capacity-crowd stadiums.


    This isn’t a choice of “individual freedom” vs “public health”. It isn’t “authoritarian” to ask people to change their behavior in order to save lives.


    As Arnold @Schwarzenegger argued so convincingly in @TheAtlantic, it is our patriotic duty:

    “Generations of Americans made incredible sacrifices, and we’re going to throw fits about putting a mask over our mouth and nose?”


    “Those who would sacrifice essential liberty for a little bit of temporary security deserve neither!”

    What is the essential liberty here?

    It is the liberty to be able to breathe clean air, to live our lives without infecting our families and risking disability.

    To get there, we need to listen to our epidemiologists and public health experts - the ones who have been trying to tell us this since the beginning:


    It is time — long past time — to give up on the lazy fantasy that we can let it become “endemic” and “uncontrolled” because it inconveniences us, because it is killing our political opponents, or because the virus will magically evolve to some “mild” state.

    It is time — long past time — to begin controlling this virus.

    It’s possible: Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea have done it.

    It saves lives:

    It’s even good for the economy:

    “Globally, economic contraction and growth closely mirror increases and decreases in COVID-19 cases... Public health strategies that reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission also safeguard the economy.”


    It’s time.


    sur twitter :

    #long-covid #covid-19 #coronavirus #covid_long #long_covid #séquelles #post-covid

  • Reduced Incidence of #Long_COVID Symptoms Related to Administration of COVID-19 Vaccines Both Before COVID-19 Diagnosis and Up to 12 Weeks After | medRxiv

    In this study, patients who had been vaccinated prior to COVID-19 infection were significantly less likely to have long-COVID symptoms. This result applies even if only a single dose of the vaccine is documented, regardless of the manufacturer of the vaccine. Although these results show that other factors, such as demographic factors and chronic conditions, also influence the likelihood that an individual will exhibit long-COVID symptoms, vaccination status had a consistently and substantially larger effect on this outcome than any other factor measured.

    Furthermore, patients whose first vaccination occurred within 12 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis were significantly less likely to have long-COVID symptoms than if they had remained unvaccinated. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that a vaccine may accelerate clearance of the remaining SARS-CoV-2 virus from specific body compartments or reduce part of the body’s immune response related to development of long-COVID (3).

    #covid_long #post_covid

  • Do vaccines protect against #long_COVID? What the data say

    Vaccines reduce the risk of developing #COVID-19 — but studies disagree on their protective effect against long COVID.


    And while the data trickle in, Alwan worries that countries with high vaccine coverage will put COVID-19 testing on the back burner as concerns about hospitalizations and deaths decrease and as more people receive boosters. That not only hurts efforts to determine the influence of vaccination on long COVID, but also means that those with long COVID after a mild or asymptomatic infection might not have the documentation they need for treatment. “It’s important to get that lab confirmation for care,” she says. “Otherwise, people struggle a lot.”

    #vaccins #vaccination #covid_long #post_covid

  • Risk factors and disease profile of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK users of the COVID Symptom Study app: a prospective, community-based, nested, case-control study - The Lancet Infectious Diseases

    Les #Covid_longs sont deux fois moins fréquents chez les infectés entièrement vaccinés.

    We found that the odds of having symptoms for 28 days or more after post-vaccination infection were approximately halved by having two vaccine doses. This result suggests that the risk of #long_COVID is reduced in individuals who have received double vaccination, when additionally considering the already documented reduced risk of infection overall.

  • Twelve-month systemic consequences of #COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a prospective cohort study in Wuhan, China | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic


    Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

    #séquelles #covid_long #long_covid #post_covid

  • Suivi des patients ayant survécu après une hospitalisation pour #covid-19

    1-year outcomes in hospital survivors with #COVID-19: a longitudinal cohort study - The Lancet


    1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits [6 months, 12 months]. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0–67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0–198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0–361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04–1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48–2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50–5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls.


    Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population.


    • Understanding #long_COVID: a modern medical challenge - The Lancet

      Most evidence about long COVID has been limited and based on small cohorts with short follow-up. However, in The Lancet, Lixue Huang and colleagues report 12-month outcomes from the largest longitudinal cohort of hospitalised adult survivors of COVID-19 so far. Including adults (median age 59 years) discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital in Wuhan, China, this study advances our understanding of the nature and extent of long COVID.

      At 1 year, COVID-19 survivors had more mobility problems, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression than control participants (matched community-dwelling adults without SARS-CoV-2 infection). Fatigue or muscle weakness was the most frequently reported symptom at both 6 months and 12 months, while almost half of patients reported having at least one symptom, such as sleep difficulties, palpitations, joint pain, or chest pain, at 12 months. The study shows that for many patients, full recovery from COVID-19 will take more than 1 year, and raises important issues for health services and research.

      First, only 0·4 of patients with COVID-19 said that they had participated in a professional rehabilitation programme. The reason for such low use of rehabilitation services is unclear, but poor recognition of long COVID and lack of clear referral pathways have been common problems worldwide. Second, the effect of long COVID on mental health warrants further and longer-term investigation. The proportion of COVID-19 survivors who had anxiety or depression slightly increased between 6 months and 12 months, and the proportion was much greater in COVID-19 survivors than in controls. Third, the outcomes from this cohort cannot be generalised to other populations—eg, patients not admitted to hospital, younger people, and those from racially minoritised and other disadvantaged groups who have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Research in these populations needs to be prioritised urgently.

      #covid_long #post_covid

  • Thread by chrischirp on Thread Reader App – Thread Reader App

    Prof. Christina Pagel sur Twitter : "#LONG_COVID THREAD:

    The people running the BBC Horizon “Great British Intelligence Test” challenge on over 80,000 people took the opportunity to see if they could detect any differences by whether people had had covid or not..." / Tw


    10. What if by the time there can be no doubt of long term problems in many people who’ve had covid, we’ve allowed millions more infections leaving hundreds of thousands more people affected.

    ONS estimated 634K people with long covid that impacts their life in June.

    11. For comparison, c. 260K people are diagnosed with diabetes & 500K with heart disease each year.

    I worry that we are creating a chronic disease tragedy right now.

    The Silent Pandemic - YouTube